Skip to main content

Full text of "Pacific Rural Press (Jan.-June 1886)"

See other formats


When, from whom, and how thin volume wax obtained, 
with the price paid, if any, may be found opposite 
(he aboce number in the Register of Books, 
which is always open to inspection. 



Extract from the Political i'ode. 

SaonOH 2291). Hooks may be taken from the Library 
by the mkubkrs of thk Lkoisi.atirk, during tiik sessions 
thkrkof, and by other State officers at any time. 

Skc. 2298. the Controller, if notified by the Librarian 
that any officer has failed to return books taken by him 
within the time prescribed by the Rules, anil after demand 
made, must not draw his warrant for the salary of such 
officer until the return is made, or three times the value 
of the books, or of any injuries thereto, has been paid to 
the Librarian. 

Skc. 2299. Every person who injures or fails to return 
any book taken is liable to the Librarian in three times 
the value thereof. 

No person shall take or detain from the General Library 
more than two volumes at any one time, or for a longer 
period than two weeks. Books ok rkfkkknck sham, not 
bk takkn from tiik Library at any timk.— [Kx tract from 
the Kules.] 

*i The Foregoing Regulations will be strictly enforced.'^* 




TWEHTTY-FOUH. PAGE EDITION 



Vol. XXXI-No. 1.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 2, 1886. 



( $3 a Year, In Advance 

I 8inole Copies, 10 C!ts. 



Red Polled Cattle. 

We have had several inquiries of late con- 
cerning red polled cattle and their dairy value. 
During the last ten years we have alluded to 
the breed from time to time, and have given 
engravings of some good animals. In the 
Rural of November 14, 1SS5, we gave infor- 
mation of the recent growth of the breed in 
popularity and distribution. We pursue the 
subject further by using as a frontispiece this 
week the portrait of a 
famous imported red 
polled cow Ocean Maid. 
401 , owned by Gen. L. 
F. Ross, of Iowa City, 
Iowa, and now nearly 
14 '"years of age. She 
was one of the first 
imported cows of the 
breed, being a member 
of the band imported 
in 1873 by G. F. Pat- 
terson, of New Jersey, 
and which was, in fact, 
the first regular im- 
portation of red polled 
cattle into t l e Unit d 
States. Gen. Ross says 
of Ocean Maid: "She 
is a fair milker, having 
produced^ 45 pounds 
per day on grass alone, 
and 25 per cent of her 
milk goes to cream." 
Gen. Ross, in 1882, 
brought the first cattle 
of this breed to Iowa. 
He has now 22 head 
of imported and thor- 
oughbred red polls, 
and about SO grades. 
He finds the cattle 
satisfactory in point of 
beef and rich milk, and 
the absence of horns 
he considers a very 
important considera- 
tion to the general 
farmer and dairyman. 
The publication of the 
Red Polled Cattle Club of Amerrica, which is 
just received, shows that the breed is reaching 
importance in this country, though it is but 15 
years since the first herd was established upon 
American soil. This publication we find very 
creditaftle and interesting. It contains the 
records of 80 bulls and 172 cows. The cow 
Ocean Maid is number 96 of the American 
Register and 401 of the English R cord. 

The history of red polled cattle can be car- 
ried back well into the last century. Suffolk 
had from time immemorial its breed of polled 
cattle producing butter which, one hundred and 
fifty years ago, was asserted to be "justly es- 
teemed the pleasantest and best in England." 
Arthur Young, in his "Survey" (A. D. 1704), 
defines the area, a tract of country twenty 
miles by twelve, the seat of the dairies of Suf 
folk, which, he said, must be peculiarly con- 
sidered the headquarters of the Suffolk Polled 
stock, though he found the breed scattered over 
the whole county. In this "Survey" we get the 
first accurate description of the breed. Though 
Arthur Young makes no note of Norfolk polled 
cattle yet advertisements of sales held in and 



from the year 1778 prove that dairies of such 
animals were numerous in the county, and that 
they extended from the northern boundaries of 
the Suffolk "headquarters" well into the centre 
of Norfolk. 

A. B. Allen of New York, who is known to 
most readers of agricultural literature, gives a 
condensed sketch of these cattle in these words: 
"This beautiful race of animals has been long bred 
in England, of the aams color and general char- 
acteristics as at present, and has consequently 



famous in the Boston market. He has now re- 
tired from actual dairy work, and the state- 
ment he made at the time he sold out his entire 
herd, in 1883, that he sold out his herd of red 
polled cattle "in order that the proprietor 
might have a vacation, after 25 years of unin- 
terrupted butter-making with two churning 
days each week for the whole period," will no 
doubt echo the longing of many a dairyman. 
In referring to the subject of red polled cattle, 
in a subsequent issue of the New England 




IMPORTED RED POLLED COW, "OCEAN MAID," OWNED BY L. F. ROSS, IOWA CITY, IOWA. 



first volume of the 



become one of the most fixed and distinct breeds 
of that country. They are now rapidly spread 
ing into the neighboring counties, and are be- 
ginning to be exported into foreign countries, 
where they are much liked. They are of me- 
dium size, and a handsome red color, varying 
in shade like the Davon. Their merits may be 
thus briefly stated: First, hardy and thrifty; 
second, quick feeders, or in other words, they 
mature early and fatten kindly; third, beef of 
the best quality; fourth, very docile in dispo- 
sition, and consequently, easily herded and 
handled; fifth, the most highly improved are 
good milkers, equalling in this respect the best 
Ayrshires; sixth, deer-like head and limbB, 
with smooth, well-rounded form; seventh, fine 
style, and a dash rivalling that of the Devons." 

In this country the red polled cattle have 
won many friends and stand a fair chance of 
becoming famous among the dairy cattle of the 
country. As to their value, we attach much j 
importance to the experience of A. W. Cheever, 
whom we knew well in Eastern dairy cir- 
cles ten 3 ears ago, and who, in addition to his 
Work as agricultural editor of the New Enjland I 
Partner, maintained a butter dairy which was ■ 



Farmer, he says : "As an experiment in breed- 
ing — we had almost said, in creating a breed — 
our work has given us much leal satisfaction. 
It has proved that horns can be bred off of the 
common stock of the country without injuring 
it as beef or milk producing stock. It has 
shown, too, that other tilings being equal, a 
a herd of polted cattle is much to be preferred 
to a herd with horns. Polled cattle, if kept by 
themselves, rarely or never acquire vicious 
habits, but may bs herded like sheep or swine, 
with perfect safety to themselves, while the 
keeper can mingle with them with no fear of 
goring, either by intent or accident. So, with 
our 15 years of experience, we are thoroughly 
converted to a full faith in the superior quali- 
ties of the polled cow as a domestic animal." 
This is the testimony of an unbiased witness, 
one who to-day is not the owner of a single 
polled animal, and has no interest to subserve. 

There are many excellent breeds of cattle, 
and California is rapidly gaining good repre- 
sentatives of them. There is room for all 
which can show any characteristic merits, and 
we hope some enterprising man may make a 
start with the red polls. 



California Fruit in St. Louis. 

We have given from time to time information 
showing that the idea of co-operation among 
California fruit-growers to ship their own fruit 
is well received at the East. Correspondence 
received by the Calif o,nia Fruit Union shows 
that leadiug dealers in the large Eastern cities 
are ready to act with the Union, being greatly 
dissatisfied with the manner in which California 
fruit has been distributed to them by those who 
have practically con- 
trolled the shipment 
hitherto. 

We have before us 
a letter from a leading 
firm in St. Louis stat- 
ing that the movement 
toward cooperative 
shipment by the grow- 
ers is one or the best 
things they ever at- 
tempted; that, accord- 
ing to the plan of hav- 
ing the fruit purchased 
here and sold to E ist- 
orn deabrs, they were 
obliged to pay high 
prices and lose monej ; 
besides, they could 
only sell a limit, d 
amount, because of the 
high rates they had 
to pa the high rates 
going to enrich the 
speculator who con- 
trolled the bubioes?. 
They say the St. 
Louis people want 
more California frui; 
at a more reasonable 
price. If this can be 
arranged the fruit will 
sell to rich and poor 
alike. The St. Louis 
firm state that they 
can dispose of two or 
three carloads per 
week, and perhaps 
more. They state also 
that they have endeavored to reduce prices 
and increase sales, but have been unable to do 
so, as such was evidently not the design of 
the speculators from whom they had to obtain 
their fruit. 

We have no doubt the condition which has 
prevailed in the St. Louis trade has been repro- 
duced in most of the large Eastern cities, and 
it is to remove this state ot affairs and secure a 
free and large distribution of California fruit at 
the Fast, that the Fruit Union has been organ- 
ized. 



Hcpxky AND THE Friit Union. — Major G. F. 
Merriam, who is largely interested in fruit 
and honey in Sin Diego county, had made tho 
suggestion to the California Fruit Union, that 
it embrace the honey interest along with that 
of fruit. President Livermore replied that he 
feared that too many dilliculties stood in the 
way, but assured Major Merriam that the 
Union was disposed to do everything it could to 
aid the producing interest of Southern Cali- 
fornia, and asked that the beekeepors inform 
the Union fully of their needs and desires in the 
distribution of their product. 



fACIFie F^JRAb PRESS. 



[Jan. 2, 188G 



QoF^ESPONDEJ^CaE. 



Correspondents i\~v- uIodo responsible fur their opinions. 

A Cheap Rabbit-Proof Fence. 

Editors PRESS; — A fence can be made of 
galvanized wire netting and barbed wire, at a 
cost bo low as to make it the most desirable 
now in use for orchardists, completely super- 
ceding the fence made entirely of barbed wire 
that a year ago was so much in favor. No. 19 
wire will make a netting sufficiently strong, 
and this, three feet wide, and a one and a half 
inch mesh, can be bought in quantity for 85.25 
per 100 feet running length. What ia thought 
to be a model fence particularly adapted to the 
enclosing of orchards that are to be protected 
from the depredations of rabbits, as well as all 
domestic animals, can be built as follows : 
Redwood posts seven feet long made from heavy 
compact wood should be used, as wood that is 
light and open is not only weaker, but more 
liable to decay. By dipping them into a mix- 
ture composed of crude petroleum and coal tar 
their durability will be greatly increased and 
the cost will be but trifling — perhaps one or 
two c. ia- for each post. Tut them one rod 
apart and in the ground to the depth of two 
feet, it not being necessary to have them 
deeper, as the netting offers but little resistance 
to winds. 

Firmly brace the corner posts, and one at in- 
tervals of 100 reel along Ihe lino. Place the 
the end of the netting against the corner post, 
with the lower edge six inches above the sur- 
face of the ground, and securely fasten with 1.} 
inch staples by driving them over the selvage 
at both top and bottom, into the post. Attach 
a wire-stretcher to the top selvage and to the 
post 100 feet distant; draw tightly and fasten; 
then tighten the lower selvage until the meshes 
come exactly over each other penpendicularly. 
Fasten to each post between these points with 
one staple at top and bottom, being careful to 
keep the netting at the proper distance from 
the ground. 

Now attach a four barbed wire, with barbs 
2.1 inches apart, to the post at a point 1 1 inches 
below the netting. This will be 4\ inches 
above the surface of the ground; and by plow- 
ing a furrow on the inside of the fence against 
the wire so that it will be covered, rabbits or 
other Bin .11 animals cannot effect a passage 
under the wire because of coming in oontact 
with its barbs. The top of the netting being 
3! feet above the ground, one wire six inches 
from the netting is only necessary to make the 
fence four feet high, and complete. If, how- 
ever, another wire is placed one foot higher, at 
the extreme top of the posts, it is made im- 
passible to all ordinary animals, and difficult 
for a man to climb, as there are no projecting 
posts by which he can steady himself while 
passing over. 

The cost of the material for 100 feet of this 
fence will be: For six posts at MS cents each, 
!)0 cents; 300 square feet of netting at lj cents, 
So 25; two wires, 66 cents; total, S<i.S0. To 
enclose a square of 40 acres would take just 
one mile of fence, and cost $3139; but a little re- 
duction can be had on above figures by paying 
cash at the time of purchase. 

Netting two feet wide would cost per 100 
feet 18.80, six posts $.90; four wires (one below 
and three above the netting) SI.. SO, total So. 70 
or §301 to enclose 40 acres, or less than the cost 
of a fence made from wood, which is constantly 
needing repairs, and is never proof against rab- 
bits, as they soon gnaw holes through any 
wooden fence as ordinarily constructed. 

The damage to orchards by rabbits is more 
than generally supposed. They are particu- 
larly destructive to young orange and plum 
trees, to muscat grape vines and their ripe 
grapes. Whenever a tiee is injured, although 
the wound may heal, the growth is checked, 
and it can never after be of so much value as it 
would have been had it maintained from the 
first a continuously healthy growth; hence all 
orchards should have fences that will give them 
absolute protection. P. M. Bitler. 

Penri/n, Placer Co. 



Care of the Bull. 

Editoks Press: — When the bull ruus with 
the herd he usually gets but little c:vreor atten- 
tion unless he is inclined to be cross, and then 
the attention is an endeavor to keep out of his 
way and to dispose of him as soon as possible 
and supply his place with a younger animal. 
This inclination to viciousness causes many a 
good bull to be sold before his get arrive at ma- 
turity, and it is often a source of regret that it 
was deemed necessary to dispose of him. For 
this reason I think the best way is to keep him 
confined, and I believe it is also the cheapest, 
if account is taken of the damage to fences 
where he runs at large. Most bulls get unruly 
if allowed their liberty. 

Although I believe that most of the accidents 
that happen in handling bulls arise from care- 
lessness, still I think that nearly all bulls are 
inclined to be vicious after they arrive at the 



age of three years, or at about that age. I like 
to keep them all the time under my control, 
and how to do that and at the same time give 
them plenty of opportunity for exercise, is the 
question. I have hit upon a plan, and although 
1 have never seen any one else practice it, it 
satisfies me as being good and safe. I have a 
grove of blue gum trees near my barn, and I 
stretch a three-quarter inch rope (tarred before- 
hand) say fifty or sixty feet from one tree to 
another, and about five feet from the ground. 
On this rope I have a swivel ring, to which I 
tie the bull, giving him rope enough so that he 
can lie down. He is now secure, and can race 
from one tree to the other when he chooses, and 
a lively bull will frequently do that. You can 
take him from the rope as safely as you can 
from his stall. 

Where trees are not handy, two solid posts 
would answer the same purpose. From the 
ring no more than about four feet of rope should 
be given him, as, if he has too much, he is liable 
to get his hind foot over it, and then he is in a 
worse tangle than if he were staked with a long 
rope. 

This way pleases mo much better than turn 
ing him loose in a lot; as when I want him I 
can get him with perfect safety. He is all the 
time under subjection, and no one knows it bet- 
ter than he does himself. Most bulls like atten 
tion, and petting occasionally does them no 
harm, but lreedom acts upon them in a way to 
make them dangerous playthings. 

As I read the Rural Press it strikes me that 
most of the departments have more contributors 
than the stock yard. I am interested in all de 
partments, but most especially in anything that 
relates to the rearing of stock, whether catilu 
or horses, and I always prize anything from the 
pen of one engaged in stock raising. 

J. A. Brewer. 

Cenlcrrillc, Alameda Co. 

[Our correspondent is right. We would like 
the live stockmen to take up their pens. There 
are hundreds of subjects which shou'd be fully 
discussed.— Eds. Press. 



[EI HE JIVl/cRY. 



Skunks iu the Apiary. 

Editors Press :— The skunk is one of the 
recognized enemies of bees, and, like most of 
them, is nocturnal in its habits. The first in- 
dication that the bee-keeper has of the visits of 
a skunk is that the front of the hive and the 
entrance board are blackened as if smeared over 
with mud, which had afterwards been carelessly 
wiped off. This is done by the skunk's scratch- 
ing on the hive with his paws to incite the bees 
to come out. As he is not strong enough to 
knock the hive over, like a bear, and get at the 
honey itself, he is content to eat the bees for 
the sake of the honey they may contain, 
although I doubt not that he frequently swal- 
lows a highly seasoned morsel. On closer ex- 
amination a hole will generally be found scooped 
out in the ground in front of the hive, and 
more or less dead and dying bees, some imes as 
much as a handful, found lying in the hole. It 
has been said that the skunk manages to get 
the bees entangled in the hairs of his large 
bushy tail, and slashing it around in the hole 
kills or cripples the bees before he proceeds to 
eat them. As he always leaves a number of 
bees, many of them still kicking, in the hole, it 
may be surmised that either it does not take 
much to satisfy him, or else, getting more stings 
than honey, he leaves in disgust before he has 
had enough. However, if he is allowed to 
visit the same hive several times in succession, 
it is obvious that it will not take him long to 
seriously depopulate the colony, more so as his 
visits are most frequent during the winter, 
when the bees are not breeding. 

A large dog will easily kill a skunk, and some 
dogs take naturally to that kind of game, while 
others are loth to tackle a skunk after they 
once have got a dose of his perfume. 
Skunks may be shot on moonlight nights if the 
bee-keeper watches for them, but in either case 
they are apt to leave their scent, which will ad- 
here to the locality for a number of days. The 
better way is to 

Trap the Skunk 
In a common box trap with sliding door. The 
trap may be baited with a piece of old, tough 
comb or a rag smeared over with thick honey, 
or with a piece of fresh meat tied securely to 
the trigger. It should also have a small open- 
ing in the top, closed with a shutter, through 
wnich it may be seen if it is a skunk, or a cat, 
or other animal, which is in the trap. If a 
skunk is caught, carry the trap to a pond or a 
large, water-tight box; immerse the trap and 
weigh it down with a heavy stone, so that it 
will be' filled and thoroughly covered by the 
water. If the trap is handled carefully, with- 
out shaking or frightening the skunk, he will, 
as a general thing, not smell. In 10 or 15 min- 
utes the trap may be taken out of the water 
and the skunk buried deep cnouiigh to prevent 
dogs or coyotes from unearthing him again. 
As soon as the trap has been dried out, so that 
the door works easily, it should be set again, and 
works apparently better the ofteuer a skunk is 
caught in it, as the scent seems to be rather an 
attraction to others of the same tribe. To pre- 
vent the skunk from lifting the door aud es 



caping, a cleat should be nailed across the bot- 
tom of the trap, just inside the lower edge of 
the door. If this cleat is not there, or some 
other devise to hold the door down, the skunk 
can easily raise it with his long claws. 

Wm. MUTH PtASMOSSEN. 

Independence, Cat 



Imported Queens by Mail. 

Editors Press:— I suppose that nearly all 
bee-keepers know that queens have been sent 
safely by mail from Europe to the Eistern 
States; but perhaps they are not aware that 
they can and have been sent from Europe to 
California and Oregon by mail; and that, too, 
successfully. I shall state a few facts that 
may be of interest to the public in general, as 
weil as to the bee keeper. Until a short time 
ago it was thought impossible to send queen 
bees by mail even from Kngland to New York, 
and consequently they were shipped by express, 
which was quite expensive, besides the heavy 
losses which often occurred on the way. It is a 
disputed fact just who it was that first suc- 
ceeded in sending the first queen bee across the 
Atlantic by mail; but sulliee to say that it is 
now done to perfection. 

Mrs. Frank Benton, of Munich, Germany, 
sent the first queen by mail, which reached the 




Box for Shipping Queens. 

far west alive. It was sent to Mr. <!. Mur 
hard, of Portland, Oregon, and re tched him in 
perfect condition. Several have since been 
safely sent to various parts of California. The 
queen sent to Mr. Murhard reached him in 18 
days. One sent to Napa was 20 days on the 
way, while I received oue last October that 
came through in just 17 days. All of these 
queens were shipped from Munich, Germany. 
The queen that Mr. Benton sent me is a first 
grade Carniolan, shipped Ojt. 12th, and re- 
ceived Oct. 29th. The cage contained, when 
mailed, 2.S live bees, besides the queen. When 
received, 15 of the bees were dead. Below is a 
cut of the cage, just as received, except the 
cover has been removed. 

The hole at the right was filled with candy, 
made by mixing (without heat) powdered sugar 
and honey; over this was placed a thin sheet of 
wax to prevent the escape of moisture. All 
three holes were joined by openings cut through 
the partitions; the small dark spots seen at the 
left of the cage, are holes perforated through 
the sides of the cage to admit air. The cage 
was covered with a piece of paper, over this the 
cover was nailed. The cage had no other cov- 
ering or wrapping of any kind, but was received 
just as shown above. If any oue desires other 
information on the importation of queens, they 
may correspond with me. W. \V. Bliss. 

Duarte. 



J^O^TieUbTURE. 



M. Du Breuil and the Myrobolap Stock. 

Editors Press: — In a communication, headed 
"Influence of Plum Rx>t,"tothe Rcral Press, 
of August 29th, Mr. O'Neil, of Hayv ards, made 
the following statement: "Mr. If. Du Breuil, 
President of the Horticultural Society of 
France, says that the myrobolan is used there 
exclusively as a stock for plum and prune." 

In an article on the myrobolan stock in the 
Press of Sep\ 12th, referring to the above 
statement made by Mr. O'Neil, I said that I 
could hardly believe that Mr. Du Breuil ever 
made such a wild and incorrect assertion; but 
being in correspondence with Mr. Charles Jolly, 
V ice-president of the National Society of Hor- 
ticulture of France, I requested the latter to 
ask Mr. Du Breuil whether he ever made such 
an assertion. Some time ago I received Mr. 
.lolly's answer, which read as follows: 

First, Mr. Du Breuil has never been 1'resi- 
dent of the National Society of Horticulture of 
France; the present President is Mr. L. 8cey. 

Second, Mr. Du Breuil is very sick and has 
been so for a long time; lives secluded in his 
property at Noirmoutier, and does not take any 
active part iu horticultural discussions. 

Third, that to Mr. Jolly's knowledge, Mr. 
Du Breuil never asserted that the myrobolan 
was exclusively used for plum and prune stock 
in France; what he said on the kind of stock to 
use for. the plum, prune and peach, could be 
found in his work on "Fruit Arboriculture," 
page 347. 

In justice to Mr. Du Bruil, please insert the 
above in the columns of the Press. But this 
correction to Mr. O'Neil's statement does not 
in any manner change anything to the excep- 
tional good qualities of the myrobolan, as a 
stock for the plum and prune in certain soils. 

Nevada City, Cat. Fklin Gilwct. 



Apples for Mountain Climate. 

Editors Press : — I would not mislead any 
one in regard to varieties of fruit trees. Mr. 
J. R. Robinson, of Sonoma, chooses varieties I 
bhould not chouse. Cook's seedling and 
Gravenstein apples are not goo I for this moun- 
tain climate. I have a large apple orchard and 
am still setting out more. I should set yellow 
Newtown pippins, also Roam Beauty; also 
Ksapus Spitzenburg. Nickajack is a very sound 
apple, but a poor bearer. 

In an orchard of 2000 trees I would not have 
more than five varieties, while now I have 
nearly thirty. I would choose the best for 
keeping late in the winter. Some of my apples 
went to New Orleans, aud stood the climate 
finely. M. Pedler. 

Alia, Placer Co. 

[Our correspondent is right in calling atten- 
tion to the fact that choosing varieties depends 
upon local conditions — soil, climate, exposure, 
etc. It is not enough to decide what varieties 
do best in the nurket, but which grow and bear 
well in the particular locality where one pro- 
poses to plant. Lot this always be borne in 
mind when reading what different writers say 
about the success or failure of varieties. We 
are always glad to have the experience of our 
readers upon these points. — Eds. Press ] 



The Northern Citrus Fair. 

We alluded last week to the preparation for 
holding a Northern California Citrus FairatSac- 
ramento on January 1 1th. During the past week 
arrangements have been in progress, and we 
give from the Record- Union some of the de- 
tails thereof. 

The officers of the Northern California Citrus 
Fair Association met at the office of Charles R. 
Parsons at 3 P. m., Dec. 231, with President Gal- 
latin in the chair. Mr. Hancock, Chairman of 
the Committee on Arrangements and Exhibi- 
tion Building, reported that the committee had 
examined the Arcade building, on Second street, 
and found that it was admirably adapted for 
the purpose of an exhibition. He also reported 
that the tables and other fixtures had been ar- 
ranged for. 

The Finance Committe, through its Chair- 
man, A. A. Abbott, reported that ample funds 
for premiums and expenses had been contribu- 
ted. He stated that the committee in its can- 
vass had found the people exceedingly favor- 
able to the exhibition, and that they had con- 
tributed liberally. 

Mr. Lyon, Chairman of the Committee on 
Transportation and the Collection of Exhibits, 
reported that Wells, Fargo & Co. would carry 
all articles for the exhibition at half rates; also, 
that circular letters had been addressed to sub- 
committees in all the northern counties relating 
to the collection and forwardiug of fruits; aUo, 
that notices would be sent to all parties having 
citrus fruit in this county, urging them to have 
exhibits in readiness, 

On motion, Calaveras county was added to 
the list of counties invited to exhibit. 

The following Vice-Presidents were elected: 
\V. S. Green, Colusa county; G. G. Kimball, 
Tehema county ; C. C. Bush, Shas'a county; C. 
W. Craig, Trinity county; G. D. Fisk, Yolo 
coun'y; L. W. Buck, Solano county; G. W. 
Hancock, Sacramento county; George Ohleyer, 
Sutter county; P. J. Isbell, El Dorado county; 
S. J. Sherwood, Yuba county; Felix Gillet, Ne- 
vada county; L. D. Freer, Butte county; H. C. 
Hoggs, Lake county; K. K. Downer, Sierra 
county; Colonel Faulk, Siskiyou county; As- 
semblymen Riseberry, Modoc county. 

At a meeting on Saturday, Dec. 28th, an- 
other meeting of the Executive Committee was 
held. The question of preparing the building 
for the fair, employes, printing, stationary, ex- 
hibits and invitations wire generally discussed. 
The Committee on Invitations was instructed 
to invite all excursionists visiting the State 
whose address can be ascertained, and to have 
3000 circulars printed for that purpose, said in- 
vitations to serve as tickets of admission. Com- 
plimentary tickets are to be issued to the press 
of central and northern California, and also to 
the Associated Pres?. It was decided to iesue 
single admission tickets to parties contributing 
to the funds of the fair an amount less than $1. 
Those contributing $1 and less than $5 to be 
granted season tickets; those contributing $r> or 
more, a family season ticket. The charge for 
a season ticket will be $1 ; for single admission, 
26 cents; minors, 15 years and under, 15 cents. 
1'rogre a upon the part of all the committees 
was reported, aud the prospects for a successful 
fair were represented to be very flattering. 
The meeting adjourned to meet next Wednes- 
day. 

Yuba County Interested. 
The Marysville A /meal, of Dec. 27th, says: 
A. D. Cutts, J. B. McDonald, J. L. Steward, 
Dr. Harrington, Charles Lucas, T. J. Sherwood, 
P. C. Slattcry, J. B. Fuller, 0. B. Kimball, F. 
\V. II. Aaron and C. D. Dawson have been ap- 
pointed a committee for this city to collect and 
forward citrus fruits from this section to the 
Northern < 'ilifornia Citrus Fruit Exhibition to 
be held at Sacramento dm ing the week begin- 
ning Monday, January llth. It is expected 
that Marysville and vicinity will contribute 
many fine specimens of this fruit. The orange, 



Jan. 2, 1886.] 



fACIFie I^URAb fRESS. 



3 



lemon and olive trees are all heavily ladened 
with their beatiful rich fruit, and a rousing ex- 
hibition can be made if each one will take the 
pains to contribute a small portion. There are 
lemon trees which have come under our notice 
on the premises of Dr. Harrington, Chas. Bin- 
ney, Chas. Lucas, W. H. Plymire, John L. 
Steward and others, which are wonders in them- 
selves, and everyone should contribute from 
theni. Let each one preserve a portion of their 
finer fruits from consumption at present, so as 
to be picked from the tree in time for transpor- 
tation to the fair. 



Sorghum as Dairy Feed. 

Editors Press: — A friend has asked me to 
give a statement of the manner of growing 
sorgham for pasture or green feed. My land 
is dry plains or what is commonly termed wheat 
land. I usually summer fallow, plowing in the 
spring, and allowing the land to lie till fall, 
then sow wheat. This gives me a chance to 
grow sorghum on the same land, and it does 
not interfere with the wheat crop. 

I pulverize the ground and make it as fine as 
I can, which is coarse at the best. It is better 
to plough twice, once in the winter and once at 
the time of sowing. I sow in March or April 
or May, after the ground gets warm. I like 
best to drill the seed in with a McSherry drill, 
or it can be sown broadcast; 20 pounds per acre 
to drill it would be about right. I am not sure 
but a less quantity would be better, as the thin- 
ner it is sowed the more it spools. For broad- 
cast sowing a little more would be required, 
say 25 pounds per acre. If the drill covers it 
three inches deep it is all the better, as the 
stock cannot pull it up, and when it is once 
fairly started, it will furnish a large amount of 
feed till frost kills it. It should be kept fed 
close, as it immediately stools out. My way 
has been to drill one foot apart with no further 
cultivation. It must not be allowed to go to 
seed, as the seed will cause cows to shrink in 
mi k. It is a good plan to have the lot divided 
so the stock can feed a few days in one pasture 
and then in the other. I use the Early Amber 
variety which is the best. 

I never saw it hot or dry enough to cause the 
plant to wilt at all. I have used Egyptian 
corn or chicken corn, also common broom corn, 
and I find the cows do much the best on the 
sorghum. I think 1 \ acre to the cow on these 
dry lands is not far out of the way. It makes 
very firm and yellow butter even in the hottest 
weather, and we often have 110° in the shade; 
horses do well on it, but sheep do not like it. 
If cut and cured about the time it blossoms, it 
makes excellent winter dry feed. Two or three 
crops can be cut. 

I shall try some further experiments this 
season; I shall sow, say 5 pounds per acre, and 
plow it in about 3 inches deep. 

C. H. Pease. 

Yuba City, Suiter County. 

Small Dairy House. 

Editors Press: — Having the early winter's 
work well in hand, the last load of produce 
taken to market and taxes paid, we feel quite 
content. The rain is again coming down gen- 
tly and the weather is quite warm. 

Farmers, just now is a time for the exchange 
of views upon many important subjects. There 
are many active minds that do not make their 
experiences public. Come, farmers, do not be 
selfish. 

We have had in mind for some time the con- 
struction of a new dairy house, aud thinking 
there is money in knowing how to do anything 
right, we will be pleased to have the views of 
any of the readers of the Rural Press, our 
favorite paper, upon the subject. 

We want a wooden building with capacity 
for the product of from four to six cows, upon 
a cheap scale. We will give our plan, hoping 
that some one, having had experience in this 
line, can give us a better plan. The building 
is 12x16, double walls with eight-inch space 
between them, to be filled with sawdust. The 
walls eight feet high, with upper floor ceiled 
overhead, leaving four inches space between 
upper floor and ceiling. We expect to put one 
foot of sawdust on the upper floor, and common 
shake-roof over all. We shall have the house 
floored with tight flooring, with trap door for 
the purpose of putting vessels in the water 
which flows under the building, if necessary. 
We shall put in one window, and a four-inch 
flue through the roof for ventilation. We will 
close the building with a double-door shutter, 
with an eight-inch space between. 

R. K. Ferguson. 

Kel-eyville, Lake Co., Col. 

[ Discussions on all kinds of farm buildings 
are always in order, and, no doubt, many good 
points can be had by comparison of experience 
on plans and materials. A general conference 
on small dairy houses will enable many to do 
better work in building; and, no doubt, the 
multiplication of good buildings will improve 
the butter product. We await contributions. 
— Eds, Pbess.] 



Montana Dairy Association. 

A number of gentlemen interested in the 
dairy business met in Townsend, Montana, Dec. 
12ih for the purpose of starting the wheels 
rolling toward a permanent territorial organiza- 
tion. The Townsend Merchant reports the 
meeting as follows: Hon. J. C. Stuart was el- 
ected President of the meeting and V. H. Fisk 
Secretary. The laws enacted by our last leg- 
islature for the protection of the dairy interests 
in Montana were explained, and the necessity 
of united action to see that they are enforced 
was made clear to all. 

A motion prevailed that the organization be 
known as the "Montana Dairy Association." 

Moses Dogget, E c q., of Townsend, was el- 
ected temporary President, Van H. Fisk tem- 
porary Corresponding Secretary and J. R.Wes- 
ton Ass. Cor. Secretary, all to act in their 
respective capacities until a permanent organ- 
ization shall have been formed and permanent 
officers elected. It was ordered that a com- 
mittee of one from each county be appointed 
to aid in forming a permanent organization by 
urging upon those interested in their several 
counties its importance and induce a full at- 
tendance at the meeting to be called for that 
purpose. The following gentlemen were ap- 
pointed as such committee; Meagher, A. W. 
Ford; Jefferson, John Flaherty ; Gallatin, J. H - 
Nixon; Lewis and Clarke, C. H. Tubbs; Deer 
Lodge, Fred. M. W T ilsou; Missoula, Anthony 
Chaffin; Choteau, Geo. W. Weigand; Fergus, 
Win. Berkins; Madison, Mort. Lott. The 
counties not represented in this committee will 
be as soon as proper names can be had. The 
following resolutions passed. 

Resolved, That the press of Montana are hereby 
requested to give publication to these proceedings, 
and aid in the protective movement here inagurated 
for this great industry. 

Resolved, That Hon. J. K. Toole, our delegate in 
Congress, be sent a copy of the proceedings, and 
that he be requested to favor national legislation 
promotive and protective of the diary interests of our 
whole country. 

Resolved, That this convention now adjourn to 
meet in Helena on March 4th, 1886, for the purpose 
of forming a permanent organization. 





How Some Soils are Formed. 

Mr. Ernest Ingersoll in Science, of November 
27th ( describes the plains of British America as 
follows: Striking contrasts present themselves 
to the experienced eye betweens the plains of I 
British America, through which the lately fin- 
ished Canadisn Pacific railroad runs, and those 
crossed by the transcontinental lines in the 
United States. In the first place, they are 
larger. It is more than 1000 miles from where 
the forested granites of Keewayden dip under 
the silurian prairie-floor in the Red River valley 
to the first escropment of the R~cky mountains. 
In Kansas it is nirdly half as far between the 
wooded regions and the foothills of Pike's Peak. 

Another feature is the prim-like look of it all, 
save certain far western tracts. The grass is 
dense and long. Flowering herbage is profuse. 
West and south of the Sjulh Saskatchewan 
this gives place to a greater, more "plains'-like 
scantiness of vegetation, to be sure, but no- 
where is the barrenness and aridity of the south- 
ern plains equaled. 

This is due to the greater moisture in earth 
and air, and to the extraordinary fertility of 
the soii. Manitoba produces an average of 
22 bushels of wheat to the acre — four 
to five bushels in excess of the average 
of any other similar space on the conti- 
nent. The soil is coal black and declares 
its richness at first sight. Dr. Robert B;ll, of 
the Canadian Geological Survey, discussed the 
causes of this fertility before the Canadian 
Royal Society, May 23, 1883. He pointed out 
that the materials were the best possible, hav 
ing been derived from the glacial drift of the 
North, mingling sand and gravel with the cre- 
taceous marls spread over all British America. 
Having this favorable constitution, Dr. Bill as- 
signs to the moles the chief agency in the for- 
mation of the thick top-layer of vegetable 
mould which is now the joy of the farmer. 

In the Assiniboine valley the moles have 
thrown up almost every foot of the soil into 
little hillocks, each containing a large 
shovelful of earth, and burying completely the 
grass and vegetation over a space a foot or more 
square. The vegetable matter thus buried de- 
cays, and becomes incorporated with the 
soil, so that the process is analagous to 
plowing under the soil. In making their 
burrows they select the finer material 
and cast it up to the surface, leaving 
behind the coarser. The effect of this is similar 
to that alleged by Darwin of the earthworms 
(which do not exist in the northwest territories), 
since, in the course of time, all the stones are 
buried. Their labor is supplemented by the 
gophers, spermophiles and badgers, the last 
named digging deeply and heaving up large 
quantities of gravelly subsoil, which the n.oles 
work into and improve, while all bury much 
vegetable rubbish, as nests and food. This bene- 
ficent animal agency nearly ceases when the 
elevated "third steppe," called the Grand 
Coteau du Missouri, is reached, and when the 
mountains are approached the soil is clayey. 



The Beet Sugar Industry. 

A. promising industry on the Pacific Ccast 
is the beet sugar industry. It was only 
af.er a long struggle that success was ob- 
tained here, and here is the only beet 
sugar factory in the United States. There 
is used to-day in the whole country not less 
than a million and a quarter tons of sugar. 
Now a ton ana a half an acre can be 
readily produced, and flare are three 
thousand acres on the coast capable of 
producing it. We h ive, therefore, a cap- 
acity of making over three times the con- 
sumption of the Union. It is estimated that in 
1890 a million and a half tons of suear will be 
consumed in the United States. This would 
require a million acres of land. An average of 
fifteen toDs to the acre would give fifteen mill- 
ion tons of beets, which, at $4 per ton, would 
reach sixty millions of dollars. To make this 
into sugar would need ninety million dollars 
more, making the total cost of the sugar one 
hundred and fifty millions of dollars. This 
would be divided out as under: 

Rent of land $20,000,000 

.Labor at $40 per acre 20,0' 0,000 

Cost of manufacture at 90,100,000 

Total $150,000,000 

This would renal five cei.ts a pound for re- 
fined sugar. So tint our sugar supply can be 
had cheaply-, while an enormous benefit will 
accrue to agriculture. 

Some of the advantages of California for beet 
sugar culture may be summed up as follows: 

Beets raised m California are irs rich iu sac- 
charine, and the yield per acre is fully as large, 
as in Europe. We have a longer season in 
which to plant and harvest our crop. The 
c op, after it is harvested, needs no protcc>iou 
from frost. The climate of California permits 
us to work beets fr< sh from the fields for a per- 
iod of four months, thus saving the expense of 
storing and rehandling. In Europe their crops 
must be all harvo ted and stored in silos within 
a few weeks after they are m tured. Beets 
yield the largest percentage ot sugir when 
worked, taken fresh from the ground. In Cali- 
fornia we plant beets from the first of March to 
the fir-t of June. In Europe all the [hinting 
has to be don • in a few weeks. In Eu ope, iu 
cons' quence of frequent mins in summer, great 
expense is incurred in ke ping the beets fiee 
from we' ds. In California 011 account of the 
absence of rains duriug the summer mouths, 
weeds do not grow. In Europe, fa-uiers are 
put lo great expense for feitd z< is, in California 
that expeuse for many years will be nominal. 
But the chenp labor in Europe offsets, to a 
great extent, the advantages enumerated, and 
may, perhsp*, enable thun to manufacture su- 
gar at a less cost than in this country. The 
farmers in Eur pe have had, also, many years 
of experience iu cultivating beets for s-ugar, 
our farmers, none. 

A low average yield of betts is fifteen t ins 
per acre, and these beets manufactured into 
su.'ar will yield 3 '00 pounds, whi h at 7 cents, 
is wor h $210. An acre of wheat will produce 
fifteen cent ils, which, at $1.75 is worth |>?6.50 
now add 1-10 to manufacture the same into 
Hour, makes a value of $28.87, as the product 
(f one acre of wheat. Placing the yield of 
barley at twenty centals, at $1,030 p r cen- 
t 1 make a value of $2G to the acre. A beet 
sugar factory of 3U0 tons daily capacity, will 
require 2000 acres of laud to grow sufficient 
beets to supp'y it. N.iw. as each acre of laud 
if planted in b ets, will produce a value to the 
community of $21i>, the 2000 acres %v il 1 add to 
its wealth to the ext nt ot $420,000 annually. 
The huho-t value produced from cereals, as 
above, is $28.87 for each acre, an for the 2000 
acres it would be $57,740— a difference of $302,- 
2G0 in favor growing the beets of that small 
quantity of land, to say nohing of the in- 
creased production from alternating the beets 
with other crops. 

It is desirable that the industry should be en- 
couraged and a memorial by Mr. Dyer, General 
Superintendent of til l beet factory at Alvarado, 
shows how it can be donp. 

They commenced operations in this State 
in !he y<ar 1879, and have fduce that 
date produced from 1,000,000 to 2,500,000 
pounds of white refined sugar each season. 
Tht.t with the introduction of improved ma- 
chinery, protection from foreign-grown sugar, 
and legislation that will enable manufacturers 
to utilize their by-producis, the United States 
would, in a few years be able to produce suffi- 
cient sugar from beets to supply the demand 
for the whole country. In the manufacture of 
sugar from beets, there is quite a percentage of 
saccharine pi-oduct that will not crysta izo, in 
consequence of salts aud other impurities pre- 
sent in the jui c of the bcot; an.] tnat this non- 
crystalizable product, remains in the form of 
molasges after the sugar has been obtained. 
This molasses is unfit for chimeric use, and can 
only be utilized profitably in the manufacture 
of alcohol; the alcohol thus produced c mnot be 
converted into potable liquor, on account of its 
offensive odor and taste, and can only be used 
manufacturing pui poses. In consequence of 
the internal revenue tax on alcohol, it is im- 
possible for r-eet sugar manufactures to utilize 
this molasses product, except' in very limited 
quantities, at a nvroly nominal price, for the 
manufacture of vinegar, and that uuiler pres- 



ent conditions a valuable product) red 
almost worthless to this struggling industiy. In 
view of the benefits that would accrue to the 
people of this country through the develop- 
mtntof such an industry; the possibilities it 
presents, aud the importance 01 producing at 
home the sugar required for domestic con- 
sumption, it is d< sirable to secure an Act to ex- 
empt from internal revenue taxation, alcohol 
produced from resultant molasses obtained in 
the manufacture of sugar from beet-roots in the 
United States. 



LORieUbTUf^E. 



Bulbs. 

Editors Press:— The plants coming under 
the general term "bulbs" afford some of the 
finest flowers in cultivation, and no class of 
plants is more worthy, or gives a better return 
for the care bestowed upon them. Many who 
cultivate a good variety of flowers give no place 
to the bulbs, thinking their cultivation too dif- 
ficult and the return too uncertain. This is a 
mistake; both climate and soil of California are 
well adapted to their culture, as is evidenced 
by the great variety of bulbs among the native 
plants. Many of these wild bulbs bear beauti 
ful flowers that are highly appreciated in the 
Eastern States, where a deal of care and pains- 
taking is necessary to bring them to perfection. 
But a native bulb in a Californian garden is a 
rare sight, though they might well replace many 
of the plants usually found there. 

The Trilliums are a beautiful class of plants, 
and no hing can be more gorgeous than Lilium 
HumhoWtii and Pardanalum found in the 
mountains, and at a higher altitude than these, 
grows the pure white lily that has no rival. 

By a judicious selection in buying, an almost 
constant succession of flowers may be secured. 
In this favored land no untimely frost "nips 
the blossom in the bud," nor cuts them down in 
their glory. Here we have no digging up bulbs 
at one season, to replant them at another; no 
storing some away in sand and some in paper, 
some hung up and some laid down, and all 
the endless care and labor necessary to bulb cul- 
ture in the Atlantic States. 

The early bulbs nearly all have a delicious 
fragrance, and present a bright array of color. 
The snowdrop comes first, then the crocus and 
narcissus, of which there are many varieties; 
the daffodils, called in K iglaud "Easter Lilies," 
and the jonquils; then the hyacinths, the sweet- 
est of all, and the tulip", with their wondrous 
color and shapes. 

After the spring bulbs and before the summer 
flowering is a cessation which may well be sup- 
plemented by some of the tubers. First, the 
iris, from pure white to deep purple, with a de- 
lightful fragrance. The dwarf variety makes a 
fine edging and blooms very early. The dicen- 
tra, commonly called "bleeding heart," is one 
of the handsomest. The peonies have been 
much improved of late years, and are now very 
desirable. The dahlias afford a fine display, 
and heir colors are almost endless. Alittieat- 
tention to these will give a succession of bloom 
from early summer to winter rain. 

The gladiolus is one of the best summer flow- 
ering bulbs. Its long spike of bloom and great 
varie y of color make it very attractive. No 
pure white gladiolus has yet rewarded the ef- 
forts of the florist, the nearest being La Can- 
dover, white with a dark spot, and Shakespeare, 
white with a crimson stain. 

The figridia is a curious shell-like flower, and 
a constant bloomer. The amaryllis is a grace- 
ful, ldy like flower of great beauty; several 
colors are grown. The tuberose is a well- 
known fl >wer of great beauty and fragrance. 
The old-fashioned tiger lily is a gorgeous bit of 
coloring; and the //. Candidnm is another old- 
fashioned variety now enjoying a new lease of 
favor. The Japan lilies are in every respect 
the best of all the summer-flowering bulbs. 
Their culture is of the easiest, as they grow 
where any ordinary plant will grow, require no 
fertilizer, but sometimes a little sand, and do best 
if undisturbed for years. lAliutn Auralum is 
generally most admired for size, beauty and fra- 
grance. L. Lomjijlorum is also beautiful, but 
all the varieties are excellent, and should be 
found in the garden of every flower lover. 

Napa., Cat. F. C. Kinci. 

Shape ok the Earth's Orbit. — Proctor re- 
marks that a common error is the supposition 
that the earth moves in an obviously elliptical 
path, whereas it really appears to travel in a 
circle. Taking the earth's orbit when its ec- 
centricity was very nearly at its greatest 850,- 
000 years ago the numbers 325 and 321 repre- 
sent the actual proportion between the greatest 
and shortest axes of the figure described by our 
planet's motion arouud the sun. So that if a 
circle is drawn with a radius of three and one- 
fourth inches, it nowhere departs more than the 
hundredth part of an inch from the ellipse 
which would represent with perfect accuracy 
the orbit of the earth 850,000 years ago, when 
it was so much more divergent from an exactly 
circular form than now. 



Solid Bodies shine in the dark, or become 
luminous, when heated from 000 degrees to 700 
degrees F., and in daylight only when they 
reach a temperature of 1000 degrees. 



4 



PACIFIC f^URAlo PRESS. 



[Jan. 2 1886 



Matrons of Husbandry. 

Correspondence on Grange principles and work and re* 
ports of transactions of subordinate Oranges are respect- 
fully solicited (or this department. 



Grange Work for January. 

The installation of officers should occur dur- 
ing this month in all Granges in California. It 
is a time when every live Patron should partic. 
ularly do all he can for the advancement of the 
cause; when all, in fact, should do their best 
and make a strong pull together. 

The installation of officers gives an oppor- 
tunity of making meetings attractive and en- 
gaging the attention of even luke warm Gran- 
gers to the field of operation. Have such 
meetings well announced before hand, and 
some plan laid for making them interesting by 
adding literary and musical exercises in connec- 
tion with the social harvest feast. 

Let us commence the year by holding some 
especially attractive meetings, and get up some- 
thing likely to please the young people espe- 
cially. If the younger members are made to 
enjoy themselves the happiness of the older 
ones will certainly be insured. 

Competent persons should be engaged 
to prepare themselves well for saying something 
really effective for ihe "Good of the Order." 
When convenient, and the right kind of a 
speaker can be secured, invite some well-known 
friend of agriculture to address the meeting 
briefly — one whose reputation will be likely to 
attract members and other farmers from home, 
with the confidence that their time will not be 
wasted in attending. 

Right here let us say tint any Patron who 
expects to occupy the attention of 100 
or even a dozen, Grangers, owes it to his own 
reputation and owes it to his listeuers to have 
the remarks he is to offer well studied, well con 
sidered and judiciously "boiled down," that no I 
time may be wasted. Many a speaker loses his 
opportunity of making a good impression and 
greatly benefitting his fellow man by not spend- 
ing a tew hours of his individual time in pre 
paring to enlighten for an hour a large audience, 
whose ti in i collectively amounts to hundreds of 
hours. 

Let every Grange that has been doing its rit- 
ualistic work indiffirently, commence the new 
year by performing the same as it should be 
done to produce good, lasting eff jets, not only 
on the candidate but on all the members 
present. 

No fraternity possesses more beautiful sym 
bolic teachings than the Grange; and now, 
right home to the mind of every Granger, let 
us ask if they know of any other Order 
whose members show less regard to the perfect 
performance of its ritualistic ceremonies? 

We are sure that, in nearly all instances in the 
State of California, the best and most success- 
ful Granges are those who pay the closest atten- 
tion to doing all the work of the Grange care- 
fully, promptly and thoroughly. 

Note, also, the importance of having singing 
at every session of the (.range; and the best 
music, too, that can be secured. These matters 
should be attended to as fully as possible by the 
Worthy Master, but no membsr's full duty is 
performed until he has done all in his power to 
sppport the Master in his well doing, whether 
they exactly agree with him in all minor points 
or not. 

It is a satisfaction to say that the part of the 
work devolving on the Sisters has, as a general 
thing, been more completely carried out of 
late, than that devolving especially on the 
Brothers. This year let all hands start in 
early and each carry out his part thoroughly, 
and our word for it, nor Brother or S ster will 
have cause to regret such service when the year 
has rolled around. 



S utler's Story," given by Miss Ulendenning, of 
Santa Clara. 

We hold our harvest feast about once in 
three months, and invite our friends in to dine 
with us. We find it very pleasant and profit- 
able, and have made some valuable additions tc 
our members, and the community have an op- 
portunity to see of what material our (.range is 
composed . 

We will have installation of officers on next 
Saturday, the second of .January. 

We think the chairs are well filled for the 
coming year, and hope that the prosperous and 
harmonious work of the retiring officers will be 
carried forward with vigor by the new admin- 
istration, so that the good the Grange can do 
"may be seen and known of all men." 

Occasional. 



From ihe "Garden City" Grange. 

Editors Press:— San Jose Grange held a 
most enjoyable harvest feast on Saturday, the 
]fl;h. We had State Lecturer Daniel Flint 
with us; also, Sister Kinney, of the Girls' 
Union, S. F., and Mrs. Cross, C ires of the State 
Grange. We had a short session with closed 
doors, and conducted the business of the 
Grange, receiving instruction in the secret work 
of the Order from Bro. Flint. Oar i; range 
feels deeply indebted to the State officers for 
their patience with our shortcomings, and 
trusts that in future we shall be so well up 
in the work of the Grange, that when they 
visit us we shall hear something from them for 
the good of the Order. We are always «lad to 
receive visits from the officers of the State 
Grange; but, Mr. Editor, you know grown-up 
children don'c enjoy too much discipline. 

At half past 1 1 the doors were thrown open, 
and our guests began to arrive. At 12 we 
were invited to the dining room, where such a 
dinner as only Grangers can serve was partaken 
of by the Grange and their friends, after which 
we returned to the large hall and carried out 
our literary program, as published in 
the Rckai. Press of D>c. 19;h. The program 
was of unusual excellence, and where all did so 
well it would be hardly just to call attention to 
any; but 1 cannot refrain from speaking of Mrs. 
E. 0. Smith's essay and a recitation, "The 



Grange Literary Exercises. 

Editors Press: — I have procured for you a 
copy of the report of the Committee on Literary 
Exercises, made at the last meeting of Sacra- 
mento G range. I think the publication of it 
will be interesting to all in the Order. The 
program outlined in the report will go into 
effect next month, after the installation, which 
will take place at the first meeting in the 
month. 

We have a good set of officers to start the 
new year with, and if all will take an interest 
and help in the work, it will be, no doubt, one 
of the best years since its organization. 

Sacramento, Dec. gist, Geo. T. Rich. 
The Report. 

To the officers and Members of Sacrani'nto 
Orangt : — S our committee to whom was dele- 
gated the duty to prepare a plan and order of 
business for the conduct of the literary work 
of the (! range, respectfully submit the follow- 
ing for your consideration: 

Whereat, we consider the literary exercisps 
lately inaugurated by the Grange, one of the 
most important features ever introduced in the 
light of advancing and educating the younger 
members, and creating greater interest in our 
work generally, and if rightly conducted, will 
add materially to the advancement of our Or- 
der here, and the welfare of all its members; 
therefore, to attain that end, we would recom- 
mend, 1 . That the literary exercises shall be 
held while the Grange is in session — as a com 
mittee of the whole — strictly governed by par- 
lamentary rules, Cushing's Manuel being our 
guide. 2. Tnat the members of the Order 
with their families only, be admitted. 3. 
That sister G ranges be invited to meet 
with us on these occasions. 4. That a presid- 
ing officer shall be appoiuted by the M. W. at 
least one week prior to the sitting of the com 
mittee of the whole on literary work ; that the 
presiding officer shall be designated as chair- 
man. 5. The W. M. shall appoint a secre- 
tary of the literary work. S. It shall be the 
duty of the President and Secretary to assist 
the W, L. in the program for literary exercises. 
It shall be the duty of the Secretary to keep a 
correct record of proceedings of the exercises, 
and report the same to the Grange for reccrd. 
7. The \V. L. or some one appointed by the 
W, M. shall solicit from members, readings, 
essays, poems, declamations, discussions on 
agricultural questions, Good of the Order, music 
and singing, and prepare a program of the same. 

The following Bhall be the order of business: 
1: Remarks by President, call to order; 2: 
Singing; 3, 4 and 5: Program; 6: Good of the 
Order (20 minutes); 7, 8, 9: Program.— E F. 
Aiken, W, W. Greer, Ai.u k Greenlaw, Com 
mittee. 

Resolutions of Respect. 

Editors Pr ess-.— At a regular meeting of 
Stockton Grange held Dec. 2tith, the following 
resolutions were adopted: 

The Great Master of the univpr?<' has an lin per- 
mitted the angel of death to enter our Graige. and. 
take from us our wor.hy Brother Wm. G. Phelps, 
Of the hand of twenty-nine Brothers and Sisters, 
who twelve years ago, met to organize Stockton 
Grange, Brother Phelps is only the second who has 
been removed by death. During a'l those years, his 
attendance at our weekly meetings, until sickness 
prevented, was ever prompt and constant, always 
taking a lively interest in all that pertained to the 
good of the Order. He filled many offices of trust 
in our Grange, with credit to himself and benefit, 
through his instructions to its members. Therefore 

Resolved, That we shall miss our deceased 
Brother from our council; in Subordinate and State 
Granges, and tender his wife and daughter our most 
heartfelt sympathy, and bid our Sisters, look forward 
to the time, when they too will be called to j jin the 
departed in higher and betfr fields of work. 

Resolved, That the charter of Stockton Grange 
be draped ia mourning for 30 days in memory of our 
worthy Brother, and these resolutions be spread upon 
the minutes. 

Resolved, That ?. copy of these resolutions be 
sent to the family of the deceased, and, also to the 
California Patnon and Rural Press.— M. T. 
Root. Secretary; J. I.. Beecher, Jr., Mrs. J. B. 
Ilarelson and Wm. L. Overhiser, Committee. 



Stockton Notes. 

Editors Press: — Rain began Dec. 20tb, and 
continues in warm, intermitting showers, after 
three weeks of foggy, but good weather for put- 
ting in grain. Seven inches have now fallen 
for the season, which, with the fogs, has kept 
some of the black lands and the red lauds be- 
yond Farmington too wet to put in yet. Frost 
nipped the thick stand of oats in volunteer and 
summer-fallow, but left untouched the rank 
geraniums. Peed is excellent. Calves and 
lambs will frisk with extra joy. 

A large acreage is being put in, and as the 
year, so disastrous to this county (about 50 
farmers and a dozen merchants are insolvent), 
draws to a close, it bequeathes bright prospects 
with wholesome lessons of economy; lessons of 
tending personally to work and wastes, to little 
things and little profits. Hitherto little econo- 
mies have not been thought necessary with this 
lavish climate and respondent soil. 

Considerable whea 1 , was kept over, but the 
market has been low, and this rain drops it to 
§1.30. 

Dr. O'Donnell had a crowded house of men 
and boys here and his threatenings of officials, 
using of dynamite and forcing the Chinese out, 
were as mournful as the news of the recent 
death of the sacred white elephant in India. 

Had he said, "Do your work and stick to it 
as well as Chinamen," organized a league will- 
ing to work and save, instead of smoking and 
tippling, he would have helped these arbiters 
of wages, and hastened the removal of a class 
that all feel must be sent peaceably out of the 
State. 

Do people employ Chinese for the love of 
them, or think it good for millions of her money 
to go annually to China? For 30 years house- 
keepers have worked with Chinese help, be- 
cause they did not wear white skirts afternoons, 
then growl at the washings, nor oggle with the 
hired man, while flies swept in at the open door 
and over the standing victuals, and pies were 
baked without sugar, and the teakettle unsol- 
dered for want of water. 

Few of the pioneer women of this State would 
have been above the sod now but for these or- 
derly helps. Now that we have a grown, na- 
tive population, all right minded people are 
willing to inconvenience themselves to give 
them a chance. Necessity is a stern teacher. 
Times are hard. B >th the employer and em 
ployed may profit from the past. 

Mrs. Kinney, of the S. F. Girls" Union, inau- 
gurated a movement here to start a branch of 
the Union, insomuch as that the Secretary of 
some officer receive the girls sent to places here, 
that they may find some reliable person to pro- 
tect them among strangers. Her aim is practi- 
cal and sensible, to establish a branch to the 
Union where hom~:keeping is taught in lessons 
of six months with the earned certificate to cook, 
wash and iron. Two bits a month is charged 
for membership in this home to make girls self- 
supporting and fit them for future duties. Let 
those who are crying for violent expulsion of 
Chinese help, throw in each a half dollar to 
build up this training school to Bhelter and pro- 
tect homeless girls. 

Christmas finds Stockton as prosperous as 
any place in the State, with a population in- 
creased to lo.OOO, and backed by a valley run- 
ning northwardly 250 miles and 140 miles wide. 

Stockton, Dec. tStk. Mrs. W. D. A. 



Captain William o. Phelps, Past Worthy 
Master of Stockton Grange and Past District 
Lecturer of San Joaquin Co., died recently after 
a lingering illness at Stockton. He was one of 
the pioneers of Stockton ({range and always 
an earnest member. He was an intelligent 
citizen, well known in the community, and his 
death will be felt by many Patrons and warm 
hearted friends. 



Action on the Debris Evil. 

About two months ago the Trustees of the 
city of Sacramento, in conjunction with the 
Anti- Debris Association of the Sacramento 
valley, prepared a memorial addressed to the 
Secretary of War, calling attention of that 
branch of the Government to the condition of 
the navigable waters centering in the bay and 
harbor of San Francisco — said condition being 
the result of mining by the hydraulic process, 
which uses the upper streams and channels as 
sluiceways to convey the waste material to the 
navigable rivers and harbors of the State. 

Copies of this memorial were mailed to all 
the river counties and also to those bor 
dering on the bay, and also to a number 
of business and commercial institutions, with 
a request to all that if approved by them 
to sign in their official capacity and return 
to E. H. McKee, Clerk of the Sicra- 
mento Board of Trustees, to be by them 
transmitted to the Secretary of War at Wash 
ington. Notice of endorsement has been re- 
ceived and forwarded from the f dlowing coun- 
ties and business bodies: Boards of Super- 
visors of the counties of San Francisco, Sic- 
ramento, Yolo, Colusa, Tehama, Sutter, 
Yuba, Napa and Marin, and the Boards 
of Trade of Stockton and Sacrament) city; 
the City Council of Stockton and City 
Trustees of Sacramento; the Grangers' 
Business Association and Biard of Educa 
tion of Sacramento; the Farmers' Union of 
Live Oak, Sutter county! Sutter County 
Canning and Packing Co.: Farmers' Oo-oper 
ative Union of Sutter County, and City Coun- 
cil of Marysville. Favorable action is certain 
by the City Council of Oakland and Alameda 
counties, and from the county of San Joaquin, 
and is also expected from the counties of So- 
lano, Contra Costa and Sonoma. A somewhat 
similar document was adopted by the Board of 
Trade of San Francisco, addressed to our mem- 
bers cf Congress. It was thought best to pro- 
ceed in this manner because the official bodies 
could be readily reached and the people could 



not, without much labor and expense, and the 
weight of their combined petition would carry 
at least as much weight as if every inhabitant 
of the territory signed the memorial. The pe- 
titioners represent at least two-thirds of the 
wealth and population of the State, and not less 
than seven -eighths of the commerce, which 
should and will insure the early attention from 
the Government that its overshadowing im- 
portance demands. The press throughout the 
petitioning territory owe it to themselves and 
to their readers to publish the memorial and 
the acts of their officials thereon. It is the 
most momentous question that ever confronted 
any people. The evil is a thousand times 
greater than the one which afflicted Spain two 
thousand years ago, and which was suppressed 
by an edict from the Roman Senate. — Sutter 
County Farmer. 

Since the above was written the City Council 
of Oakland has indorsed and signed the memo- 
rial. 

Grange Elections. 

ELLIOT Grange. — Elected Dec. 1'2. 1885: 
J.N. Hoyt, M.; Ed. Hart, O.; Sister Emslie, L ; 
Frank Ritter, S.; J. Wiltse, A. S.; Sister Ralph, 
C; Sister Misener, T. ; H. H. West, Sec; R. M. 
Daniels, G .K.; Sister Daniels, Ceres; Sister 
Pinkerton, Pomona; Sister Rowley, Flora; 
Sister M. A. West, L. A. S. 

Lodi Orange — Elected Dec. 16: A. J. 
Woods, M.;C. W. Norton, O.; Mrs. Nellie 
Norton, I, ; E. Sabin, S ; J. K. Curry, A. S.; 
A. A. Guernsey, C; J.M. Fowler, T.; J. D. 
Huffman, Sec; R. Pixley. O.K.; Mrs. J. De 
Yries, Pomona; Mrs. S. L. Aldrich, F'lora; 
Mrs. K. Shaw, Ceres; Miss Alida Allison, 
L. A. S. 

Monte/.ima Grange. — Elected Dec. 19: 
T. T. Hooper, M , (re-elected); J. Bullard, O; 
R. Birkway, L. ; F. Daniels, S.; J. Nelson, 
A. S.; Sister F. Bullard, C; G. M. Daniels, T.; 
Sister E. Daniels, Sec; Sister E. Bullard, 
Gr. K.; Sister B. Galbeath, Pomona; Sister F. 
Birkway, Ceres; Sister M. Galbeath, Flora; 
Sister A. Parker, L. A. S. 

Placerville Grange— Elected Dec. 19: J. 
C. March, M.; A. N^rris, O; Mrs. S. P. Olm- 
stead, L.J P. Isbell, S.; Albert Kramp, A. S ; 
— Smith, C; P. J. Allen, T. ; Miss Anna Biiee, 
Sec ; S. P. Olmstead, G. K.; Mies Mary 
Hickey, Ceres; Miss Luella Carpenter, Pomona; 
Miss Maggie Springer, Flora; Mrs. John Com- 
bellack, L. A. S. Installation, Saturday, Jan. 
9, 18S6. 

Stockton Grange. — Elected Dec. 19: John 
L. Beecher, M.; George W. Ashley, O.; Dr. C. 
Grattan, L ; E. S. Beecher, S. (re-el.); Henry 
Grupe, A. S.; Mrs. E. M. Stowe, C. ; Joseph 
Adams, T; M. T. Roots, Sec. (re-el.); Mrs. 
M. F. Merrell, G. K. (reel ); Mr*. Cora 
Beecher, Ceres; Miss Belle Furguson, Pomona; 
Miss Alice Thrush, Flora; Mrs. Lou Ovi rhiser, 
L. A. S.; Mrs. W. B. West, Ex. Com. for three 
years. 

Grange Installations. 

Meetings for installing new officers arc among 
the most important of the year, and are gener- 
ally accompanied by interesting speaking and 
most enjoyable harvest feasts. They usually 
occur on the first regular meeting day of Jan- 
uary. We notice the following have been an- 
nounced: 

Saturday, January 2d. 
Alhambra Grange, Martinez, 2 P. M . 
San Jose Grange, 10 a. m. 
St. Helena Grange, 2 P. M. 

Wednesday, Jan. 6th. 
Lodi Orange, 2 r. M. 

Saturday, Jan. Otb. 
Eden and Temescal Granges at Haywards, 10 

A. M. 

Elliott Grange, 2 P. m. 
Placerville Grange, 1 I'. H . 
Sacramento Grange, 1 P. K, 
Santa Rosa Grange, 10 a. m. 



Musical Evening. 

Editors Press:— At the pleasant home of 
Sister A. M. Wilcox was gathered, on F'riday 
evening, a circle of friends to hear a musical re- 
cital of a class of young ladies, showing the im- 
provement made during the past quarter. As 
many pupils aud teacher are members of the 
Sacramento G range, it made the gathering one 
of pleasure as well as profit to all. Many joys 
result from the social features of the Grange 
as set forth in its declaration of purposes. 
After programe all partook of a fine repast. 
Many were the congratulations to the teacher 
for her excellent eutertainment and the im- 
provement manifested by her pupils. 

Sacramento. George T. Rich. 



Joint Installation at Haywards. — Eden 
and TemeBcal Grange will meet at 10 a. M. , 
Saturday, Jan. 0th, for installing the officers of 
both (i ranges and other Grange work — not 
omitting the harvest feast, such as the Sisteis 
of Ivlcn are celebrated for. We hope to see 
some of the State Grange officers, and many 
worthy visiting Patrons present. 

Ai.iiAMiiRA Grange Social. — The Martinez 
Gaz-Ve. of [fee. 26th says: The Grangers' regu- 
lar monthly social last Saturday evening was 
much enjoyed. In addition to the usual pleas- 
ures of the evening, the Martinez Glee Club 
rendered some vocal music in good style. 



Jan. 2, 1886.] 



PAClFie RURAId press 



JIJg ^CULTURAL J^OTES. 

CALIFORNIA. 
Eldorado. 

Coloma Fruit Grovvers. — Cor. Republican: 
The meeting of the fruit growers of this tov n- 
ship on Saturday the 12th instant was well at- 
tended, there being about 30 of the substantial 
farmers of the township present. The meeting 
was called to order by Assessor Mortensen, 
Hon. H. Mahler acting as Secretary. Mr. Mor- 
tensen briefly stated the purpose of the meeting, 
and the meeting proceeded to the election of 
permanent officers. Geo. Ramsey was chosen 
President, Wm. Mahler Secretary, Wm. Sterns 
Treasurer, F. Veerkamp, Wm. Nichoils, and 
W. H. Valentine Directors. All of these are 
men of probity and experience, and well quali- 
fied to discharge the duties of their positions. 
The next meeting will be on December 26th. 

Fresno. 

Fike Raisins. — Republican, Dec. 26: The 
best box of California raisins we have yet seen 
is of this season's crop from the Hedgerow 
Vineyard of M. F. Austin, and marked "Im- 
perial Dehesas." This box is an excellent 
sample of fancy packing. Unlike other boxes, 
the raisins are not exhibited at first view. The 
contents consist of two layers of coloied, fancy 
paper bags of triangular shape, four in each 
layer. The pattern of the bags is the neatest 
and most elegant, and the paper the finest. 
Each bag contains only one large bunch, the 
box thus containing but eight bunches of rais- 
ins. To say that the raisins themselves are 
of the highest quality, is hardly necessary. 
The brand is too well known to need further 
description. But the style of packing is new, 
and, as an effort to equal the best Spanish De- 
hesas, it has eminently succeeded. 

Vineyard Truck. — We have seen vineyards 
where, from want of roads, it cost just as much 
to carry the boxes to the nearest road as it did 
to pick the grapes. It took the same number 
of Chinamen to perform either job. We have 
seen a vineyard truck, lately invented by J. T. 
Goodman, that does away with the carrying of 
the boxes and the necessity of having many 
roads in the vineyards. It consists of a low 
bed with two wheels behind and one in front, 
the latter is moveable and so arranged that the 
truck can be turned within the narrowest 
limits. It is only four feet wide and large 
enough to hold twenty-five boxes. It is low 
enough so that one man can load, instead of re- 
quiring two as in the old way. A great saving 
of time and labor is accomplished by this con- 
trivance. 

Los Angeles. 

Sorghum Syrup. — Anaheim Gazette, Dec. 
26: Mr. J. Y. Anderson, of Westminister, who 
makes a speciality of sorghum syrup, has closed 
the season's work, and it has proved very sat- 
isfactory. The yield was 300 gallons to the 
acre, and but for an untoward circumstance 
the yield would have been greater. Just as the 
sorghum began to tip out, a heavy wind toppled 
it over to some extent, and while it did not af- 
fect the growth of the cane, it lessened the 
amount of saccharine matter to some extent, 
so that the quantity of cane that made nine 
gallons of syrup last year only made between 
six and seven gallons this year. 

County Pomological Society Meeting. — 
The fourth quarterly meeting of the Los Ange- 
les County Pomological Society will be held at 
Pasadena on January 7, 1886, in Williams' hall 
at 10 a. m. Dr. O. H. Con gar will deliver the 
address of welcome, Milton Thomas will read a 
paper on the "Present and Future of Fruit 
Culture in Southern California." J. W. Sillee 
will read a paper on the "Pruning and Renovat- 
ing of Orchards." The society wi'l then discuss 
the question, "Do Bees Injure Fruit?" Abbot 
Kinney will read a paper on the "Packing and 
Marketing of Fruit." 

The following Committee on Fruit Exhibit 
has been appointed by President Hamilton: J. 
R. Dobbins, San Gabriel; D. Edson Smith, 
Santa Ana; H. S. Daniels, Duarte; Charles 
Weile, Pomona; F. R. Willis, Downey; M. 
Baldridge, Citrus, Azusa, etc. ; Percy R. Wilson, 
Sierra Madre; Fred. L. Alles, Los Angeles; H 
K. Snow, Tustin; Dr. Joslyn, Orange; S. Mc 
Kinlay, Vernon; R. Melrose, Anaheim; A. T. 
Currier, Spadra; Robt. Strong, Westminster. 
The meeting is to he accompanied by a fruit 
display, which will afterward be packed and 
shipped East. 

Merced. 

Farm Prospects. — Merced Valley Argus, 
Dec. 26: There never was a season in this val- 
ley when farm prospects at this season of the 
year were more promising; and yet, the season 
has its backsets and farmers entertain doubts 
and fears. The rains in November being exces- 
sive and coming on before many farmers had 
sown their summer fallow lands, or finished 
volunteering, Christmas has come and caught 
our farmers, on heavy soils, with but a small 
portion of their crops planted, though nearly 
two months of the rainy season has passed, and 
the prospect most promising for a continuance 
of wet weather indefinitely, during which plow- 
ing and seeding on adobe soils cannot be done 
advantageously. All grain sowed before the 
rains has attained good growth, promising as 
well as could be hoped for, and the fields that 
have been plowed and planted since the rains 
commenced have a good stand, except in low 
places, where it was water-killed; and with 



sufficient open weather in January and Febru- 
ary to get in the average area of land we may 
reasonably hope for a very large harvest in 
1886, and consequent prosperity and plenty all 
over this much-favored coast, the agricultural 
resources of which are yet but partially devel- 
oped. On the sand plains, where wheat is the 
predominant interest, the season thus far has 
been more favorable for plowing and seeding 
and a much greater proportion of the area de 
voted to wheat culture has been planted, less 
injury has been sustained by overflows, and a 
large yield the coming harvest is more than 
probable. It is upon the wheat that the culti- 
vators of the soil must depend for profit until 
the great irrigating canals now being construct- 
ed are finished, and farmers have their lands 
leveled and ditched, and other preparations 
made to utilize the great flow of water that the 
Merced Canal and Irrigation Company will 
shortly introduce upon the great tract of rich 
soils lying south of the Merced river, and 
which is destined to perpetually fertilize the 
land and make continuing prosperity and con 
tentment of our people possible. 

Placer. 

Blackberries. — Auburn Republican, Dec. 
23: Last Saturday the Republican, received 
from 0. P. Baxter, some specimens of ripe 
blackberries and a cluster of ripe, second growth 
apples, both grown on his ranch near Apple- 
gate Station. The blackberries are of the Early 
Crandall variety, the same as are grown by O. 
W. Hollenbeck in Auburn, and were described 
some time ago in this paper as the Texas va- 
riety. This variety is known by both names, 
having been first propagated by the late Dr. 
Crandall, from a root brought from Texas by a 
friend a good many years ago. They are large, 
and bear for a longer time during the year than 
any other kind. Mr. Baxter says he has gath- 
ered them from his bushes in January. Apple- 
gate's is several hundred feet higher than 
Auburn, and these specimens of fruit, at this 
time of the year, are remarkable, as showing 
what can be done so far up in the foothills. 

Sacramento. 

Northern California Citrus Fair. — Dr. 
W. S. Manlove in Record Union: Having on 
several occasions seen articles in your paper on 
the advisability of holding a fair for the exhi- 
bition of citrus fruits grown in Northern Cali- 
fornia, I take the liberty, through your col- 
umns, to make a few suggestions, hoping there- 
by to call out the views of others. If we of 
the north propose to take any action in the 
matter it is high time we were at work, for the 
citrus fruits of this part of the State will be 
fully ripe and at their best in the next two or 
three weeks. In the absence of any organized 
society for the exhibition of citrus fruits, per- 
mit me to suggest the propriety of the Immi- 
gration Association taking hold of the matter. 
They would certainly meet with the earnest co- 
operation of all growers of these fruits in this 
part of the State. There can be nodoubtabout 
a creditable exhibition being made— not only 
creditable to the growers, but a surprise to 
those unacquainted with the adaptability of 
climate and soil of Northern California for the 
production of semi-tropical fruits. Let us, by 
all means, take hold of this, trying to make the 
best display possible, and there is no doubt but 
that immigrants and all others who desire to 
cultivate citrus fruits can be convinced that the 
conditions are as favorable for successful culti- 
vation in Northern California as in other por- 
tions of the State. 

Fine Oranges. — A sample cluster of six tine 
large oranges upon one stem, of the St. Michael 
variety, was received on Tuesday, the 15th in- 
stant, from Dr. J. Frey's place, near Newcastle. 
They display a remarkably fine quality of fruit, 
being smooth and very fair, thin rind, gocd 
flavor, and very attractive in form and color. 
Other varieties were also included in samples, 
some very large, but having thick rind and less 
delicate pulp and flavor. Dr. Frey has some 
fifty or sixty orange trees in bearing, and it is 
understood that he has sold his present season's 
crop at three cents per orange to a San Fran- 
cisco dealer. It is much to the advantage of 
orange-growers in this part of the State that 
their fruit ripens and is ready for market sev- 
eral weeks in advance of that from Southern 
California, as better prices are thus obtained. 

Bounties for Scalps. — The Board of Super- 
visors, by an ordinance passed recently, pro- 
vides that a bounty shall be paid for extermin- 
ating animal pests as follows: For the scalp of 
each coyote, $5; lynx or wildcat, $5; fox, $2.50; 
gray or bald eagle, $2.50; coyote pups, $2.50. 

Fruit-Growers' Meeting. — Record- Union, 
on Saturday, Dec. 19th, the Sacramento Fruit- 
Growers' Association met in Grangers' hall to 
discuss matters of peculiar interest to that 
branch of industry. Dr. W. A. Hughson pre- 
sided and Erskine Greer acted as Secretary. 
After discussing several topics of minor impor- 
tance, the by-laws of the California Fruit Union 
were read and discussed at length. Several 
sections were thought to be improperly drawn, 
and others needed radical amendments. Sec- 
tion 10 reads as follows: "Stockholders of the 
Union shall be allowed the option of selling 
their fruit to the Union at a mutually agreed 
price, duly loaded on the cars at the point of 
shipment, should they prefer such disposition 
instead of shipping through the Union, to con- 
sumption markets for sale, and taking actual 
avails of such sales. Stockholders of the 
Union may, in any shipments they may make 
in entire carloads, through the Union, name 
the destination of the fruit [provided that the 



Union may also exercise advisory supervision 
over such shipments, to protect such shippers, 
so far as possible, against duplicate shipments 
to same destination, and loss to shippers."] Af- 
ter considerable debate it was thought that the 
latter portion.of the section was in the interest of 
the monopolists, who would endeavor to con- 
trol the markets for personal profit, and it was 
unanimously agreed to ask that all that portion 
of the section which is above printed between 
brackets be stricken out. 

San Bernardino. 

Freight Rates on Fruit. — Riverside Press, 
Dec. 22: The meeting of the Transcontinental 
Association at San Francisco last week did not 
complete its work, but the Atchison system 
won several points by masterly strokes, which 
indicate that the Southern Pacific people have 
met an enemy worthy of their steel. Among 
other points made by the Atchison people was 
the one that Riverside and other points in San 
Bernardino valley should be given terminal 
rates on fruit shipped Eist. We are informed 
on the best of authority that the Southern Pa- 
cific folks fought this proposition bitterly until 
the Atchison representative finally announced 
that so far as their road was concerned this rule 
would be established, and it is reported that 
the Southern Pacific finally acceded to the de 
mand. This gives Riverside oranges a rate of 
$20 a car less than the rate heretofore paid, and 
with the reduction recently made by both 
roads, places the orange crop of Riverside in 
Chicago for $60 a car less than the rate paid 
last year. This will save to Riverside about 
$30,000 annually over former rates, to say noth 
ing of hauling the fruit eight miles to Colton. 

Measuring Artesian Flow. — Matthew 
Gage has juat invented a little implement for 
measuring the flow of artesian water. It con- 
sists of a tripod to set on the top of the well 
pipe. Up through its center, over the center 
of the well, is a movable gauge, marked with 
inches and tenths, with a button at the lower 
end, which can be so adjusted that the water 
will just touch the button. The reading on the 
gauge at the tripod will give the weight of the 
flow of water. A 12-inch gauge would measure 
B 20 inch well. 

San Joaquin. 
West Side Prospects. — Independent, Dec. 
26 : Reports from the farming section on the 
west side of the San Joaquin are encouraging 
for a large wheat crop. A prominent farmer 
says there will be more land cultivated on that 
side of the river this year than ever before. 
Near the river the land is too wet to plow at 
this time, but the higher land is being plowed, 
and every acre fit to cultivate will be sown 
with grain. Farmers experienced in that sec- 
tion believe a west side crop is now assured, 
but the yield will depend on the north winds. 
Land is going up, and a recent sale is quoted 
at $20 per acre for a half section of land, where 
175 feet of boring is necessary to reach water. 

Sonoma. 

Farm Prospects. — Petaluma Currier, Dec. 
23: Our rains continue, and, with exception of 
a few cold, dry days caused by the northeast 
wind, the weather has been pleasant for win- 
ter. The weather generally since the first rains 
has been very nourishing to the grass, and 
some farmers and dairymen tell us it has never 
been better at this season of the year. It is 
certainly very fine, and all early grain already 
sown on up lands, is looking very promising. 
On low lands there has been but little plowing 
done yet, except the summer fallowed. All the 
potatoes in ground suitable for digging have- 
been dug, but many thousand sacks will re- 
main in the ground to rot. Stock of all kinds 
it is said is doing well, the outside ranges being 
unusually advanced for the season. It has been 
several years since the ground has been so well 
soaked with water as it is this season, and far- 
mers generally feel hopeful of a good crop next 
year. All they desire now is good plowing to 
put in their crops. 

Tehama. 

Death from Glanders. — Red Bluff Sentinel, 
Dec. 25th: The sad intelligence reached this 
place Thursday afternoon that Aurelius H. 
Patterson died at his home a few miles west of 
Corning the afternoon of the 23d inst., of glan- 
ders. He contracted the disease from one of 
his horses and died from its effects a few days 
after the disease had become fully developed. 
It runs its course in a short time, and death 
was a relief to the sufferer. Mr. Patterson was 
a native of Maine, aged 40 years, and leaves a 
wife to mourn his untimely death. 

Tulare, 

Oranges. — S. Z. Curtis brought to the Times 
office on Monday last a cluster of oranges which 
would be a credit to any orange-producing dis- 
trict in the world. He picked the fruit from 
his Cottonwood ranch, ten miles northeast of 
this city, where he has a grove of thirty trees, 
twelve of which are now in bearing. He be- 
gan planting six years ago, putting out trees 
which were at that time three years old. For a 
year or two the trees were injured and re- 
tarded in their growth by a worm which at- 
tacked their roots. The application of tobacco 
juice, however, exterminated the pest, and the 
trees have since remained in a healthy condi- 
tion. The cluster contains seven oranges, hav- 
ing a uniform circumference of eleven inches. 
They are of a bright golden color, and perfectly 
free from spot or blemish. 



Twenty-one Pullman cars loaded with excur- 
sionists for Los Angeles passed through El Paso 
one day recently, 



Circular from State Inspector Boggs. 

To the Fruii-Growers of California. — The num- 
erous and rapidly increasing insect pests in- 
jurious to fruit interests of this State and the 
imperative necessity for their extirpation; also, 
for the purpose of preventing the spread of 
contagious diseases among fruit and fruit trees, 
as well as the disinfection of grafts, scions, 
orchard debris, empty fruit boxes and pack- 
ages, the undersigned Inspector of Fruit Pests 
feels it incumbent upon him to call your at- 
tention to "An act to prevent the spreading 
of fruit and fruit tree pests and diseases, and 
to provide for their extirpation," approved 
March 9, 1885. In order to inforce the pro- 
visions of this law, there should be united, 
strong and vigorous action throughout the 
State. Section 5 of said Act reads as follows: 

Sec. 5. All frait trees infested by any insect or 
insects, their germs, larv;c or pup;c. or infected by 
disease known to be injur ious to fruit, or fruit trees 
and liable to spread contagion, must be cleaned or 
disenfected before the first day of April, eighteen 
hundred aud eighty-five, and on or before the first 
day of April ot every succeeding year thereafter. 
All owners or occupints of land on which fruit trees 
are grown failing to comply with the provisions of 
this section, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and 
fined as p-ovided in section 6 of this Act. All fruit, 
packages tree-:, plants, cuttings, grafts, and scions, 
that shall not be disinfected within twenty-four hours 
after notice by the Inspector of Fruit Pests, or a 
duly appointed Quarantine Guardian, or any mem- 
ber of .the Board of Horticulture, shall be liable to 
be proceeded against as a public nuisance. 

I would therefore earnestly recommend that, 
at as early a day as possible, the fruit growers 
of the State, in their several counties (where 
the same has not already been done), select 
and recommend to the undersigned, for appoint- 
ment, suitable persons for the office of Quar- 
antine Guardian, and the appointment will be 
made. It is earnestly hoped that no improper 
person will be recommended through improper 
and interested motives. The proposed district 
to be represented by any Quarantine Guardian 
should be plainly and specifically defined, by 
proper bounelary lines, or when it can be done, 
it might be well to specify the Supervisoral or 
School District as the territory over which hia 
district is to extend. This would be essential 
in case of the necessity of enforcing the law. 
Care should be taken to guard against a con- 
flict of authority between ifferent Quarantine 
Guardians. — William M. Boggs, Inspector of 
Fruit Pests. 



Farm Co-operation. 

Editors Press :— I read the letter of "A. 
L.," Lompoc, in yesterday's Rural with much 
interest. I had just concluded Hawthorne's 
"Blithedale Romance," wherein are recorded 
some of his Sunnyside experiences. 

It seems to me that the trouble at the root 
of all such experiments is that they conflict 
with "family life." It is a comparatively 
simple thing for a number of adults of both 
sexes to form a co-operative society and toil to- 
gether on a farm; but if any of those adults 
pair off, as the chances are they will, individual 
interests necessarily become paramount. Those 
individual in'.erests usually become incarnate, 
in the shape of offspring, and the co-operative 
society can hardly be expected to take much 
stock in them. The individual mother in the 
case would hardly approve of their being 
treated as other produce. So, while we can 
raise beef and pork by co operation, perhaps 
successfully, our civilization does not permit a 
similar method of baby farming, and, seeing 
that reproduction is nature's first law ("Be 
fruitful and multiply"), it is not wise to enter 
on any enterprise, co-operative or otherwise, 
that commences by ignoring any such universal 
and necessarily imperative mandate. 

I should be glad of "A. L.'s" views on 
this branch of the subject. The idea 
of escaping so many of the unpleasant- 
nesses and uglinesses of life in some available 
system of farm co-operation is exceedingly at- 
tractive. The feeling of passing one's life in 
toilsomely gathering the means of subsistence 
almost makes life itself hateful. Add to this 
the fact of every man's hand being perpetually 
against his fellow in the eternal game of grab, 
and one appreciates the benevolence of Stan- 
ford in directing that co-operation shall be a 
prime dogma of his new foundation. I hope 
that farm co-operation will be fully discusseel 
in the Rural Edwd. Berwick. 

Carmel Valley. 



Ripe Fruit Carrier. — The fruit package 
mentioned and discussed at length in the pro- 
ceedings of the Los Angeles convention, re- 
ported in this week's Rural, is called the "Ripe 
Fruit Cirrier." It was invented by S. F. Jen- 
kin's, and is manufactured by Jenkins, McGuirc 
& Co., N. E. cor, Charles aud Baltimore streets, 
Baltimore, Mil. We are not aware that an 
agency has been established on this coast, as 
yet. There is no doubt but much interest will 
be taken in the package, and there will be a 
disposition to test its fitness for California use. 

From Carmelita. — The largest and finest 
specimens of Japanese persimmons yet received 
at this office have come as a Christmas remem- 
brance, highly prised, from our estimable cor- 
respondent Mrs. Jeanne C. Carr of Pasadena. 
We congratulate her cm her successful horti- 
culture and hope that she may find leisure again 
to gratify our readers with articles from her 
entertaining and instructive pen, 



6 



fACIFie RURAId press. 



[Jan. 2, 1886 




A December Day. 

[Written for IU'ral Pri.-8.] 
When the morning mists are rising, 

And the fog has cleared away, 
Over all the emerald meadows 

Comes my clear and perfect day. 
Oh, the dawning of the sunbeams 

Through the thin and breaking mist! 
Oh. the lifting of the mountains. 

By the golden heralds kissed ! 

Goes the pure and gentle morning 

Azure robed and crystal crowned, 
While the jewels in the grasses 

Hedge her queenly progress round; 
Hedge and hold her, brightly fold her, 

As she slowly fades away, 
Then again in grassy shadows. 

Hides before the amorous day. 

Wide and clear the noontime groweth, 

Songless birds on grey wings pass, 
While '.he soul of singing springt : me, 

Waits and listens in the grass. 
Waits and listens for the chiming, 

Of the bells beyond the blue, 
For they only know the passing 

Of the Old Year into New. 

Nay, 'tis not the bleak December: 

'i"is a green and growing clime. 
And the angel of the seasons 

Keeps the passing of the time. 
Smiling brightly, he has written 

In the book of seasons told, 
"In the Golden West the New Year, 

Is no gladder than the Old." 
Brtnttoood. 



In the Heart of the Wilderness. 

[Written for Kuril PiiBss by Mollis Stafford.] 
I wish you could have seen the epot as I saw 
it a few days after Thank skiving. It was jt'St 
after the late heavy rains, and they had swolen 
the mountain streams to roaring torrents. It 
was well worth a pilgrimage from the tame 
and every day sight of city or prosaic valley to 
feast one's vision on the grandeur of nature, so 
vividly displayed in the vicinity of ".Kolian 
Falls." It is in one of the deep canyons of tha*' 
most romantic and wonder-abounding "Howell ' 
mountain, or, as I delight to call it, the beau- 
tiful "evergreen mountain" of Napa county. 

Mere words can convey but a faint idea of 
the grandeur and awe inspiring sublimity of 
the place. A by-path from the regular road 
led us above the falls, where the scenery, for 
awful sublimity, surpasses that at the falls. 
Long before reaching there we could hear the 
heavy roar and thunder of the mountain 
stream as it swept in its headlong course 
through a deep gorge of the rock ribbed hills. 
On the side on which we halted to view the 
scene, ledge after ledge of rocks rose above 
the stream, while a perfect wilderness of 
trees formed the background, beautiful ever- 
green trees of almost every description 
mingled with the wide-spreading black oaks, 
and other varieties whose trunks were richly 
covered with a dense growth of green and vel- 
vety moss, and whose branches were festooned 
with large clusters of mistletoe. 

beating ourselves on a ledge of rocks, we took 
in, with eager and fascinated vision, the won- 
derful scene. Beyond the hurrying and rush- 
ing waters of the cataract rose the precipitous 
sides of the towering mountain, ledge after 
ledge, "rock-ribbed and ancient as the sun," 
and clothed in a thick vesture of waving grasses, 
mosses and ferns', and the unblossomed germs 
of myriad flowers. The top of the mountain, 
lofty and far reaching, was decked with a crown 
of stately pines, mijestic and dark green. 

But it was while standing on the frightful 
precipice above the falls, that one fully real- 
ized the awful grandeur of the scene. Dark, 
and seemingly unfathomable, one looked down, 
down into the chasm, where the roaring waters 
thundered over a sheer precipice and fell into 
a beautiful deep lake, which seemed to have 
been scooped at the base of the rocky wall of 
surrounding mountains. Over and above it all 
was the roar and rush anil thunder of the mad 
waters, as they sped on their noisy course into 
the heart of the canyon. 

It was just on the brow of this lofty and 
overhanging precipice that a smill party of pic- 
nicers, one year ago, enjoyed their Thanksgiv- 
ing dinner — a more novel, unique or romantic 
spot, it were dillicult to rind. A few feet from 
the edge of the precipice, was a green and grassy 
spot -it was as if the hand of the great builder 
had scooped out a shovelful of rocks, had 
leveled a tiny plateau, and covering it with 
soft earth, had sown the seeds of fine grasses 
and modest flowers, and gently covered the sur- 
rounding rocks with soft, green moss and ferns. 
Here they made a pot of delicious and aromatic 
coffee, broiled meat on the glowing embers, and 
amidst the grand and novel scenery, enjoyed 
Thanksgiving dinner, 1SS4— a dinner and a spot 
well worthy of remembrance. 
t» was. one of those wonderfully beautiful 



days, so often seen in late autumn, when the 
air is full of a balmy and delicious odor — the 
odor of pine forests, and the fresh and sweet 
perfume of waters, neither too warm nor too 
chilly — a perfect day . Reclining on the moss- 
covered rocks, many a jest and song and peal of 
youthful laughter disturbed the whilom-deep 
silences of the wilderness, aud many an echo, 
reverberated from their lofty perch down into 
the heart of the evergreen canyon, and hound- 
ing, was caught up and thrown back from the 
lofty crest of the peaks above. 

Far up from my perch where the mountain pine 

quivers, 

I watch and I listen, entranced by the spell 

Of the echoes that tloat from the mystical river. 

That's lost in the shadows that droop o'er the dell. 

Arcadian Highls, Pope Valley, Napa Co. 
The Arroyo de la Cruz. 

[Written for Nigral Press by K. C. W.l 
This ha3 been an autumn for particular 
thanksgiving here in Southern California. The 
November rains did us all good, and during the 
storms one could look where 
"Near at hand, 

From under the sheltering trees, 
The farmer sees 

His pastures, and his fields of grain, 
As they bend their tops 
To the numberless beating drops 
Of theincessant rain.'' 

One evening when school was out, one of the 
children and I took a walk through the delight 
ful rain and the actually welcome mud. Grass 
was making its appearance all over the hills, 
and in places where the soil was richest, the 
green blades were an inch long. 

From tho top of the hill we could see the 
ocean, partly veiled and hidden from our sight 
by the peculiar mist accompanying rain. Yet 
through it we could see the breakers rolling in 
toward the shore. 

It was so delightful to be out of doors after 
being in for many days, that we could not go in 
just yet, although we were getting — damp, to 
say the least. We walked on at as brisk a rate 
as the mud would allow, and came to the bank 
of the, Arroyo de la Cruz. What a scene for 
the eye'to dwell upon! Down the ravine some 
two hundred and fifty feet, flowed the stream, 
swollen and turbid from the effect of the rain. 

It reached from bank to bank, some three 
hundred feet. Although dark and wide, it 
flowed quietly, slowly, yet with great power, 
to the ocean. 

Far, far down were huge oaks and sycamores, 
now by the distance made to look like mere 
shrubs. How happy are those people whose 
natures allow them to put their troubles far 
from them. Trials placed at a distance, as well 
as oaks and sycamores, appear small indeed. 

On the opposite side of the stream rose the 
bank almost perpendicularly, many hundred 
feet; but we were denied a sight of the mount- 
ain, with its rows of pines, for it had a heavy 
cap of mist on its head. 

In the misty light we noticed what we 
thought were two white stones far up on the 
side of the opposite mountain. But these stones 
soon began to move slowly. On looking closer, 
they proved to be two white cows, grazing, 
very much as they do on the Alpine slopes. 

Up the creek we could see the stream where 
the ravine widened, and had thick velvety 
grass on the sloping banks. Hut this was a 
terrible temptation to the cattle, and the herd- 
ers were careful to keep the animals from going 
down aud injuring themselves. The soft, slip- 
pery earth would give them none but treacher- 
ous footholds, and they would be hurled to the 
bottom if they made a single misstep. Then 
when they once get down there they cannot get 
out on account of the slipperiness of the steep 
bank. They have to stay there, often fast in 
the soft earth, until they are drawn out with a 
team of strong horses, or else with a block and 
tackle. Kven helping them cannot be done 
until the earth hardens enough to bear their 
weight. 

It was the Spaniards who lived here many 
years ago, and who named this stream the 
"Arroyo de la Cruz" (Creek of the Cross). 
They owned large tracts of land, "grants", and 
raised a great many horses and but few cattle. 
These people lived in luxury for a time; but 
Americans and Swiss soon came in and went to 
dairying. By practicing industry and economy 
they soon succeeded in getting the land out of the 
hands of the Spaniards into their own. To-day, 
the Spaniard comes as a day laborer on the 
banks of the beautiful "Creek of the Cross," 
where his own home once was. 

While reflecting on the people who once 
lived here, the clouds had partly lifted, to show 
us that "lichind the clouds is the sun still shin- 
ing." Looking eastward we saw the water 
drops 

"Since the rain is done, 
On the bridge of colors seven 
Climbing up once more to heaven, 
Opposite the setting sun." 

San S!mion, San Litis Oliix/io Co. 

A LUMINOUS Trek.— There is a small tree 
growing in a gulch near Tuscarora, Nevada, the 
foliage of which at certain seasons is said to be 
so luminous that it can be distinguished a mile 
away in the darkest night. In its immediate 
season it emits sufficient light to enable a per- 
son to read the finest print. Its luminosity is 
said to be due to parasites. 



Schools, School Moneys, Etc. 

[Written for Rural Prrss by SfWUM Hilton. 1 
Writing. 

Accompanying a reformation in our spelling, 
but going a step beyond it, should be a change 
in the mode of writing — to what is called the 
"short-hand" method. One objection might be 
that the characters for the letters are wholly 
different from the printed ones. Yet the ob- 
jection would lie with almost equal force against 
our present system; for what one, master of 
only the printed page, could read a page of 
common manuscript? Another objection might 
be that the characters are widely different from 
those of our present system. But the advan- 
tages far outbalance all. 

The first point of commendation is that the 
shorthand system is strictly phonetic; every 
sound has its own peculiar representative. The 
next is its extraordinary simplicity. We have 
'24 consonant sounds, and by arrangement of 
certain simple curves and short, straight lines, 
we get just '24 representations or letters. An- 
other ia the wonderful rapidity of execution, 
the letters being easily and quickly made. The 
time now required in penning a word would be 
many times lessened. 

Almost all our consonants can bs arranged in 
pairs, as 'p' and 'b,' 't' and 'd,' etc., the for- 
mer being represented by light strokes, the lat- 
ter by heavy ones. Also, the vowels can in like 
manner be arranged in pairs, short and long, 
the former represented by light marks, the lat- 
ter by heavy ones, as in a dot or very short 
stroke. Thus our writing alphabet is placed 
before us in the form of simple curves and 
straight lines, a little longer than the "stems" 
in what are called stem letters of our present 
printed alphabet, while the vowel sounds 
are represented by attached dots, and 
very short strokes — a system imperfectly devel- 
oped in the old Hebrew language. 

Let the printer "compositor," so called in 
the oflice — take the first part of the parenthe- 
sis character, the "(" and place after it an in- 
verted period, so that the dot will be at the 
upper part, thus ('. Now, if that curve and dot 
both be made heavy, we shall have a short- 
hand representation of the word "the." Note 
how greatly the short-hand method excels the 
common long-hand in simplicity and rapidity of 
writing. 

This curve '(' in its light form represents the 
hard sound of 'th,' as in 'thin;' in its heavy 
former, or with bold stroke, the soft sound of 
'th,' as in 'this' and 'the.' The same curve, 
inclined to the left hand, represents iD its light 
form 'f;' in its heavy form, 'v.' Incline it to 
the right, and you have respectively '1' and 'y.' 
Place it horizontal, with the convex side up, 
and you have 'm'and 'h.' 

Take the curve forming the latter part of the 
'parenthesis' mark thus, '),' and its light and 
heavy forms represent respectively 's' and 'z. ' 
Incline the same to the left and you have V 
and 'w.' Incline to the right and you have the 
'sh' and 'zh' sounds. Place it horizontal with 
the convex side^ down, and you have 'n' 
and 'ng.' 

Take a straight line, as in the main stem of 
a printed 'd' or 'h' — the printer, I think, can 
represent it by a half inverted 'm dash,' thus 
' | .' This, in its light form, represents 't'; in 
its heavy, 'd'. Incline it to the left and you 
have 'p' and 'b.' Incline it to the right and 
you have the 'j' and 'ch' sounds. I'lace it hori- 
zontal and you Jiave the 'k' or hard 'c' and 'g' 
sounds. 

This gives all the consonant sounds in the 
English lauguage. These primary characters 
are susceptible of many additions and modifica- 
tions to facilitate rapid writing — some peculiar 
to the special business of reporting rapid speech, 
others fitted to any writing. Of the latter I 
shall give a few of the simpler forms. A small 
turn or hook at the beginning, on the right or 
upper side of a consonant stem, represents an 
'1' sound; on the other side, an V sound, 
as for the words play and 'pray'. In the 
curved consonant stems, both hooks are 
on the same side, but that for '1' is slightly 
larger. A final hook on the left, or lower 
side, in like manner gives the 'n' sound, 
and on the right, or upper, that for T and 'i'; 
when for V it can be a little heavier. A small 
circle, at the beginning or end of the stem, may 
be often used to indicate an 's'; a slightly 
heavier one a V. Take the first character 
given, '(', and make at the lower part a small 
turn or hook, and we have the consonant char- 
acter for 'thin.' If the stem curve be heavy, 
we have 'then' or 'than', according to the ap- 
pended vowel sign. The same heavy curve 
ending in a small circle will give 'this'; if the 
circle is made a little heavy we have 'these.' 
The context always aids in the rapid compre- 
hension of any representation of a word; it is 
so in our present mode of writing. In fact, in 
our present complicated, and often carelessly 
executed system, we should often be unable to 
readily read that written unless the context 
aided us. 

There are three vowel places to a consonant 
stem — the beginning, middle and end. Thus, 
by dots, light and heavy, we can get six vowel 
sounds. In like manner, by very short strokes, 
at right angles to the stem, we cangej: six more, 
and by similar strokes, parallel to the stem, we 
can get six more, if so many were needed. The 
first place of dots is assigned to the vowel 
sounds, as in 'wit' and 'me;' the second or mid- 



dle place to the sounds, as in 'met' and 'may;' 
the third place to those in 'fat' and 'farther.' 
Also, of strokes light and heavy, at right angleb 
to the stem, the first place is assigned to the 
vowel sounds in 'lot' and 'law;' the second to 
those in 'sup' and 'so;' the third to those in 
'foot' and 'food.' Omitting a special character 
for the vowel sound, as in 'dance,' 'task,' we 
have representatives for all except the diph- 
thongs, which may be represented by short 
strokes parallel to the stem. 

All consonant stems in a word are written 
without lifting the pen, and in practice, those 
pertaining to several words may often be run 
together- -in like manner as the words are in 
pronunciation. Let one pronounce the several 
words in the expression, 'It may be,' and also 
the word 'correspondence,' and he will see that 
there is no more separation, in utterance, be- 
tween the words in the former, than between 
the syllables in the latter. We have no trouble 
in understanding the former run together in 
utterance, and why should we in phonetic writ- 
ing? 

Of course, all I give and much more, can be 
found in any credible work on phonography, 
but the mass of the people have never seen such 
a work, and I am trying to show to such how 
simple and rapid is the so-called short hand 
writing. Let any one take the characters as 
given, make them on paper aud compare them 
with our present so-called of long-hand 
system of writing. Note how far more readily 
they can be acquired by a child, and how, in 
using them, the time of writing will be lessened. 
And I think anyone can readily see that the 
short-hand method is by far the more legible of 
the two. Note the highly important qualities 
of simplicity and facility of execution. Con- 
sider how much time and strength of teacher 
and scholar is wasted on the present system — a 
system that is to be a needless tax on time and 
strength the whole life through. In our child- 
hood we were taught first to make straight lines 
and then "pot hooks," aud when we got past 
these, we had not even begun to write. I 
think one can see that a child well past the 
"pot-hook" degree of writing, trained by the 
short-hand method, is not illy prepared to pen 
a legible sentence. 

The general principles set forth in various 
works on phonagraphy are the same. The 
work that has pleased me most is the little vol- 
ume by A. J. Marsh, now deceased, formerly 
a reporter in San Francisco. It bears the im- 
print'of Bancroft & Co. as publishers. 

Mtljtitan. 

Some of the Ills of Farm Life. 

In an article on "ilural Recreations," in 
Outimj for December, Mr. J. R. Dodge makes 
some telling points against the neglect of farm- 
ers to allow themselves and families suitable 
recreation to compensate the common wear and 
tear of rural life. The writer says: 

It is not strange, then, that we see farmers 
worn with weary labors, bent with rheumatism, 
wearing in their faces deep lines of care, and 
showing the need of recuperative influences. 
It has been said, upon an assumed foundation 
of statistics, that the proportion of the insane 
from the country is greater than from the city. 
If true, as it should not be, what can be the 
cause? The farm-worker who performs most of 
In - labor by the muscles, with minimum use of 
the brain, unrelieved by sociality or sentiment, 
uses only one set of faculties, while the better 
side of his nature rusts with disuse. The isola- 
tion of the country thus becomes a greater soli- 
tude; with cares, apprehensions, and sometimes 
forebodings of pecuniary dependence, solitude 
deepens into melancholy, and insanity some- 
times follows. 

The mistress of the farmhouse is often a 
greater drudge than the farmer. The routine 
of daily duty ia more uniform and exacting; the 
confinement is more circumscribed, and natur- 
ally becomes more irksome. She is too often 
housekeeper, nurse, cook, governess, chamber- 
maid, seamstress, dairy-woman, as well as the 
farmer's wife. Such a substitute for maid-of- 
all-work should be made of iron. The farm' r 
is accustomed to hard work himself, though it 
is relieved by the ameliorations of pure air and 
free locomotion, and he fails to see the slavery 
to which his wife is doomed, because his mother 
was just such a slave. His ideas come by in- 
heritance, and are fortified by personal experi- 
ence. He might relieve her by relegating the 
dairy to the factory, by labor-saving appliances, 
by hiring more help, sometimes by doing a 
little of this domestic drudgery himself: but he 
doesn't think of it, and, perhaps, don't like to 
have one jog his memory. Under these toils 
and hardships, saying nothing of trials of dispo- 
sition and tribulations of temper, is it a wonder 
that the farmer's wife is sometimes compelled 
to exchange her home of hardship for a hospital 
of mind diseased? These may be extreme 
cases, but they occur, and were it not for 
wholesome influences of the country, would 
come to light with greater frequency. 

The ills of isolation and the heavy weight of 
care are not the only causes of physical and 
mental strain and collapse in the experience of 
country life. There are avoidable unsanitary 
surroundings utterly out of keeping with the 
purity and healthfulness of natural rural con- 
ditions. The barn-yard may be too near the 
wells; cesspools and surface drainage may aid 
the pollution by pe -eolation; decaying vegeta- 
tion in the cellar may fill the house with poison- 
ous gases. The resisting power of high health 



Jan. 2, 1886.] 



f AClFie f^URAIo fRESS 



7 



may long withstand influences so injurious, 
until, some summer, dysentry or typhoid fever 
may select for a victim the flower of the family, 
or carry off the hard-wooking mother, the 
guardian angel of the household. 

In view of such facts, which have excited 
much attention without exerting a sufficient in- 
fluence, the need of respite from strain of 
monotonous toil upon the farm, must be ap- 
parent. Some form of vacation, short though 
it must be in summer, is evidently necessary. 
Some temporary change, frequent yet radical, 
of the tone and tenor of ordinary routine, is 
essential to the highest results of the work and 
the highest health and happiness of the worker. 



The Broncho. 

He has four legs like the saw-horse, but is 
decidedly more skittish. The broncho is of 
gentle deportment and modest mien, but there 
itn't a real safe place about him. There is 
nothing mean about the broncho, though; he is 
perfectly reasonable and acts on principle. All 
he asks is to be let alone, but hedoes ask this,and 
even insists on it. He is firm in this matter, 
and no kind of argument can shake his deter- 
mination. There is a broncho that lives some 
miles from Santa Fe. We know him right well. 
One day a man roped him and tried to put a 
saddle on him. The broncho looked sadly at 
him, shook his head and begged the fellow as 
plain as could be to go away and not try to in- 
terfere with a broncho who was simply engaged 
in the pursuit of his own happiness; but the 
man came on with the saddle and continued to 
aggress. Then the broncho reached out with 
his righthind foot and expostulated with him so 
that he died. When thoroughly aroused the 
broncho is fatal, and if you can get close enough 
to examine his cranial structure you will find a 
cavity just above the eye, where the bump of 
remorse should be. 

The broncho is what the cowboys call "high 
strung." If you want to know just how high 
he is strung, climb ap onto his apex. We rode 
a broncho once. We didn't travel far, but the 
ride was mighty exhilarating while it lasted. 
We got on with great pomp and a derrick, but 
we didn't put on any unnecessary style when 
we went to get off. The beast evinced consid- 
erable surprise when we took up our location 
upon his dorsal fin. He seemed to think a 
moment, and then he gathered up his loins and 
delivered a volley of heels and hardware, 
straight out from the shoulder. The recoil was 
fearful. We saw that our seat was going to be 
contested, and we began to make a motion to 
dismount, but the beast had got under way by 
this time, so we breathed a silent hymn and 
tightened our grip. He now went off into a 
spasm of tall, stiff legged bucks, lie pitched 
us so high that every time we started down we 
would meet him coming up on another trip. 
Finally he gave us one grand farewell boost, and 
we clove the firmament and split up through 
the hushed ethereal until our toes ached from 
the lowness of temperature, and we could dis- 
tinctly hear the music of the spheres. Then we 
came down and fell in a little heap, about 100 
yards from the starting point. A kind Samari- 
tan gathered up our remains in a cigar box and 
carried us to a hospital. As they looked pity- 
ingly at us the attending surgeons marveled as 
to the nature of our mishap. One said it was a 
cyclone, another said it was a railroad smash-up, 
but we thought of the calico-hided poney that 
was grazing peacefully in the dewy mead and 
held our peace. — Santa Fe Democrat. 



Things Wise and Otherwise. 

Miracles. — Work is the only niiracle that 
nowadays oasts out devils. 

You cannot dream yourself into a character; 
you must hammer and forge yourself one. 

It is true that the world owes every man a 
living, but a man has to go in and do some 
good work to get it. 

Rev. Dr. Talmaoe says "people can't go to 
heaven by steam.'' He has never witnessed the 
effects of low water and a hot crown sheet. 

Professor — "Does my question embarrass 
you?" "Not at all, sir," replied the student, 
"it is quite clear. It is the answer that bothers 
me." 

Watkr that flows from a spring does not 
freeze in the coldest winter. And those senti- 
ments of true friendship which flow from the 
heart cannot be frozen by adversity. 

The mist that hangs like silver curtains 
around the plains before sunrise, and is lifted 
by day's golden cords out of our sight, has 
death in the woof; it is woven here and there 
of fatal threads. 

A Chicken with a clipped wing made several 
ineffectual attempts to fly over a fence. An 
Irishman who witnessed the efforts of the 
"chick", laughingly exclaimed: "Begorra, he 
has a defective flew." 



Dividing Up. — A party of communists is 
said to have called on one of the wealthy Roths- 
childs and demanded a division of his wealtn. 
He took his pencil and divided the sum of hiB 
fortune by the number of inhabitants of Paris 
which amounted to only a few francs for each 
person. The Communists retired in disgust. 



^foUJYG jE{oLKS' QoLUJrlN. 



The Puzzle Box. 

Charade. 

"Bring me first apple," said Jane, a little inclined 
to perplex her friend. "Second would like one of 
those large ones, and Mary will take its third. We 
must have something to whole our poor bodies dur- 
ing our long walk." Uncle Ben. 



Rebus 
As one hundred and two, 
A name I construe 

Of people — whether good or bad, O; 
Though the sun is bright 
With mid-day light, 

They do not cast a shadow ! 

J. K. P. Baker. 



Transposition. 

[The meanings of the words in italics are transpo- 
sitions of each other. ] 

1 will weight my beast with metal, and take it 
through the valley to bargain with the smelter. 

A. B. Wells. 



Numerical Puzzle. 

i, 2 the twilight of a day near the close of his 
autumn 3, 4, 5, 6 of school, the teacher sat 7, 8 his 
room striving to work out some plan by which he 
might be 9, 10, II, 12 to assign the graduation work 
of his pupils to the satisfaction of all. As midnight 
drew near he found his task still unfinished, ;;nd 
seemingly I, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. 7, 8, 9, 10, II, 12, and 
witli a final look at the long list of names befoie 
him, he sighed wearily and retired. Uncle Ben. 

Answers to Last Puzzles. 

Enigmas. — Marie Jean Paul Roch Yoes Gilbert 
Mortier Marquis de la Fayette. 
BEHEADED Words. — Coat, oat, at, t. 
Name Puzzle. — Cleveland. 
Square. — 

VA I N 

ACRE 
IRIS 
NEST 



The Tobacco Evil. 

Editors Press: — In the Rural of Nov. 28th, 
is an article entitled " My Boy, Do You 
Smoke ?" It closed by suggesting liberal doses 
of "rod in pickle" to the young who form the 
habit of cigarette smoking. 

I want to say a word in behalf of these young 
folks. Who is to blame for the young smok- 
ing? Shall we put the blame on the children, 
and with the rod eradicate it? No, never ! Let 
us get at the root of the evil. Take the rod to 
the individual who sells the cigarette to them 
or treats them to such poison. Don't give 
merely a liberal dose, give it double and 
heaped up. 

But he is "licensed." Well, he needs it all 
for having no more humanity than to buy a 
license to commit such a crime. To get at the 
bottom of the root go to those who grant 
licenses. Give parents, guardians and teachers 
a share, but spare the young. 

It is the desire of every child to be large and 
strong like grown folks, and they are not capa- 
ble of reasoning or understanding, so think they 
must imitate .their examples. They do this 
with no more idea of the result than a babe 
would have. They feel it is one step in man- 
hood, and they want to be men. I know par 
ents request their children not to smoke, but 
they do not see to it that they don't smoke. 
Teachers tell their pupils not to smoke, but do 
they keep an "ever watchful" eye on the play- 
ground, and see to it that they do not use the 
weed in any form ? 

With such examples of vice all around them 
can we expect them to keep from imitating 
such? It will take more than an admonition 
given occasionally. Yes, the rod will not ac- 
complish it. There are ways in which it may 
be accomplished, and my soul yearns for the 
time to some when it is. I am a lover of chil- 
dren, and when I look on and see the path they 
must travel to manhood, my soul cries in an- 
guish, "God save the children!" 

I close with this request: don't blame the 
boys. Reader. 

Vacavillc. 



Lizzie Ashton's Courage. 

[Writton for Kckai, Press l>y Lena Roebuck ] 
Lizzie Ashton lived with her parents in a 
little log hut on a large prairie. She was just 
12 years old, a bright, merry child, and the joy 
of her parents — the more so, on account of her 
being the only child, her sister Annie, a girl 
some two years younger, having suddenly dis- 
appeared about three months before the day on 
which my story opens. They searched every- 
where, but no trace of her could be found; the 
general opinion of the neighbors was that she 
was carried off by the Indians, of which there 
were a few tribes still living in the neighbor- 
hood. The parents and Lizzie mourned long 
and deeply for their lost Annie. 

On the morning of which I speak, Lizzie's 
fathei had gone to the town to sell his produce 
and buy provisions. The mother was working 
in the house, and Lizzie, tired of playing with 
the cat, and as she thought she was too old for 
such childish sport as dolls, determined to take 



a walk. Accordingly, she donned her hat and 
coat, and telling her mother "she would be 
back soon, ' walked away. She had been 
reading the day before of Aladdin and his 
wonderful lamp, and as she was walk- 
ing she was thinking about the lamp and 
wishing she had it to rub and wish for ner sis- 
ter. So intent was she upon her thoughts that 
she did not notice how far she was going, nor 
did she see coming towards her a great Indian, 
else she would have hid. But the Indian was 
fairly upon her before she saw him. So fright- 
ened was she that she did not make any at- 
tempt to escape, but allowed him to walk right 
up to her. 

He addressed her thus, only in broken Eng- 
lish: "Now, my little white squaw, you must 
come with me and let me see what kind of a 
wife you will make some day, or you may make 
good company for the other girl." 

"The other girl." How L ; zzie'a heart 
bounded at the words. She had been so sur- 
prized at sight of him that she did not know 
what to do. After thinking awhile, she had 
felt so sad to think of her being among Indians; 
but^when she heard him say, "the other girl," 
she thought it was some better. So he carried 
her on his back, and she took notice of every 
place, for she had made up her mind that the 
very first chance she got, she would run home. 
They went on until they came to a number of 
wigwams. At one of these the Indian stopped, 
took her off his shoulder, and held her by the 
hand ; walking into the tent he laid Lizzie on 
some straw with another child who looked very 
poor and sick. In spite of sickness, rags and all, 
Lizzie recognized her sister Annie. So glad 
was she that she could hardly keep herself from 
hugging her, but she overcame herself until the 
Indians were asleep, when she told Annie who 
she was. How happy they were 1 After this 
Lizzie told Annie of her plan of escape. When 
daylight came they were to flee, while the In- 
dians were still asleep, to their own home. 

In the meantime, the parents were hunting 
for their lost Lizzie, but without success. They 
mourned even more than for Annie, and did 
not go to bed. 

Lizzie's plan succeeded to perfection; and 
imagine the parents' joy on teeing both 
their children come home. No happier 
family was to be found on the continent that 
night than theirs, and no more fervent prayers 
went up to Him, who doeth all things well, 
than ascended from the little log hut. The 
neighbors and rich men, who lived near, were 
so pleased with Lizzie's bravery that they 
raised a purse of $200 for her, and happiness 
was once more restored to the little log hut, 

Marysv'dle. 



(3ood Health. 



Causes of Disease.— The chief causes of dis- 
ease are sudden colds, errors in diet, errors in 
dress, or intemperance, drinking impure water, 
eating unwholesome food, defective teeth, 
blood poisoning from impure air, noxious gases 
or suppurating wounds. Disease induced from 
any one of these causes almost invariably mani- 
fests itself by disorder in the functions of the 
liver; the alarm is generally sounded there first, 
and if not promptly attended to the trouble 
is liable to extend to other vital organs. Dys- 
pepsia, constipation, chronic diarrhea, disease 
of the kidneys, dropsy, catarrh, rheumatism, 
consumption and various forms of skin diseases, 
often proceed directly from derangement of the 
liver. 

Symptom* — W T hen you feel restless, melan- 
choly and uncomfortably, with, perhaps, a dull 
headache, it probably proceeds from a torpid 
liver. When you have a sudden attack of 
rheumatism, it is generally due to a cold which 
has been brought about by an unhealthy condi- 
tion of the secretions. While, as a gereral 
thing, a physician should be sent for on the first 
serious symptoms of sickness, Dr. Hall, in his 
Journal of Health, recommends as a prompt 
and a safe remedy for a cold or incipient liver 
derangement, "Hall's 'old time' liver pills." 
This, however, is not intended as a puff for 
those or any other pills. 



Death from Carelessness. — Two instance 
within one week have been reported of men 
being killed while walking on railroad ties in 
the East. One of the victims was so deaf that 
he could not hear the approaching train. The 
other was reckless enough to take the chances 
of being run over. Both suffered death for their 
temerity. Some people will never gain wisdom 
nor profit by the experience of the past. So it 
is with those who snap guns and pistols at 
others, in the belief that the weapons are not 
loaded, and discover how fatal has been their 
error when they see that the person aimed at 
has been killed. And so, also, with those who 
pull loaded guns from wagons, with the muzzles 
toward them, and receive the contents of a dis- 
charge in their bodies. These fatal accidents are 
recorded by the press as items of current news, 
but not with the expectation of always prevent- 
ing them. This same sort of incaution has 
been the subject of notice time out of mind, 
and will probably continue through generations 
to come. 



Alcohol and its Uses. —Recent investiga- 
tions show that alcohol is oxidized in the 
system, and is converted into carbon dioxide 
and water, while but little is eliminated as 
alcohol from the system. In moderate doses 



it has no influence on the body heat, t 
somewhat larger doses it reduces body-temper- 
ature by absorbing the oxygen and preventing 
it from oxidizing the tissues. It is, therefore, 
of use in febrile diseases in doses of £ to I fluid 
ounce several times daily, until a total of 5 to 
8 ounces per day has been given. The prescrib- 
ing of alcohol by physicians seems to be de- 
creasing, and the tendency also seems to be 
setting in favor of prescribing pure alcohol 
suitably diluted, rather than any of the liquors 
in which there are various volatile ethers, 
derivative mainly of fused oil, the action of 
which is but illy understood, but many of which 
probably act injuriously. 



X)omesti© fJeOJMOMY. 



Rye Cakes. — One pint of rich milk, three 
eggs and half a teaspoonful of salt. Mix with 
enough rye meal to make a thin batter. Half 
fill cups or deep patty pans with the batter, 
and bake for 20 minutes. 



Roasted Rabbits. — Skin and draw them and 
stuff them with bread crumbs, butter and 
minced veal, seasoned with salt, pepper and 
nutmeg. Cover the breasts with slices of 
bacon, which must be firmly tied on, and roast 
the rabbits before a brisk fire, basting often 
with the drippings and a little white wine or 
vinegar. 



Broiled Potatoes. — Raw and boiled pota- 
toes are served in this manner: Cut the raw 
potatoes in thin slices, brush melted butter 
over them and also over the wire broiler, to pre- 
vent their sticking to it; b.oil them a dark 
brown; boiled sweet potatoes need to be but 
slightly broiled — just enough to warm through, 
and at he same time to show the marks of the 
broiler. 



Knub Celery.— Wash the roots thoroughly, 
trim away the leaves and stalks and boil twenty 
minutes; drain, and when cool enough to handle, 
peel and cut into pieces of equal size; put these 
in a small baking-tin and add just enough warm 
milk to prevent drying up while cooking. 
Season with salt and pepper, and a walnut of 
butter; strew over the top a layer of crumbs, on 
top of which put a small pat of butter, and 
bake to a delicate brown. Some prefer a mix- 
ture of grated cheese and crumbs. 



Baked Hash. — -Use a cupful of any kind of 
cold meat chopped rather coarse, a cupful of 
cold cooked rice, a generous cupful of milk, an 
egg, two tablespoonfuls of butter, one teaspoon- 
ful of salt and one-eighth of a teaspoonful of 
pepper. Put the milk on the fire in a frying 
pan, and when it has become hot, add all the 
other ingredients except the egg. Stir for one 
minute; then remove from the fire, and add 
the egg, well beaten. Turn into an escallop 
dish and bake in a moderate oven for twenty 
minutes. Serve in the same dish. 



CABBAGE, German Way. — A Savoy cabbage 
is excellent prepared in the German way. The 
outer leaves must be taken off and the cabbage 
then cut through the middle. Remove the 
central stalk from the heart and from the 
leaves, and then cut up the leaves in fine pieces. 
Wash the pieces well, and plunge them into 
boiling water, slightly salted, and let them 
cook rapidly until done. Then place them on 
a colander, pour boiling water over them and 
then drain them thoroughly. Put the cabbage 
in a saucepan with soupstock or bouillon, a lit- 
tle butter and nutmeg, and let it steam for one 
hour. 



Chestnut Souffle.— Shell sixty Italian 
chestnuts and boil them in milk until they are 
tender; then drain them quite dry and pass 
through a sieve. Melt 2$ ounces of butter in 
a saucepan, mix with it two tablespoonfuls of 
flour, and cook it for a few moments; then pour 
over it a half a tumbler of cream, and let this 
boil gently until it is slightly reduced. Add 
six ounces of sugar and a little vanilla, then 
add the puree of chestnuts. Mix this well to- 
gether, adding one whole egg and then gradu- 
ally the yokes of twelve. Strain the mixture 
and add the whites of eight eggs, which have 
been beaten to a stiff froth. Bake in a soutlle 
dish, and just as it is served sprinkle over it 
some powdered chocolate or sugar that has been 
rubbed with vanilla. 



Old Maid's Cake— One pound of fat salt pork 
chopped fine, one pound of raisins, one pound 
of currants, half a pound of citron, one quart of 
flour, one pint of brown sugar, one pint of boil- 
ing water, half a pint of molasses, two tea- 
spoonfuls of grated nutmeg, one teaspoonful 
of mace, two teaspoonfuls of ground cloves, and 
two teaspoonfuls of ground cinnamon, the 
grated rind of a lemon, one tablespoonful of 
soda dissolved in two teaspoonfuls of boil- 
ing water, or three tablespoonful of baking 
powder, sifted with the flour. Pour the water 
on the pork and stir until it is melted; then 
pass through a colander to avoid bits of 
fibre. Add the sugar, molasses and half the 
flour, reserving half a pint to rub with the fruit j 
than add the soda, the rest of the flour and 
fruit. Put the mixture into two buttered pana 
lined with paper; bake for three quarters of an 
hour and then try with a straw; if done, the 
straw will be dry. 



8 



fACIFie RURAb fRESS. 



[Jan. 2 1886 




compensated for by the benefits to be derived 
by all from a good year. The general outlook 
for an active and satisfactory season was never 
bett»r in California than at present. 



A. T. DEWEY. 



W. B. EWER. 



Published by DEWEY & CO. 

Office, fSS Market St., N. K.cor. Front St.,8. F. 
tr Take the Elevator, No. 1! Front St. ■» 



Address all literary and business correspondence and 
i> -arts for thU paper In the name of the firm. 



Our Subscription Rates. 

Our Subscription Kates are three dollars a rear, 
i i advance. If continued subscriptions are not prepaid in 
advance, for any reason, fifty cents eitra will be charged 
for each year or fraction of a year. X2f No new names 
□laced on the list without cash in advance. Agents wanted. 



Per Line (agate).... $ .25 
Half inch (1 su.ua re) . 1 . 50 
One inch 3.00 



Advertising Rates. 

/ Week. 1 Month. 3 Months. 
$ .80 
4.00 
5.00 



? 1.30 
10.00 
14.00 



1 Year. 

$ 5.00 
24.00 
45.00 



Large advertisements at favorable rates. Special or read 
lng notices, legal advertisemeuts, noticeB appearing in extra 
ordinary type, or in particular parts of the paper, at special 
rates. Four Insertions are rated in a month. 

Our latest forms go to press Wednesday evening. 

Registered at S. F. Post Oftice as second-class mail matter 

SCIENTIFIC PRESS PATENT AGENCY. 
DEWEY * CO., Patent Solicitors. 

A.T. DBWZT W. B. EWER. O. B. 8TRONO. 



SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, January 2, 1886. 
TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



ILLUSTRATIONS.- Import-d Red Polled Cow, 
"Ocean Maid," owned by L. F. Ross, Iowa City, Iowa, 
1. The World's Fair Premium Bronze Turkey, 9 

EDITORIALS.— lied Polled Cattle; California Fruit 
in St. l.ouis, 1. The Week: The Importance of Drain- 
age; The Orange Growers' Union; The Northern Cali- 
fornia Citrus Fair; Killing Scale Insects; To Our Sub- 
scribers, 8- 

CORRESPONDENCE. — A Cheap Rabbit-Proof 
Fence, 2- 

THE STOCK YARD.— Care of the Bull, 2- 

THE APIARY. Skunks in the Apiary; Imported 
Queens bv Mail, 2. 

HORTICULTURE. M. I)u Breuil and the Myro- 
bolan Stock; Apples for Mountain Climate; The North- 
ern » 'itrus Fair, 2. 

THE DAIRY. — Sorghum asaDairy Feed; Small Dairy 
Hous»; Mountain Dairy Association, 3. 

AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE. -How Some Soils 
are Formed, 3. 

THE FIELD.— The Beet Sugar Indu.try, 3. 

FLORICULTURE. -Bulbs, 3. 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY.- Orange Work 
for January; Orange Literary Exercises; Stockton 
Notes; From the "Garden City" Grange; Resolutions 
of Respect; Musical Evening; Grange Elections; Grange 
Installations; Joint lustaWation at Haywards; Alameda 
Grange Social, 4. 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES— From the various 
counties of California, 4-5. 

THE HOME CIRCLE.— A December Day; In the 
Heart of the Wilderness; The Arroyo de la Cruz; 
Schools, School Moneys, Etc.; Som« of the Ills of Farm 
life, 6. The Broncho; Thiugs Wiae and otherwise, 
7. 

YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN. -The Puzzle Box; 

The Tobacco Evil; Lizzie Ashton's Courage, 7- 
GOOD HEALTH.— i'luses of Disease; Death from 

Carelessness; Alcohol and Its Uses, 7. 
DOMESTIC ECONOMY.-Varions Recipes, 7. 
QUERIES AND REPLIES. -Sorrel Remedies; 

For Blackleg; Gum Trees and Sea Worms; Road Rights 

and Privilege", 9. 
POULTRY YARD. -Third Poultry Show in San 

Francisco, 15. 
MISCELLANEOUS. -California Fruit-Growers in 

Council, 10. Distribution of Plants and Scions, 14 

The Panama Canal, 15 



Business Announcements. 

Agricultural Implements Truman, Isham * Hooxer. 
Agricultural Implements Arthur W. Bull. 
P ows— Oliver Chilled Plow Works. 
Trees -Buhach Prod'g and Mauf'g Co., Stockton. 
Real Es'ate— Bovee, Toy & Co. 
Hydraulic Clothes Washer Manufacturing Co. 
Pumps— Dow St am Pump Works. 
Economist Plow Co. - South Bend, Ind. 
Nurseries— J. Hutchison, Oakland. 
Dyes— Wells, Richardson & Co., Burlington, Vt. 
Seeds— W. H. Manic, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Sheep Wash— Miller & CosgrifT. 
Nursery— O. O. Goodrich, Sacramento. 
Nursery— Isaac Colbns, Haywards, Cal. 
Grafting D vice— Dr. O. U. Cougar, Pasadena, Cal. 
Cattle— J. A. Brewer, Centerville, Cal. 
Poultry— Jas. T. Brown, Los Angeles, Cal. 
Dividend Notice— San Francisco Savings Union. 
Dividend Notice— German Savings and Loan Society. 
Seeds— John Saul, Washington, D. C. 
Vineyard Plow— C. B. Steane, Pleasanton, Cal. 
tar See Advertising Columns. 



The Week. 

The rains have continued at intervals, the 
downpour on Christmas day and evening being 
as generous as the spirit of the day should in 
spire. There is now alternate cloud and sun 
shine, quite entertaining to the student of land- 
scape effects, but not quite pleasing to the tiller 
of the soil. There is much land in the northern 
aud central portions of the State, and even in 
some parts of the San Joaquin valley where the 
teams cannot go upon the waiting fields, and Un- 
enforced idleness is not cheering to the owners. 
There is some complaint also of grain injured by 
the standing water. But these hardships are 
incidental to generous rains and are more than 



The Importance of Drainage. 

We are glad to see that the residents in irriga- 
ted districts, where the ground has become sat- 
urated so that the water line lias risen to with- 
in a few feet of the surface, are heginning to 
see the urgent necessity of providing for drain- 
age. There may be places where, by peculiar- 
ities of situation or character of soil and sub- 
soil, natural drainage is adequate to removing 
surplus moisture, but it will do for a general 
rule, that irrigation systems must be followed 
by drainage systems. 

There is far too little attention paid iu this 
State to drainage, even where there is no arti- 
ficial application of water. It would seem, at 
first thought, that drainage would ba a queer 
need for a dry country, but such a generaliza 
tion includes a fallacy. There are many acres 
of this State which are suffering more or less 
for want of drainage. Many crops are drowned 
out, or materially reduced, because of standing 
water beneath the surface, and many people 
would be surprised at the improvement in their 
receipts which would result from a wise in- 
vestment in drain tiles. Many trees and vines 
are being set in places which should be thor- 
oughly drained. If it is not done, the too fre- 
quent occurrence of rotten roots and short- 
livtd trees and vines will result. There is 
hardly anything out of doors which will give a 
farmer more comfort and profit than a warm, 
productive, well-drained field. Drainage 
lengthens the working season on land; it in- 
creases and often ensures productiveness. A 
water-soaked field Is much like a man with wet 
feet— apt to be out of sorts, and contrary, even 
if no more evil results ensue. 

But the great question of drainage in Cali- 
fornia will be in the irrigated districts. We 
are learning tint we are often putting too much 
water on the land to get the best results; the 
lesson is, that we must put less on and take 
more away beneath. We are glad our Fresno 
friends are recognizing this fact and are not 
afraid to speak of it. There is nothing to be 
alarmed about if the people will go to work, 
agitate until all see the need of the work and 
then go forward with planning and execution to 
accomplish results. The talk that irrigation 
makes a country unhealthy is all nonsense, 
providing the surplus water is carried away by 
drainage. It does not matter whether the 
water comes in great quantity from the clouds 
or from ditches. The ret>ult in either case 
would be evil, unless the location is drained 
naturally or artificially. Kastern people and 
foreigners are not going to be frightened about 
malaria, providing they can see that the people 
unders'and about drainage and are preparing 
for it. They have eeen undrained lands before, 
they have no doubt many of them taken part 
in drainage works which have increasod pro- 
ductiveness and health in the parts whence 
they came. They are not going to be fright- 
ened by much water, unless they see that the 
people are ignorant, or careless about the con- 
dition they are in, and refuse to do anything to 
relieve the soil. 

We notice that the Fresno Republican is ap- 
pealing to the Kuril of Supervisors of that 
county to pay attention to the subject of 
drainage. It is a timely appeal, and these 
words are true : 

The evil of surplus water is not irremediable. 
There is a means of changing this ill to good 
and supplanting ugliness and desolation with 
beauty and prosperity. The salvation of these 
water-soaked districts is a drainage canal of 
sufficient depth and capacity to carry off the 
surplus water. This should be made by the 
county, and to this canal the land-own- 
ers could construct their drain ditches. 
Thus, a system of drainage could be inaugur- 
ated, which will remove all water from the sur- 
face and lower the water level, until all the 
waste land is rendered tillable and productive. 
By this means also, the flood waters can be di- 
verted from their natural channels and ren- 
dered harmless. The condition of the entire 
district in which this superabundance of water 
exists could be changed. S*ampy lands could 
be reclaimed, worthless lands made valuable, 
valuable lands made doubly so, solid and per- 
manent roads constructed, and the healthful- 
ness and beauty of the county increased an 
hundred fold. 

Fresno is not th > only place where such work 
must be done. Many regions where irrigation 



is being extended must give speedy heed to the 
same considerations. Outside, too, of these 
regions, where the natural rainfall is large, and 
on individual farms, where the fields lie so as 
to hold more than they ought of the rainfall, 
there is need that the subjact of drainage should 
be studied and measures taken, which will give 
results both pleasant and profitable. 

Killing Scale Insects. 

The chief time at the last meeting of the 
State Horticultural Society was given to the 
destruction of inserts. The essay by Matthew 
Cooke was printed in the last Rural. He gave 
as his best prescription for killing scales on de- 
ciduous trees a wash made of equal parts of 
commercial potash and caustic soda, in the pro- 
portion of one-half pound of each to each five 
quarts of water used. The potash is that 
known as commercial potash, which Mr. Cooke 
said cost in Sacramento cants per pound by 
the barrel. 

There was inquiry as to the reason for the 
efficacy of :his prescription; why the two alka- 
lies mixed were desirable. Prof. Hdgard ex- 
plained that the potash used was the crude pot- 
ash made in Canada and shipped here in bar- 
rels. It is a carbonate of potash, and is valu- 
able in the wash because it absorbs moisture, 
and thus keeps the wash liquid and in a form to 
act upon the scale until it penetrates the cover 
and destroys the insect. Caustic sjda or con- 
centrated lye, if used alone, soon dries in the 
wind, and as the moisture is removed it crystal- 
lizes upon the bark and loses its destructive 
power. Soda lye/when a "norther" is blowing, 
becomes crystallized in two hours. With pot- 
ash it absorbs moisture and becomes effective 
again. Potash alone is not effective, because it 
is a carbonate and not caustic. The soda is 
put in the wash to make it bite and the potash 
to keep it biting. 

There was general comment on the inefficiency 
of the so-called whale oil soap and iron com- 
pound. It was stated that thousands of dollar3 
had been wasted and much time lost in the ap- 
plication of this wash. It was explained by 
Prof. Hilgard and Mr. Cooke that the addition 
of the sulphate of iron neutralized whatever in- 
secticide properties there were in the other 
materials, and made it but little more useful 
than cold water. Prof. Hilgard thought that 
no one who knew anything about chemistry, 
not enough a druggist, would add Bulphate of 
iron to a soap compound, knowing that the re- 
sult would be a union of the iron with the soap 
i in insoluble form. 

The discussion brought out some interesting 
points concerning the manufacture of whale oil 
soap. It was stated that the true whale oil 
soap results from adding potash to whale oil for 
the purpose of bleaching it, the potash taking 
out the impurities and making whale oil soap; 
and the nastier it is the more effective as an in- 
secticide. It is then made of genuine potash, 
and the fatty, odorous matter from the whale 
oil. To make a soap with whale oil and caus- 
tic soda makes a whale oil soap 10 or 15 times 
weaker than the genuine article, and, of course, 
less desirable as an insecticide. Whale oil 
soap-making is carried on by those who are re- 
fining crude whale oil; they are prepared to 
produce a good article. 

The necessity of thoroughness in the applica- 
cion of washes for scale insects was urged by 
several speakers. The owner or manager should 
give the spraying his personal supervision. It 
is uot pleasant work, and men will do it 
slightingly or carelessly if not watched. Of 
course, to pass over insects is to leave plenty of 
seed for future increase and to call for future 
work and expenditure. 



The Orange-Growers' Unioo. 

Our southern orange-growers seem, after full 
deliberation, to have placed their proposed Or- 
ange Growers' Union upon an acceptable basis. 
Ouite an effort has been required to do this, 
which is not to be wondered at, for the idea of 
co-operative work among growers is a new idea, 
and there are many interests to be arranged for 
before united action could be had. The early 
thought, that of a union of fruit dealers and 
fruit growers had to be abandoned. The deal- 
ers could not see what there was in it for them, 
and they withdrew. That experience i9 not to 
be wondered at: it might almost have been 
foreseen that the original plan was too broad 
and included interests too much at variance. 

Meetings have been held in Los Angeles very 
frequently during the last month, and only a 
few days ago was a satisfactory solution of the 
difficulties reached. It is now reported that 
the association is complete and has gone to 
work. The Board of Directors, as now consti- 
tuted, is as follows: Messrs. J. De Barth Shorb, 
J.R. Dobbins, Sin Cabriel; Geo. H. Fullerton, 
Riverside; W. H. Workman and S. Mckind- 
ley, Lis Angeles. .1. De Barth Shorb was 
chosen President. 

Mr. O. P. Chubb, of Orange, was chosen as 
an agent of the Union, and has probably started 
before this to K astern cities to make arrange- 
ments to sell the fruit shipped by the Union. 

The boxes selected for packing orunges were 
directed to be 12 inches in width and depth 
and 27 inches in length, to be marked "Orange 
Growers' Protective Union," with the number 
of oranges in each box and the name of the 
shipper and place of shipment clearly stamped 
or marked on each box. 

All shippers are allowed lo select the market 
to which their fruit is to be shipped, unless it 
shall be known to the officers of the Union that 
that particular market is already overstocked. 

A proposition was received from the S. P R. 
R. Company of a very satisfactory character, 
offering to send special fruit trains on fast time 
in charge of a special fruit train conductor. 
These special trains will carry only the fruit 
shipped by the Union. The A. and P. R. R. 
made similar arrangements, and lower rates 
are expected. 

The President, Mr. Shorb, was requested to 
prepare a circularle'.ter with full instructions 
how to pack, mark and ship fruit, and the 
proper time to ship, cautioning fruit-growers 
not to ship too early in the season. 

It is stated that reports were received from 
all the districts into which Sjuthern California 
has been divided, showing that all the growers 
were joining the Union]with great unanimity, 
and that nearly nine-tenths of all the oranges 
are pledged to the association to handle this 
year. A resolution was adopted thAt only 10 
i per cent of the stock subscribed should be as- 
sessed upon the holders for any one year. The 
first assessment of 10 per cent has nearly all 
been paid in, and the association is in funds to 
begin the campaign in fine shape. We trust the 
arrangement will prove satisfactory and profit- 
able from the outset. 



To Our Subscribers. 

R ;newals and new subscriptions show the 
extending area of the Rcral's parish. We 
value this extension of influence and the re- 
sources of experience, as well as sustaining ma- 
terial which it brings. Though we are con- 
stantly gaining, we desire to lose none. We 
prize the patronage and good will of all, in 
every department of industry and honorable 
life. We esteem their interest and support, 
and would like them to recognize our dispos- 
ition toward them. There are many in the 
Kukal's family— but none to spare. We desire 
to retain them all, and unhesitatingly promise 
more than usual inducements for 1886. 



The Northern California Citrus Fair. 

The arrangements for this novel and impor- 
tant exhibition are progressing favorably. On 
another page of this issue may be found some of 
the details, as developed at several meetings of 
the Kxecutive Committee, held in Sacramento 
during the last 10 days. Interest is being taken 
in the display throughout the district embraced 
in the undertaking, and there is no doubt that 
much material will be furnished. Some coun- 

| ties are preparing comprehensive county ex- 
hibits, impromptu local fairs being arranged to 
serve as rallying points, when the fruit can be 
sent forward in large lots. The managers of 

I the fair announce that all fruit exhibited will 
be carefully preserved, so as to be sold or re- 
turned to the grower. All expenses of ship- 
ment will be paid by the society. All neces- 

i sary arrangements for transportation will be 
made with the railroad company. Wells, Fargo 
& Co. have agreed to charge only half rates on 
all packages less than 100 pounds. It has been 

| decided to give an elegantly executed diploma 

! to the county making the finest exhibit. The 
Executive Committee are making arrangements 
for reduced passenger rates to and from the 
fair. Senator J. A. Filcher, of Placer county, 
has consented to deliver the address on the 

[ opening night. 



Jan. 2, .1886.] 



fACIFie RURAL PRESS. 



(QUERIES AND J^EPblES. 



Sorrel Remedies. 

Editors Prkss:— Seeing you offer a prize of 
$50 for the best answer to the sorrel question, 
and that so far no one has won the prize, I am 
tempted to try. 

One competitor says that lime is no good, be- 
cause he has seen sorrel growing on tbe top of 
an old lime kiln. In the first place, I take 
that to be no reason because it may have been 
much more a sand than a limestone that was 
burnt, and in tne course of years, in any case, 
the lime would be washed out of the soil at 
the top of the kiln. 

Then, again, I have seen sorrel absolutely de- 
stroyed by gasoline, which could not be as pow- 
erful as fresh lime, having lost much of its caus 
tic properties. [But what has it taken up? — 
Er>s. Press.] 

Further, soil to grow sorrel freely must be in 
a sour or acid state, either from want of culti- 
vation or from over-cropping, allowing that 
you want to make it an alkali soil instead of an 
acid soil, and this can only be done by tillage, 
so that it can take in ammonia, or by applying 
lime or some of the alkali from your deserts. 

Whether I am allowed the prize or not, this 
will be found the solution of the sorrel ques- 
tion. Yours, etc., E. F. Wbioht, 

Ml. Somers, Canterbury, New Zealand. 

For Blackleg. 

Editors PkenS:— If the farmers who are losing 
cattle with the blackleg will cut the tips of their tails 
off and bleed them in that way, it will act as a pre- 
ventive to the disease. A good way is to treat all 
the young stock in that way every autumn. — S. A. S., 
Clayton. 

Docking tails is an old idea, and one which 
we cannot approve. To reduce condition and 
thus act as a preventive of blackleg the seton is 
better. This plethoric condition is due to the 
fact that the blood is rich in nutritive constitu- 
ents, and if a seton is put in the dewlap there 
will be a discharge of matter. That discharge 
of matter lessens the nutritive condition of the 
blood, which produces plethora, and therefore 
prevents black quarter and splenic apoplexy. 
When the tape is passed by means of a packing 
needle through the dewlap, the custom is to tie 
the ends together and move it occasionally. It 
is better to tie knots in both ends and avoid 
the risk of a ring of string, which might catch 
and be torn out. 

Gum Trees and Sea Worms. 
Editors Prkss:— 1 have a notion in my head 
about gum trees and the teredo worm, which de- 
storys the piling in the b.iy of San Francisco. If 
the teredo has any sense of smell, it will give 
the gum tree a wide berth. If it should 
happen that the worm does not like the 
flavor of the gum tree, there is no timber in tne 
world that grows more suitaMy for piles than the 
gum trees, if planted close together— a; they grow 
tall and slim. The timber is hard, and should be 
good for wearing-piles in slips. — Wm. .Stack, Oak- 
land. 

The subject is interesting, but not new, as it 
was discussed to some extent in the Rural a 
few years ago. Our correspondent is right to 
this extent: One of the species of eucalyptus, 
if we mistake not, the Eucalyptus morginata, 
is claimed to be proof against sea worms. This 
species has only been grown to a limited ex- 
tent in this State, but will probably be much 
extended in the future, because of its excel- 
lence as a timber tree. The blue gums and 
other varieties, which are most common in this 
State, have been tested and found not durable 
as piles. 

Road Rights and Privileges. 

Editors Prkss:— What is the law in regvd to 
county roads? Can a settler who adjoins the coui.tv 
road put gates across a road that must run through 
his land to reach another settler's lands? Is he com- 
pelled to buy the right of way. it all being your land? 
It seems to me that Congress enacted a law at its 
last session to reach such cases. — SETTLER, Sonoma 
county. 

Will some reader kindly expound this mattei ! 

Personal.— We had a call the other day from 
P. W. Butler, of Penryu, whom our readers 
will remember as the writer of the excellent 
series of articles which appeared last year on 
orchard growing in the foothills. Mr. Butler 
was recently chosen President of the Fiuit- 
( irowers' Association of Peuryn, and came down 
to learn about the Fruit Union. Mr. Butler 
thinks all the foothill associations will act with 
the Union. He has recently arranged some 
statistics concerning last year's shipments from 
New Castle and Penryn which he promises to 
send us for publication. Penryn orchardists 
are preparing for an active season in 1886. 
They have large plantations just coming into 
bearing. 

The American Forests. — No country in the 
world, says the Philadelphia Ledger, has for- 
ests to be compared with ours in variety or ex- 
tent, and from the beginning of time they have 
been practically undisturbed, until the settler, 
"axe in hand, began to hew his way west- 
ward." We are told that in the two oenturies 
after the discovery of America the axemen de. 
stroyed more trees than did the inhabitants of 
Sou i hern Europe in the 2<K)0 years following 
the foundation of K'jme, 



A Premium Bronze Turkey. 

Readers will bear in mind the coming show of 
the California Poultry Association, to which 
extended notice is given upon another page of 
this issue. By way of additional reminder of a 
leading event in poultry circles, we show upon 
this page a picture of the bronze turkey which 
captured the first prize at the World's Fair at 
New Orleans, as a yearling. This bird was bred 
and owned by Henry Davis, Dyer, Ind. This 
bird when eight months old, scored 92^ points, 
when on exhibition at the World's Fair, New 
Orleans, La., where he was a winner in compe 
tition with bronze turkeys of all ages. Mr. 
Davis has been a breeder of bronze turkeys for 
seven years, and claims that his present stock I 
are not surpassed by any in America. The 
bronze turkey is, of course, well known in Cali- 
fornia, and magnificent specimens will no doubt 
be shown at the coming poultry show in this 
city. The first premium was taken at the fair 
last year by a pair exhibited by G. B. Bayley, 
of Oakland. The gobbler scored 100 points, 
and weighed 4<U pounds. In his catalogue, 
Mr. Bay ley says: 

The bronze gobbler at maturity, reaching 
forty pounds and upwards, strutting in full 
plumige in the early spring, is one of the finest 



The Grape Cure. — Recurring to the inter- 
esting statement on the grape cure in last 
weeks Rural, it occurs to us to ask readers il 
they have observed salutary effects from the 
use of cured or preserved grapes in any form. 
If the acknowledged value of the fresh fruit can 
be traced even in a less degree to the dried 
grape or raisin, or the canned grape, it would 
be a good thing to make known, and would aid 
people to a desirable diet, as well as help in the 
disposal of some of our grape products. 
We have found raisins stewed gently and just 
enough to soften the skins, disarranging the in- 
ternal contents as little as possible, very de- 
licious and otherwise agreeable as food. A 
raisin pie with thin crust and plenty of fruit, 
baked carefully so as to cook the raisins with 
the steam held in by the crust, is also very de 
licious. Perhaps readers who have tried grape s 
in various forms can give interesting informa 
tion on these matters. 

How Trees Die. — A contemporary remarks: 
When Dean Swif . facetiously predicted that he 
would die like a tree, by "going off at the top," 
anticipating the failure of his mental powers, 
he correctly described the beginning of natural 
decay in trees. There are exceptions, but as a 
rule the visible signs of decay begin at the top. 




THE WORLD'S FAIR PREMIUM BRONZE TURKEY. 



sights of the farm-yard. This is one of the lar- 
gest and hardiest of all tht breeds, and has been 
solong bred for size and plumage, thatgoodbirds 
well cared for, can be relied uponto produce their 
own likeness in weight and plumage. Gob- 
blers at nine months old, or the beginning of 
the first breeding season, frequently reach the 
weight of 25 to 2S lbi. and the hens 14 to 18 
lbs. The second year will add t3 the weight of 
the gobblers 6 to 8 lbs., and to the hens4 or 5 lbs. 
A few of thegobblers will reach 40 lbs. the third 
year, and a few of the hens 22. Extreme 
weights are 45 lbs. for gobblers, and 24 lbs. for 
hens. 

December Cherries. — We noticed an inter- 
esting freak of a cherry tree in Oakland the 
other day. Near the narrow guage crossing, at 
Seventh street, there is a cherry tree growing 
beside a stable. We noticed that one of the 
branches which touched the side of the building 
on the south or sunny side had fresh green 
leaves upon it, while the rest of the tree was 
bare. Looking more closely, we saw upon this 
branch blossoms and fruit set, the fruit being 
in all stages up to riDe redness. Being attracted 
by the discovery, we undertook to examine sur- 
roundings more closely, and found that on the 
inside of the stable nearest the tree was the 
manger for the horses, and the position such 
that the nostrils of the animals were but a few 
feet from the place where the precocious branch 
lay against the side of the stable. Did tho pro- 
tection and heat storage of the sunny wall cause 
the early growth of the part of the tree, as is 
usual with wall trained trees, or did the com 
munioation of heat from the animals near by 
assist in the development ? Here <- a question 
for our phyeiijiita. 



The cause of decay may lie elsewhere, but the 
top limbs are the first parts that become par 
alyzed. The enfeebled vitality is unable to 
drive the sap to the extremities, the pores 
being choked up, and the limbs die. This is 
apparent in mostly all plants and trees that die 
what may be called a natural death. At all 
times the circulation and the vitality is weakest 
at the extremities, just as in animals, and it 
may a m >st always be noticed that mo3t injury 
from cold is done, not always to the most ex- 
posed parts, but to the extremities of the shoots. 
It is this vigor, the nearer we get to the root, 
which has no doubt led cultivators to suppose 
that cutting a limb back puts strength into a 
plant, but the idea is quite erroneous. Un- 
doubtedly the further we cnt back at the right 
season the stronger does the shoot grow for a 
certain distance, but no additional strength is 
added. What was wanting before cannot be 
put there again by the removal of any portion 
of what is left. 



Mills' College and Its New Pr 



it. 



Lou Cut on the Mississippi River. — Care- 
ful estimates put the whole log cut of the com- 
ing winter ( 1885 (i) upon the Mississippi and 
its tributaries at 550,000,000 feet. The distri- 
bution of these logs in the drives, will 
be about 300,000,000 feet to Minneapolis 
proper, and about 250,000,000 to the mills 
above that point, and will give Minneapolis in 
1886, including what may be carried over, about 
335,000,000 feet of lumber. The estimated 
force to be employed in the woods on the Mis- 
sissippi and its tributaries this, winter is about 
5500 men, 



In carrying out the purpose long cheiuued 
by Dr. and Mrs. Mills, of raising the institution 
they founded to a college, the seminary de- 
partment remains as before, unless it be ren- 
dered yet more i ffieient, the collegiate course 
being superadded. 

Some weeks have passed since the inaugural 
ceremonies, when Dr. Homer B. Sprague en- 
tered formally upon his Presidential duties. 
We were unable to be present, personally on 
that occasion, but enjoyed thoroughly the re- 
ception recently given him and Mrs. Mills, by 
the Ebell Society, at Mrs. Whitney's, in Oak- 
land . We have been deeply interested in a 
handsome pamphlet just received, containing 
the full record of the Exercises of Inauguration. 
In extending the welcome of the Board of 
Trustees to the new President, Rev. Dr. Hor- 
ton spoke of Dr. Mills' unselfish devotion to 
others' welfare. "He sought not to save his 
life for himself— he sought not to amass wealth, 
although successful in his ventures. He aimed 
not at securing a great name, although in this 
he builded better than he knew, but nob better 
than the promise. He devoted his life, his 
energies, his purse, to the cause of the educa- 
tion of women. * * * He lost his life for 
them; they will save it for him. * * * By 
faith he saw your day and was glad. He knew 
not your name, but * * * his prayers for 
you are garnered in heaven. Nor can we for- 
get her * * who with him jointly 
founded and nurtured this institution to its 
present state; who, joined to him still, seeks 
only to carry out his cherished plans, throwing 
her whole soul into this movement that installs 
you and supplants her." Dr. Horton speaks, 
too, of the sacrifices made by President Sprague 
in leaving old friends, a settled position and the 
delightful intellectual atmosphere of Boston to 
give himself to the cause of education on this far 
western shore. But, he adds, "it is something 
to go into a field that is unbounded, save as the 
workman's genius, qualifications and perse- 
verance shall fix the limits, and there bring out 
his brightest ideas. Into such a field you are 
now come. Enter and possess ! * * * To 
the be«t of our ability we will follow on, and 
s ay up your hand', and make your efforts a 
s access. " 

Mrs. Vincent, in behalf of the alume.-e, 
gracefully greeted him as the one who to-day 
"Comes an Elisha, sent in Cod's own way, 
clothed in the mantle of a faith as sure, and 
strong to do battle for a cause as pure, - ' and 
Profs. Swett, Allen and Howison, as repre- 
sentative California teachers, briefly voiced 
their brotherly kindness and appreciation. 

Dr. Sprague won high honors as a student at 
Yale, served in the Union army, and has 
achieved success and distinction as a professor 
in Cornell University, and at the head of the 
Girls' Latin High School, Boston. A scholar at 
once accurate, strong and broad, a teacher mag- 
netic by nature and skilled by experience, a 
speaker winning, accomplished, forcible; a 
man of wisdom, energy and enthusiasm, he is 
a mighty and precious gain to Pacific education. 
His masterly inaugural — from which we may 
by-and-by treat our readers to some choice mor- 
sels — gives us, who knew him but by name and 
reputation, a glimpse of his caliber and a thrill 
of his vital power. 

Dealing with National Government, "by the 
people," as based necessarily on individual self- 
government, he shows how imperatively it calls 
for a rightly educated womanhood. As he ex- 
pands his idea of what should be her develop- 
ment and training, physically, intellectually 
and morally, we feel assured and grateful that 
the right man has been called to the right place. 
No wonder that he charms and wins all hearts. 
Success to him and to Mills College! We gladly 
join in the chorus of welcome and God speed. 

The Rapid Consumption ok Timber. — In 
Michigan, the greatest lumber producing State 
in the Union, the first saw mill was erected 
about 50 years ago. At that time it was esti- 
mated that there were 150,000,000,000 feet of 
white pine standing in the forests of the State. 
The estimate for 1885 is 35,000,000,000 feet, 
which shows it has disappeared at the rate of 
2,300,000,000 feet annually for 50 years. The 
estimated amount cut into lumber in Michigan 
in 1SS4 was 5,100,000,000 feet, board measure, 
which is about one sixth of the whole amount 
cut iu Hie ''nit'*".! State* fut tt}»t year, 



PACIFIC RURAL, PRESS. [JiB . % 188G 



California Fruit-Growers in Council. 

Fifth Annual Convention, Under the Au- 
spices of the State Board of 
Horticulture. 

[OFFK IAL REPORT BY At TIIORITT. f tOSTISfltD. 

The convention, on the morning of the second 
day, was called to order by President Cooper. 

Committees Appointed. 

The Chair appoints committees to judge of 
the fruits on exhibition in the hall as follows: 

On Citrus Fruits — Thomas A. (larey, of I.os 
Angeles; .lames Bettner, of Riverside; J. W. 
Cray, of Chico. 

Deciduous Fruits — Sol. Runyon, of Sacra- 
mento; Col. IS. Kdwards, of Santa Clara; 
S. McKinley, Los Angeles. 

Miscellaneous Fruits— A. T. Hatch, of Sui- 
sun; I. A. Wilcox, of Santa Clara; (ieorge Kice, 
of Highland. 

Fruit Marketing. 

The Chairman announces the topic of discus- 
sion for the momiug hour : "The Care in Se- 
lection, the Kind and Size of Packages, the 
Marketing and Shipping." 

Mr. Webb : I have a box here from Mr. 
Co-onel, which was sent to him at my sugges- 
tion from the FOist, which is recommended by 
Parker Karl as the best box which has ever 
been used in shipping fruit; it is here where all 
persons interested can have an opportunity to 
examine it. I should never have thought of 
sending for anything tint was advertised had 
it not been for the recommendation of Mr. 
Kirl, knowing his reputation as one of the 
leading fruit packers of the United States, and 
as a gentleman of the highest integrity. It is 
here for you who desire to do so to investigate 
it. (The bov was made of slats. Inside there 
was an arrangement of pasteboard, very much 
like the patent egg carriers, each fruit being 
given an apartment by itself, with holes for 
ventilation.] 

Mr. Wilcox : I have been shipping small 
fruits for the last twenty or twenty-five years — 
blackberries, strawberries and the like — and I 
would like to look at that box very much. Id 
importing plants or anything of that kind, 
where they go a great distance, they build 
openings at the top. 1 have had plants shipped 
to me, forty varieties of strawberries; every 
one of them came dead, because there was no 
current of air inside. I had them duplicated 
afterwards and all came through in a healthy 
condition where there was an opening at the 
top. The box shown by Mr. Webb seems to 
have the principle of ventilation about it- 
(explains the construction by illustration with 
the box itself) 

Mr. Webb : It obviates the necessity of 
wrapping; you get fruit of the right size, and 
select them with reference to the cells, and it 
obviateB wrapping. 

Mr. Carey: Is this a new package, or one 
that has been used and tried and proven by per- 
sons that have tried it heretofore'.' 

Mr. Webb: I think that the letter Mr. 
Coronel has from the manufacturer is accom- 
panied with the statement that l'arker wrote to 
that etl'ect, and that is the best answer to the 
question. 

Mr. Hus8man: While I do not know any- 
thing about this package, and seen it for the 
first time now, I know a good deal of Parker 
Karl, and say this— that anything he recom- 
mends he has tried, ami wouldn't recommend 
it otherwise. 

Mr. Williams, of Fresno: This matter of the 
package is a prominent one in reference to ship- 
ping fruit; if we get a package for the proper 
carrying and the proper handling of our fruit, 
we have overcome a great obstacle in trans- 
porting of the fruit of the Pacific Coaat to the 
great centers in the FCast, which is really our 
market. One of the great points of the ship 
ping is in the exorbitant cost of the package. 
F'or instance, in packing a carload of grapes for 
Chicago or Kansas City, or anywhere else 
East, the mere cost of the package is more than 
the original cost of the fruit. If you put your 
grapes at .*20 a ton, which is very low, the 
packages and the loading in the car will cost 
you 240 odd dollars. The great point in 
shipping is to lower the expenses. Our 
grapes are cheap enough; we have the con- 
sumers on the other side, the transportation 
and the package figures very largely in the 
general result. I have tried grapes in 4 -pound 
baskets, and it works pretty well if you do not 
have any delay on the road. For the carrying 
of pears, we have used 40 pound boxes. They 
are not a success; you have to spring the tops 
on too tight and too hard to get them there in 
proper shape. Mr. Porter told me that he can 
spring them on so that they don't shrink a 
great deal; but novices in the business get 
them about half full. Now, we want a pack- 
age in which we can get them there in present- 
able shape. Another thing, the package, as it 
stands to-day, creates too much pressure on the 
center layers. We must have a taller pack- 
age, and one th»t will no': cost us too much. 
For other fruits, the smaller you have the pack- 
age the better, to obviate the pressure on the 
fruit. 

Mr. Carey : In Southern California perhaps 
the most important question in the matter of 

— — "This Convention was held in Los Angjles, Nov. 17th 
to 21st. The olHcial stenographic report, bv A. K. Whittnn, 
will appear in our columns, anil will then he issued in neat 
pamphlet form at 25c per copy We have the reports of 1181, 
1SS2 and 13*4 -the first for 10c. the others at 25c each. Ad. 
dress this office 



shipping fruit is the shipment of the fruits of 
the citrus family. We are looking for a super- 
ior package to the one we now use, and we will 
hail it with delight. The main point in ship- 
ping oranges is to prevent them from rubbing 
or chafing one another, as Mr. Williams said as 
to other fruits, getting loose in the box and in 
picking up the fruit shaking it about and bruis- 
ing and damaging it. The boxes shown appear 
in the first place to be cheap; that is an impor- 
tant point. We want a cheap box to ship our 
fruit in, as well as a cheap remedy to kill the 
scale bug, and these boxes, as they are made 
there, it strikes me that unless the oranges are 
selected and sorted especially to fit those spaces 
closely and snugly they will necessarily shake 
about, and that will bruise the oranges and de- 
stroy them. All the spaces that do not fit 
would have to be filled up with paper or some- 
thing that would make them fit snug and 
close. 

Dr. Chapin: After closer examination of this 
package as it appears here, it seems to me it 
would be rather a slimsy affair, the very slight- 
est touch will rack it in various directions with 
a single nail in the laths which are on the side. 
I should think the package would be very 
likely to fall to pieces, handled in the way in 
which fruit is in this country, or on any long 
journey. I should rather be afraid of the 
package myself, from the appearance of it. 

Mr. Carey: 1 suppose those compartments 
are not arbitrary, they can be changed to suit 
the size of the fruit. 

Mr. Webb: That is what I tried to state, 
that they have boxes of different sizes and 
cells, to accommodate the different sized fruit°. 

Mr. Milco: My opinion is, that it thatcn 
be made strong enough, it would be one of the 
best things we have, for the simple reason that 
in order to bring our fruit before the public we 
must have it of different sizes; this idea of put- 
ting a layer of good fruit on top and small on 
the bottom ought to be done away with for the 
sake of our future prosperity, and that little 
box Btrikes me as one of the best things to ac- 
complish that purpose. You can't put a big 
orange in a small space; you have got to have it of 
the size to fit it, and then those packages ought 
to be marked numbers I, 2, 3 or 4, or whatever 
the size is, and the fruit will sell accordingly. 
The main point is as Chapin says as to the sta- 
bility of the box. I know that when you put 
40 or 50 pounds of fruit in a box it has got to 
be pretty strong, the way freight and express- 
men handle boxes. They don't care how they 
handle them because they have no interest in 
it, and unless a man watches them or ships him- 
self and places it on the cars himself, the 
chances are that the fruit, when it gets on the 
other side, is not fit to do anything with. 

Mr. Wilcox: 1 think that the objection to 
the box that is here referred to can be very 
easily remedied. I have shipped fruit myself 
in a box similar to that, merely with a flat 
thin piece of board between the layers. The 
way we did, we braced the box by nailing a 
cleat along the outside at each corner. We 
took common laths and nailed it right over those 
places, and one at each corner and one at the 
end, and I never had any complaint, so far, as 
to fruit moving around in those compartments. 
The difficulty can be remedied easily, too, by 
taking a piece of paper; of course, tho fruit 
ought to correspond in size, nearly, to the cell. 
One thing I want to say in regard to the ship- 
ping of fruit here: It must be handled care- 
fully, and the railroad hands do not do so. 
They throw our chests off twenty rods from 
where we want them. 1 paid the railroad com- 
pany, fifteen years ago, $1000 freight on straw- 
berries at 80 cents a chest, and sometimes I 
would have to go ten rods away from the depot 
to get the chests. When I passed through 
Florida last winter, I saw a circular of the 
railroad company as to shipping, and especially 
requesting that any carelessness be reported to 
headquarters. And yet, on this coast they are 
proverbially rough in handling the fruit. I 
would never ship fruit anywhere without put- 
ting it on the car myself, or some par y who is 
interested in it themselves. That is the only 
safety you have. Mr. Block, who ships the 
most pears in Santa Clara county, don't trust 
anybody to attend to it for him; he has his own 
packer and his train shipper. 

Mr. Chapin: I am very glad the point was 
brought by Mr. Milco, regarding the size of the 
fruit throughout the entire package, and not a 
fine layer at the top, and then the balance of 
the box made up of inferior fruit of all sizes 
and descriptions. A little personal experience 
in that matter may not be uninteresting to the 
members of this convention. Owing to the ne- 
cessity of my being absent from home almost 
all my time, it is an absolute necessity that the 
details of my orchard work be left to hired help 
entirely, and my experience has been this, that 
however honest and faithful men may intend 
to be, and frequently are, yet they are often- 
times careless in their work. It is not as though 
the eye of the manager or the owner was upon 
them. Only the other day some packages of 
fruit sent to the San Francisco market were 
called to my attention when in the city and I was 
told that they came from my orchard. The 
box was opened on the side and shown to me. 
I said that never came from my orchard; my 
fruit is never packed in that manner. They 
assured me that it was so, and I became con- 
vinced that that was the fact. When I went 
home I opened some boxes that had been packed 
by my foreman in that same manner, and found 
precisely that description of things existing, 
notwithstanding I had repeatedly told him that 
it would cost him his position if he practiced 



any deception in the packing of fruit. I had 
positively forbidden him, giving the most arbi- 
trary instructions against anything of that kind, 
and yet, in the face of all that, the work was 
done in that way to a certain extent. F'ortu 
nately, it was but a few packages that were 
done in that way, but the man's excuse was 
that the fruit was there and be thought that he 
might as well make use of it and get what he 
could for it. It is needless to say that that was 
not repeated, but this very method of packing 
in certain sized partitions with one class of 
fruit through the entire box is a most excellent 
one, and that part of it is to be commended 
most heartily, and if the cheapness of the box 
and the strength and the stability of the pack- 
age can be secured at the same time, so as to 
be profitable for the fruit-growers to use, there 
is no doubt but what it would be a most valu- 
able article. 

Dr. Frey: It would be a very easy matter 
to have it made so. If the boxes were going a 
short distance, it would do very well, but if 
they were going further you might have to put 
in a few nails, and they would go along very 
well; or, as the gentleman remarked, you could 
put Blata in on top of it. You can put a slat 
on each end, so that the pressure in the box 
would come on the slats instead of coming on 
the top of the box, and that strengthens the 
box very much. In regard to grading fruit in 
the box, I think it is a matter of great impor- 
tance, that it should be insisted on by the so 
ciety that every man should have his name on 
the box, and be personally responsible; and if a 
man puts in poor fruit let him take the respon 
sibility, a d let everybody know who it is. 
The difference will soon be apparent. 

Mr. J. M. Cray: I would like to hear from 
somebody who ships fruit to Chicago if they 
think peaches could be shipped in that box, 
without rubbing. If so, it would save a great 
deal of trouble to the shipper. We know it is 
no small task to get a carload of fruit, and wrap 
each piece in paper, and I fear that the piper 
that we have now in this State is not the right 
thing to wrap peaches in, especially if they be- 
come the least bit moist. There seems to be a 
taste of the paper in the fruit. If we could ar- 
range some way of shipping without going to 
that expense and trouble it would be a good 
thing. 

J. M. Hixson: I have a great many letters 
from parties whom I have been doing business 
with this year, which I expect to lay before the 
fruit shippers and give them my advice in re- 
gard to a great many matters pertaining to ship- 
ping. In regard to Mr. Crey's remarks as to 
shipping peaches, I think it would be good if 
they would contract those spaces considerably 
to have the fruit fit. It may not be generally 
known that the fig, in the green shape, can be 
shipped through io good order. We had them 
from several different parts, and only, I be- 
lieve, in one instance did they come through in 
good order, and that was when there was but 
one layer in the box. They sold at extrava- 
gantly high prices, and demonstrated to my 
mind, that whatever package was successful, 
the cost of it would form but a small item if we 
could get the fig there in perfect order. The 
peach, too, at times, of course, will sell at a 
price in which the package would hardly cut 
any figure. In regard to the strength of the 
package, that is one thing that I want particu- 
larly to call your attention to. I have a num- 
ber of letters, and I will read an extract from 
one to show the sentiment on the other side in 
regard to the package. In case of getting a 
light package, a pound or two or three or four 
pounds to get that package strong enough, ho 
that it does not fall to pieces, is no consideration. 
We have one car of plums in which the stan- 
chions parted. They were put into an old- 
fashioned car and arranged to give ventilation, 
and when they gave way the bottom of the 
fruit slipped forward and that threw it on an 
angle, and the package was so light that a good 
many of them burst, and the plums ran out. 
In such a case the cost of the packages was a 
very little consideration. I will read this from 
Boston: "I hope your friends in California will 
see the necessity of stronger packages. We 
consider this fault one of a very serious nature, 
and the sooner it is remedied the better it will 
be. For short distances, no doubt, they are 
'O. K., " You see, he says it is a very serious 
matter in regard to the packages, for he finds 
the fruit comes out of order in consequence of 
the package being so light that it springs. Now 
I have one from Hamilton, Canada, in which 
the gentleman Bpeaks on the same matter of the 
package. In regard to putting the Binall fruit 
on the bottom, anything of that kind is not 
going to take in the Y.xat, because every pack 
age there is opened . They open the package, 
or they put their hand on it, and they have be- 
come such experts that they are satisfied if it 
doesn't give, and if it does they then sort it out 
and find where the defective ones are and then 
take and supply them with fresh fruit, or if it 
is not packed tight enough they draw them to- 
gether and put in fruit enough to fill up the 
package, so that a man who is shipping with a 
view of success is not going to put in poor fruit 
or inferior fruit more than once or twice until 
he will see that it don't pay. There is no 
place I have ever done business where a man's 
name is worth so much to him as it is in the 
Kistern market, because they go right after 
him. As soon as they find an article is well 
packed, they seek for that brand, and when 
they say I will give you so much for that mark 
they don't mean I will take all of it; they 
mean I will give you so much for the privilege 
of going through it, and if it is not all right 



they are going to reject it. It is no use to put 
up inferior fruit, or over ripe frnit, or anything 
of that kind with a view to success. There is 
another importaut thing, and that is uni- 
formity of package. If you are going to have 
twenty pounds in a package, have twenty 
pounds; if you are going to have forty pounds, 
have forty pounds of fruit. This is for two or 
three reasons. One is, that a man makes a cal- 
culation when he sends it out for retail how 
many pounds ho is going to sell. Another is, 
that the express companies take their fruit at a 
certain rate per box. They cannot take any 
five, or eight, or ten thousand boxes and dis- 
tribute them to the different places and weigh 
the different lots; they mark them if it is 
peaches or plums; they take them as twenty- 
two pounds; if they are pears and apples and 
things of that kind, they take them at forty- 
six; so that if man has got eighteen pounds of 
plums, you see he is paying the extra express- 
age on it, and all those things are taken into 
consideration. 

Mr. Aiken: I will say as to the redwood box 
in the county of Santa Cruz, we buy them at 
two cents, peach and' grape boxes, and we can 
manufacture enough to supply the State of 
California, at that price. As to that box, it 
may be of great value to us in the State enter- 
prise which you hear about; we propose to do 
one thing if nothing else; we propose to manu- 
facture the best boxes that can be obtained for 
the actual cost, and sell to fruit growers at the 
actual cost; and what can.be manufactured for 
•20 cents, you will get for a little more than 10 
cents. 

Dr. Chubb: As to orange boxes, when talk- 
ing about it in the Kxat this summer with a 
commission man, and when I told the cost of 
the box, they said you can do better than 
that by shipping your boxes from Maine by 
sailing vessels during the seasons when you 
don'i want them, and get your supply duriDg 
the fruit season. He spoke very confidently 
about it. He said he was confident we could 
get our supply of boxes much cheaper than Mi 
cents, which we were paying for orange boxes. 

Mr. Milco: I will give you my opinion. I 
know that one firm in this State is shipping a 
great many carloads of lumber around the 
Horn to all the F^astern ports, and it has been 
done for the last two or three years, and I have 
been told by Mr. Smith, of Stockton, that the 
lumber is so cheap in California that they can't 
make a cent out of it, and the only money they 
are making is by shipping F'ast. You can 
imagine as to that, if they ship aronnd the 
Horn from Oregon and Washington and make 
a profit. 

Mr. Chubb: Then they ought not to charge 
20 cents for orange boxes. 

Mr. Conger: I think the boxes made in 
Maine are made of birch, and not of pine. I 
was told once that they could be bought in 
Maine for seven cents. Mr. Wood can inform 
us on that point. Did you not write to Maine? 

Mr. Wood: Yes, sir, we have received 
prices from so many different places, but I can 
say ihi- as to that box, when we were in busi- 
ness here, shipping a good many, we could buy 
our cases in the Flast and pay our freight on 
them, and lay them down here for less money 
than we could get them from San Francisco. 
In my experience those boxes can be bought in 
the FCast and brought out here by freight as 
cheap as they can be manufactured at borne 
by our present manufacturers, unless they have 
improved during the last two years. 

Mr. .lames Bettner: I was in New Orleans 
last year, and inquired as to the cost of the 
Florida orange boxes. They get the most of 
them from Maine, and I found that the Maine 
boxes, coming by water transportation, cost 
about what it cost3 to deliver Truckee boxes at 
Riverside (about 14A cents); ard the Maine 
orange box is to me a very unsightly box. It is 
made of basswood, is very thin, and has to be 
bound with hoops, and it warps all up and out 
of shape if exposed to the sun or air at all. 
They have found so much fault in Florida, 
even, that they use a local box in some places 
there, and are turning out a pine box that is a 
good deal similar to our Truckee boxes. 

A Delegate: I think if you can ascertain the 
lowest price you can secure these boxes in the 
Kist, and then will examine the boxes made in 
Sin Francisco and on this coast, and the prices, 
you will find that we can procure boxes, or any 
thing else in the wood line, a great deal cheaper 
here than you can procure it anywhere on the 
Kistern coait. Only a few weeks ago I was up 
on the Canadian Pacific railroad at Victoria, 
and they were very much agitated there on ac- 
count of the Dominion Covernmen* assessing the 
lumber there, 8 advalorem, and 2"> cents a 
tree for their lumber, and they sent a remon- 
strance back to the general government, trying 
to overcome that, saying it would ruin their 
market in the lumber line, and prevent them 
from competing with the California and the 
Puget Sound lumber country. Now, we have 
box manufacturers and everything in this 
country, and we have the wood; there is wood 
enough in Kureka, Humboldt county, to make 
boxes and box up all the fruit, and the trees, 
and everything else there is in this country, 
and we can furnish them just as cheap as we 
can get them from Maine or anywhere 
else in the world, and just as 
good, and I will tell you that I think it will be 
to our best interests to keep this money at 
home. We have bright prospects in this coun- 
try, and I think anyone can see that it is going 
to be the distributing point for all the southern 
country. It is so recognized by all the railroads 
(Continued on Page. 12.) 



Jan. 2, 1886.] 



pAClFie I^URAb fRESS. 



11 



CALIFORNIA WIRE WORK 

No. 329 ISTREiST, SSJS^N FRANCISCO, O^A-U., 

REGULARLY LICENSED MANUFACTURERS OF 




IE 




WIRE. 




Trade Mark 



ASK YOUR STOREKEEPER FOR 
Bright, Galvanized, Telegraph, Baling, 

Annealed, Tinned, Telephone, Furniture, 

Coppered, Lacquered, Fence, Spring. 

WIRE NETTING, WIRE ROPE, WIRE CLOTH, WIRE GUARDS, WIRE STAPLES 

GOPHER TRAPS, BIRD CAGES, RAT TRAPS, SQUIRREL CAGES. 

WROUGHT IRON RAILINGS, FENCES, CRESTINGS, GATES of Fancy Designs, and WIRE GOODS of all kinds. 

A MOST WONDERFUL INVENTION! 

CLOTHES WASHING AS A SCIENCE! 

Relief! Perfection! Beneficial! 

NO Work! NO Rubbing! NO Chemicals! NO iD.jury to the Goods! 
ID-A.HO'iaiHEJYEZH.'S Patent 

HYDRAULIC CLOTHES WASHERS % BLEACHERS 

For Families, Hotels, Laundries, etc. Any shape and size, 
from 5 to lOOO-gallon capacity. 

This Washer does away with ALL Machines and Hand-washing, and positively does not injure 
the Clothes. The only and MOST PERFECT SYSTEM. An extra- 
ordinary easy, natural, new and only proper 

WAY TO WASH PERFECTLY CLEAN ENTIRELY WITHOUT WORK! 

SAVES 

highest prize ! Clothes, Labor, Soap, Health, Time, Fuel and Money ! 

■mjr • 9 X 4-** j_ TT , «, * < CCCi G X 1 No Woman need to be the Slave of any Machine or Wash-Roard any more. ALL washing done by 

JSLGCliaillCS XnSXllUX© X air, I OOJ, 0« X • HYDRAULIC FORCE. A blessing to all womankind! Try one and be convinced. 

FITS AND WASHES WITHIN ANY WASH BOILER! 




■ (Wllilliilllil;:!!!!!!!!!!!!!''!:^ 

I V \ N \ \\\vaBBttni/ hi it',! 

\\\\yv////oi/ i 




MANl' FACTI UKU BY 



$2. 



PRICE. 



gQ We send Washer to try for 30 days for $2.50 C. 0. D., and 

if the Washer does not work as we say, to be returned 

C. 0. D. at our expense. 

Washer for No. 6 Hoiler, No. 7, No. 8, No. 9, 

$6.00 ^V.OO 98.00 ^O.OO 



HYDRAULIC CLOTHES WASHER Manufac'ng Co. of California, 

1418 MARKET STREET, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

A Fortune in Every County! 



State and County Rights for Sale. Term : 17 years. 
a^SEND fob Catalogue and Information. "Sa 




The "ACME" subjects the soil to the action of a Steel Crusher and Leveler, and to the Cutting, 
Lifting, Turning process of double gangs of CAST STEEL COULTERS, the peculiar shape and arrange- 
ment of which give immense cutting power. Thus the three operations of crushing lumps, leveling 
off the ground and thoroughly pulverizing the soil are performed at the same time. The entire ab- 
sence of Spikes or Spring Teeth avoids pulling up rubbish. It is especially adapted to inverted sod and 
hard clay, where other Harrows utterly fall; works perfectly on light soil, and is the only Harrow that cuts over 
the entire surface of the ground. We make a variety of sizes, 3 to 15 feet wide. 

The " ACME" is in practical use in nearly every Agricultural County on the Pacific Coast, and has proved itself 
to be just the tool for use in VINEYARDS, ORCHARDS, and GRAIN FIELDS. 

«S"Send for Pamphlet containing Thousands of Testimonials from 48 different 
States and Territories. 

]NT^SXI c*3 BROTHER, 

Manufactory and Principal Office, Millington, N. J. 
N. B,— Pamphlet " TILLAGE IS MANURE, and Other Essays," sent free to parties who name this paper. 
FOR SALE ON THE PACIFIC COAST BY 

Arthur W. Bull, San Francisco; Q. B. Adams & Son, San Gabriel, Cal.; Staver & 
Walker. Portland, Or., and Walla Walla, W. T. 



All Communications relating to 

DR. 0. H. CONGAR'S GRAFTING DEVICE, 

Should be addressed to him at Pasadena, Cal, 



FARMERS BUILDING BARNS. OUTHOUSES 

or Frame additions, will save money by using Bell's 
Carpentry Made Easy. It gives plain rules how to work 
without a carpenter. HOWARD CHALLEN, Publisher, 
744 Broadway, New York, 



TO SEEKERS FO R HOMES! 

DON'T WASTE TIME AND MONEY in useless traveling. 
DON'T WASTE YOUR LIFE AND ENERGY on far away wild land. 
DON'T DOOM YOUR FAMILY to unnecessary hardship and solitude by settling in 
the mountains. 

DON'T BOY A $5000 improved farm and then spend the rest of your life struggling to 
get out of debt. 

DON'T PAY WEALTHY PEOPLE for improvements that they have made by their 
labor, when you can make the same by your own. 

BUT — 



Settle in a New and Prosperous Locality and Grow 

Wealthy With It ! 

Buy a twenty or Forty- Acre Farm IN A PROSPEROUS COLONY. You will have 

near and good neighbors. Your children will have good schools. Your family will have corn- 
panionship. One cow and fifty hens will afford a small family a living from the start. From 
•IfnOO to $1000 will be sufficient to give an intelligent family a better start for a living now, and 
prosperity in the future, than $">000 on an ordinary farm. You can obtain the fullest and most 
reliable information concerning Colony Life from 

Mr. B. MARKS, Manager of the Sierra Park Colony, 

Who is now at our office; Mr. Marks is the founder of the celebrated CENTRAL COLONY, 
and of the large and successful CALIFORNIA COLONY, both of Fresno, on which he settled 
several hundred families. He himself resided as farmer and dairyman among the settlers and 
can furnish the most complete information from his own experience. 

The smallest outlay of cash necessary to secure title to land, to build a house, etc., to buy 
horses, cows, poultry, etc., when and what to plant, and all desirable information will be cheer- 
fully g'iven. ' Seekers for homes are cordially invited to investigate for themselves at our office. 

BOVEE, TOY & CO, 

19 Montgomery St., San Francisco, Cal. 



12 



fACIFie f^URAlo PRESS. 



[.Ian. 2, isgr> 



Fruit Growers in Council. 



{Continued from Page 10.) 

iu the country. If we look a little to our own 
interests, without sending any money abroad, I 
think we will all fare a great deal better. I do 
not disapprove of ascertaining what you can 
procure these things for. While I was iu Brit- 
ish Columbia a man started some soap works. 
He sent to his neighbor a block or two away 
for boxes. He said: "I will charge you 16 
cents a piece." He says: "Send me 1000 
boxes." It so happened that there was one of 
Hobb's men there. The Boap-maker told him 
his trouble, and he says, "1 will send you up 
some boxes," and he did send them from San 
h'rancisuo, going the trip by sea to Victoria, 
■lust one week before he could get them from a 
block away. That would show you if it need 
that the work can be done just as well here as 
anywhere else, and as good as any you can get 
abroad. 

Mr. Wilcox : I live where we make boxes, 
iu San Jose. One thing should be borne in 
mind. In the first place, all the best timber 
that is used for boxes, from chests down, was 
held by a combination. When I bought my 
first blackberry chests, twenty five years ago, I 
paid $9 for 100 chests. I can now buy those 
chests, of a better quality, for 5-.*5. We had no 
machinery to make a good chest; now we have 
machinery in Sin Francisco that will dove-tail 
the corners in the best possible manner. We 
have the same in Sin Jose. I have paid for 
strawberry boxes, to hold S or 10 pounds, 1 1 
cents; 1 get them now for 2.1 cents. I can buy 
the common strawberry box, holding a pound, 
for 810 of a cent apiece; that is all it costs for 
little raspberry baskets. So far as that 
is concerned we have been making them 
there in San Jr>se as cheap as can be made any 
where — lumber is much cheaper than it is in 
the Bart. We can make a box cheaper than 
any part of the world. Our redwood lumber is 
even being sent Hist to be manufactured. In 
New Orleans they all wanted to know what it 
could be got for. They use it to mike cof- 
fins. They are making coffins at Sinta 
Clara by the quantity. We are supplying 
all this coast, the Sandwich Islands and Mex- 
ico and all this country with them. We 
don't want E astern lumber. When we have 
machinery in competition that is all we want. 
I wouldn't look to the Kist for a box hereafter, 
and I don't think we will need to. It may be 
that we will want to combine with this organi- 
zation on shipping and that we will want to 
make our own boxes, and I believe they can be 
made here cheaper than anywhere in the world, 
for there is no part of the world where we can 
rind lumb_-r so accessible. 

Dr. Congar: I don't think there is a ques- 
tion but what boxes can be made here as cheap 
as in any part of the world. That is dodging 
the point. We want to know whether they 
will so make them, that is what we aie after. 

Mr. Milco: I think that the fruit iuterdBts 
of Southern California are so extensive that the 
fruit growers of this State are strong enough to 
go to work and make their own boxes. If they 
cannot get them cheap enough they should put 
their shoulders to the wheel, and go to work 
and put up their own factory and see what they 
can do, and I think they will find they can get 
their boxes very cheap. 

Mr. Hixon: 1 think we are losiDg sight of 
the main point of this matter, which is ventil 
ation of the fruit more than cheapness of the 
boxes; and while we discuss the latter part of 
it we ought not to pass over this very impor- 
tant matter. You see the box, which is shown 
here, is ventilated from below, and the vapor 
or moist atmosphere rises upwards through the 
fruit. I want to call your attention to one 
fact demonstrated in the receipt of some cher- 
ries we had this year in Chicago. We had one 
earload, in which there were about 700 cases, 
shipped in the ordinary crate— Buch as are used 
iu the shipping of grapes — and bye the 
bye, I would not by any means recom- 
mend that as the proper package for 
cherries. I do not suppose there is any man 
who would have paid S100 for the carload of 
cherries at the depot when they arrived. We, 
of course, have to pay freight anyway, even if 
the fruit is all ruined. We have given bonds 
for that beforehand. There were 16 crates in 
that lot that the man had stretched brown 
paper over the top of the crate so that the 
paper was about half an inch above the top of 
the cherries. On top of that paper w.is laid the 
slats, so as to prevent pressure coming down to 
mash it. It was arranged so that there was a 
space between the cherries and the paper, 
and a space between the paper and the top of 
the crate. In one of those crates the paper had 
got torn and fell down upon the cherries; that 
was like the balance, covered with fine mould, 
of a thin cobweb appearance; the other 14 
crates were in good order. There was no 
other crate in that lot that we could ship out- 
side the city of Chicago. Hy taking the tops 
oil the boxes and exposing them to the air this 
cobweb, like mildew, passed off of a great many, 
and the local buyers bought them, and we got 
about SS00 out of that whole carload. That 
paper absorbed the moisture (hat arose 
from the bottom or from the cherries, 
and the cherries were in good condition. A 
good many of the cherries and other iruit that 
were not wrapped had so much moisture on the 
top of the boxes, that it was absorbed by the 
wood, until the top was discolored. Now, if a 
fruit box is ventilated so that this moisture can 
pasi off, it seems to mc it is oi vital importance. 



Bo far as the box business is concerned, none of 
us doubt but what we can make them as cheap 
here as anywhere else. The only question ia, 
do we do ii? I had some occasion to get some 
boxes in Chicago, and paid for the first lot of 
white wood, "J.") lb. boxes, eight cents, and then 
got a bid from three different parties for 26 lb. 
boxes clear pine, at seven cents, and then made 
for six cents. I had occasion to have some figs 
packed the other day in San Francisco, and the 
man who packed them assured me he had to 
charge so much, because he had to pay nine 
cents a piece for the same size box, and I 
remonstrated with him and he tried to get them 
reduced. He said he could not get them less 
than nine cents. I have no doubt but what 
they can make them here just as cheaply as 
anywhere else; but the question is, do they do 
it? But the main question, as I have already 
said in this matter, is ventilation. 

Gathering and Curing Fruit. 

The chair announces the second topic of the 
day: "The proper time to gather the different 
kinds of fruits, the curing, etc." 

Dr. Congar: I rise to make a few remarks 
upon that subject, in reference to the orange 
and lemon. 1 know very little about the de- 
ciduous fruits that are growing in Southern 
California at this time. When 1 came here 10 
years ago, I paid 10 cents apiece for apples 
raised in Oregon, a dollar a pound for butter 
made in Sicramento valley, and everything in 
proportion. Now the local production of such 
articles is abundant. I have hid some experi 
ence in regard to handling the oranges and 
lemons, as to their condition of ripeness, and 
their effect when picked under certain con- 
ditions. I will speak of the lemon first. I paid 
more attention to that than the orange. It is 
a well known fact that the lemon in this lo- 
cality requires certain treatment in 
order to produce a fruit of first quality. I 
may say first and foremost, soil has something 
to do with it, and something in the matter of 
treating the trees as to the amount of water the 
tree is to get, etc. I would speak of the lemon 
as it is taken from the tree, and as far as I go, I 
I speak of the Eureka and Lisbon lemon. 
They have in the San Francisco market a 
lemon called by the commission men there the 
"California Sicily Seedling." I rebel against 
that name. We have no such lemon in this 
country. We have a Sicily from the bud, and 
it is as different from the seedling as can be. 
The lemon I wish to speak of is the Sicily bud, 
the Eureka, the Lisbon and the Cenoa. Those 
lemons, under the treatment I have pursued, 
will produce a lemon that we challenge the 
world to surpass. I am willing to put up 100 
boxes against 100 boxes imported lemons. 
The lemon wants to be slightly colored 
on the tree before it is picked ; it 
wants to receive from the soil all the proper- 
ties that will make it perfect. It roust be 
picked at that Btage with the best of care, 
without much handling. I mulch my trees 
with straw and lay the lemons immediately 
under the tree. It matters not whether it is 
damp or dry. Of course, if it is a dry portion 
of the year, I leave them there a less time than 
though it were a damp season of the year. 
They will remain under the tree for weeks if it 
is a moist atmosphere. I don't place them 
over two or three incheB deep, and they will 
cure down into a lemon which I will challenge 
the world to surpass. By this process the skin 
loses moisture, and becomes 3oft almost as a 
glove, but it is hermetically sealed. There is 
no chance for the oxygen of the air to 
penetrate that rind, and it is the oxygen of the 
air, as we all know, that causes the decay in all 
fruits. If you keep out the oxygen from the 
fruit it will never decay. Hence, the necessity 
for picking your fruit with a great deal of care. 
If lemons are handled as I have described, you 
need have no fear of foreign competition. 
Now, as to the orange: I find it to an ad- 
vantage to pick the orange with some care and 
allow them four or five days to shrink; that is, 
to lose a surplus of moisture in the rind. It is 
when the rind is distended with this surplus of 
moisture that scraping it with the finger in 
picking will rupture the rind and the oxgen of 
the air takes hold of that little spot. It com- 
mences to decay. Hence, you want to pick 
them with this care and put them in a box 
and lay them away under the tree and let 
them shrink for three or four days. It de- 
pends somewhat upon the ripeness of the fruit. 
They should be in such condition that when 
they are put in boxes they will not shrink and 
become loose so that every time the cars shake 
they knock one againbt the other. There is a 
secret of great loss in our fruit shipped to the 
Eastern market. If they are shrunk before 
they are packed, you can pack them juBt as 
tight as you can pack an apple, and they can 
not give in your boxes. If you will go ahead 
with the sorting practice you can pack them 
so tight that they will scarcely move in transit 
to Chicago. 

I rose to give my experience in picking off the 
tree. Those who buy the fruit off the tree, and 
pick and pack them under the tree, huddle 
them off to the railroad the next day; they 
throw them just as you throw sacks of potatoes. 
They take them up in boxes and throw them on 
the wagons, and I have seen the juice run out 
of those orangeB as they packed them. That is 
the way some of the commission men handle 
our fruit, and we suffer in consequence. That 
is the reason why I am in favor of some kind of 
an organization, either Southern California or 
Northern California, so that we may stop this 
terrible work. If, when we pick the fruit when 



it is ripe, let it lose the surface moisture, and 
pack it closer, we will get along without much 
lo8B. We can raise as good fruit as any in the 

world. 

Mr. Hixson: I would like to say one word 
in reference to Dr. Congar's remarks in regard 
to picking the orange and letting them lie 
awhile. I think there is so much point in that, 
that everyone ought to pay some attention to it. 
It is very well known that there is no man in 
California who is as successful in shipping ap 
pies as Mr. De Long, of Marin county. At his 
place they pick their apples in a box, one-third 
iarger than the box they pack in, and they put 
it in an apple -house and let it stand there for a 
given length of time that may suit them, but 
not less than a week or 10 days, 'am! pack it 
from that into the boxes that they ship in. 
They ship to Australia* and New Zealand, and 
other distant markets with perfect success, and 
I think that it is because they let the extra 
juice pass off in evaporation. I think the Doc- 
tor's remarks on that point are worthy of a great 
deal of consideration. 

Dr. Chubb: My experience does not agree 
with the Doctor's theory completely. This last 
summer, in the month of June, 1 had sent to 
me in a western city, two or three carloads of or 
anges that were sent on rather as an experiment. 
They could be bought very cheaply in our sec- 
tion of the valley, because they were the rem- 
nants of the orange crop, had ripened up later 
and had to be picked up later, and a great many 
of them were very ripe, and wouldn't be con- 
sidered fit for shipment on that account. They 
were picked indiscriminately, believing that 
they would at least, pay the expenses, and were 
packed rapidly without due cire. 1 saw them 
as they were opened in the commission houses, 
and from the very fact that the skin had dried, 
they came through in better order than oranges 
that I shipped in March. That experience con- 
vinced me that we must cure our oranges be- 
fore shipping; they were dried on the tree. 

Mr. Rose: I have had various experiences 
with shipping oranges and in picking lemons. 
I have spoilt more lemons I guess than any man 
in the State of California in experimenting, 
and I feel very sure that Dr. Congar is very 
correct in all that he has said of his own 
knowledge a9 to the lemon bnsiness. I have no 
doubt, it is true, not only to me but to every 
body who has lemons. As to the orange, I 
have had a different experience from Dr. Con- 
gar. Last year I went upon the theory of 
picki ng and keeping my oranges two or three 
days under cover in a large buiiding that had 
the ventilation of open doors and open win 
dows, but oranges which bad been in there 
would not keep as long as those packed out in 
the field and shipped at once. I have found 
that oranges that are kept out of doors will 
keep better than those which are kept in any 
kind of a house, no matter what kind or what 
ventilation. So far as the orange is concerned, 
there is a necessity for the people of this 
county, especially, to find some way of clean- 
ing them, and washing oranges has had the ef 
feet of making them decay very easily, al 
though there are modifications I think in the 
practice which did not result that way. We 
have tried to rub them off with a brush, and if 
immediately shipped they will decay very 
quickly — much more quickly than if they had 
not been rubbed. It is the same way 
with the washing. We have in our neigh- 
borhood a very painstaking gentleman, 
Mr. Dobbins, who washed his oranges last win 
ter and kept them out doors, with some pro 
tection of shade, perhaps, and they went as well 
as if they had not been washed. It is my belief 
we ought to have a drying-house, and I believe 
we will come to it yet. You can take an 
orange and put it on the mantel piece. Yon 
can keep it there and it will never decay- it 
will dry up. You can keep it there until it 
gets as hard as grain. Again, you can put it 
in a trunk and nave it among your clothing, 
where the moisture is taken up by the sur 
roundings, and it will never decay, and will 
finally dry up. Now, the reasonable suppo 
sition is, that ii you had a dry house with trays, 
with the fruit only one deep on a tray, and 
some heat passing over them, taking off the 
surplus moisture, the orange would keep to 
ship to any part of the world. I believe it will 
pay to do it. I will take an instance where I 
ship a carload a day. List season be 
ing a dry season, I had no trouble, 
but you take another season with wet 
winter rains almost every day, and the orange 
will take up a great excess of moisture by the 
rain. You can take any orange, piok it im 
mediately after a rain, pack it immediately 
after, and it will decay before it gets to San Fran 
cisco. You must wait till sunshine comes and 
dries it out to a certain extent. For that reason 1 
think it will be necessary for the men who ship 
largely to have a dry-house and take off the 
surplus moisture, and then we can hope and ex 
pect that we may ship oranges to any part of 
the United States without any decay, but I 
must say that Dr. Congar's theory about keep- 
ing them for a while iu a house I have not found 
correct. 

Dr. Congar: I did not say in the house. I 
keep them on the ground under the tree. I had 
Mr. Rose's experience in keeping them in the 
house. 

Mr. Cooper: Referring to the remarks of 
Dr. Congar, I find it is very dangerous to give 
theories. In Southern Europe, and with the 
Spanish and French, they are about equally 
divided on the subject of seedlings. There are 
seedling lemons up in the Exhibition hall, 
raised at my home from the seed of a Sicily 



lemon, and I have sold them in San Francisco 
side by side, at precisely the same price 
with the imported Sicily lemon. They 
are up there now and I wish you 
would all help yourselves and see what they 
are like. I have the budded Eureka lemon, and 
I have tried to test both of them, and I have de- 
cided that my seedling Sicily, as Dr. Congar 
calls it, is the better of the two. 

Dr. Congar: I refer to the seedling lemon 
that I am acquainted with here. Now our 
Knu'k.a lemon is a seedling, and .Mr. Wolf kill 
has a seedling that is a superior lemon. I am 
not speaking of that, I ?.m speaking of the seed- 
ling lemon — great big things with the rind as 
thick as a citron. 

Mr. Cooper: Mine I keep four months. 
These up-stairs were picked about four months 
ago; picked by a Chinaman, without any par- 
ticular care. I have kept them six months. 

At this point a recess was taken until after- 
noon 

( To he. Continued.) 




HALL'S PULMONARY BALSAM, 

The best renied\ in use for DOUGHS, COL:>8, ASTHMA, 
BRONCHITIS, INKI.l'KNZA, CROUP, INCIPIENT CON- 
SUMPTION and all THRO \T and LUNG TROUBLES. 
t<i> •■■>■> by all Druggists «» tents. 

J. R. GATES & CO , Proprietors, 

417 Sansome Rt , 8. F. 



Christmas Music Books! 

Christmas Cantatas for Children. 
CHRIST.M AS em, (U ots, K.40 yet doses.) Ea.iv 

and pretty Even school should give it. 
McKKiifp nt Christmas. (80 cts. 83 pr dozen. > 

Easy. For children with assistance of adults. 
Sweet Picture Song- Books. 

Gems for MM le Singers, (80 cts. *3 per dozen. 

Frenh Flowers. (i6 cts. $2.4o per dozen.) 

Four Splendid and very cheap Collections. 

Amrrican Hallail Collections, 50 eta* 

American Danee Music Collection, GO <••*. 

American 1'iano Music Collect ion, .10 eta. 

American SoiiRaiifl Chorus Coll., HO ebt. 

Notice that these are large books, and cauriot be mailed! 
except for price and postage, or 65 cetite. All other 
books mentioned are mailed, post free, > r rulail prioe. 

Valuable Piano Music Collaecloos. 

Piano Classics $1.00 

I 11. in. I Treasure 2.0O> 

Leaves of .Shamrock I.OOj 

Valuable Sons: Collections. 

Halftlan KJerulfs Allium of Songs. $l.S<r 

Franz's Album of Songs 2.00 

Norway Music Album 2,50 

Rhymes and Tunes for Children 1,00 

Minstrel Songs 2,00 

(..11... Songs 0.50 

Also a large numlier of Christmas Carols. Send for 
lists. 

OLIVER DITSON & CO., Boston. 

C. H. DIT80N & CO., 887 Broadway, Nsw York. 

IIEALD'S 

AGRICULTURAL WORKS. 

JOHN L. HEALD, Proprietor, 
Crockett, Contra Costa Co., Cal., 

HANI TACTTRRR OT 

HEALD'S PATENT 

Wine Making Machinery. 



Ia the only machinery that has given universal satisfac- 
tion, nii'i Is to he f und in all the first-class Wine Cellars 
in the State. The Patent Crusher*), Stenimers, aud Ele- 
vators, Includes the elevation of grapes in boxes as well 
as loose. Capacity of large Crusher and Steamier up to 
IS tons per hour. Hand Crushers, or Crushers and 
Stemmers that can be worked by hand, horse, or stoain 
power to a capacity of 10 to 3o tons per day. 

My Hydraulic Wine Press has a capacity of four times 
that of any other press In the market, and will save from 
92 to $8 worth of wine at e*ch pressing ovev all others. 
Wine-makers cannot afford to use any other press if they 
desire to save money in wine and labor. Wine Pumps, 
Pomace Cars, or any other appliance needed in a Wine 
Cellar, such as Boilers, Engines, Shafting, Pulleys, etc., 
new or second-hand, for sale at lowest prices. Plans and 
specitl cations for Wine Cellars furnished at lowest figures. 

If you want the best Irrigation or Drainage Pump, call fur 
one of " J. I.. Heald'tt Centrifugal/' truaranteed to 
pump water at a cost not to exceed 50 cents per acre for 
irrigation, which is much cheafter than ditch water, and i 
is the only Centrifugal Pump that can be run by horser 
power. 

Get one of "Heald'it Barley Crushers" if you* 
want the best In the market. Capacity up to 10 tons pee 
hour. It took the first premium at State Fair, 1884. 

Heald's Patent Straw-Burning Engine has 
proved itself for years to be the best, and took first pre- 
mium at State Fair, 

Heald's Patent Steam Kngfne Governor has 
given entire satisfaction wherever used, in adding 15 per 
cent more power to the Engine, and, with speeder attach- 
ment, enables the Engine to run at any speed required, 
with the utmost regularity. This governor will main- 
tain the same speed under varying pressure or load. 

L. A. REISTER, 

CHIOO, CAL. 

MTg Reister's PATENT SIDE SADDLE 

Warranted not to hurt the horse's liack, and the bts 
for Misses or Ladies. Awarded First Premium at every 
State aud District Fair. 

i-r mi for Circular and Pi ice List. 



Jan. 2, 1886.] 



pAClFie RURAb pRESS. 



is 



Lapds h gale apd Jo Let. 



For Lease and for Sale, 

40,000 ACRES 
Of good land in Fresno, near the County 
Seat. Some of this land is already irri- 
gated, and all can be easily irrigated. It 
is adapted not only to Grain, but also to 
Alfalfa, Fruit and Vines. 

1000 ACRES 

Of the above land for sale at the low price 
of $20 ner acre. 

Apply to 

E. B. PER BIN, 
402 Kearny St, San Francisco. 

Mexican Colonization Co. 

(LIMITED.) 

606 Battery Street, San Francisco, Cal 
43TSEND for Circulars and Testimonials uivino full 

INFORMATION. 

Cheap Lands, 
Fine Climate, 

Plenty of Water, 

Easy Terms, 

Regular Seasons. 

No Import or Export Duties, 

and No Taxes for 10 years. 



In 12 Best Californian Counties. 



For descriptive price list of desirable Ranches, Farma, 
Vineyards and Californian Ileal Estate generally, apply 
to 

HENRY MEYR1CK, Real Entate Exchange and Mart, 
Sa nta Cruz, Cal. 



e. h. tucker, 
Land Broker, 

MAIN STREET, 
Selma, Fresno Co., - California. 



TULftRE_COUNTY. 

The ARTESIAN "FRUIT BELT COLONY," 

In tlie celebrated Paige & Morton Tract, two miles west 
of Tulare City, is now offered for sale in subdivisions of 
TWENTY ACRES and upwards. One-third cish, balance 
annual installments. Water rights go with each lot. 
Land rich, Mack alluvial soil, equal to garden mould. 
Ready for immediate occupation and planting. Also 
lands improved with orchards, vineyards, and alfalfa 
in the same tract. Purchasers supplied with young trees 
and vines grown on the place at one-half ordinary prices. 
Also choice alfalfa lands, from $7.00 per acre upwards, in 
Artesian Belt. 

For maps and full particulars apply to PACIFIC 
COAST LAND BUREAU. V Montgomery Street, 
San Francisco, and WALTER TURNBIILL, Tulare City, 
Tulare County, Cal. 

RARE BARGAIN 



IMPROVED FARM IN FRESNO 
COUNTY. 

100 acres No. 1 Level Land, 120 acres wet, 7 acres 
Orchard, 17 of Alfalfa; plenty of wood and water. Near 
good school. Price, $3800, part on time. 
Also several other fine tracts, improved or unimproved. 
E. M MORGAN, Real Estate Agent, 
Kingsburg, Fresno Co.. Cal. 



ELS IXO RE. 

THE LAKE COLONY, 

Twenty miles south of Riverside, Southern California, 
has 400 residents, ninety improved farms, two townsites, 
two schools, pottery, mines of coal, fire-clay, gypsum, 
etc., etc. Fine hunting and scenery on lake and mount- 
ain?. Healthful climate. Best of fruit and farm lands 
$25 to $50 per acre. Send for maps and circulars to 
GRAHAM Sc COLLIER, 

Pasadena, or Elslnore, Cal. 

FOR SALE 

2240 acres good Agricultural and Grazing 

LAND. House, Barn, Oranaiy; fenced and well 
watered; in Shasta Valley, near line of Railroad. Price, 
$25,000. Terms to suit. Apply to 

C C. WEBB. 
405 Front St., Room 3, San Francisco. 



$500 to $50,000. 

BARGAINS in ORCHARDS and VINEYARDS, STOCK 
and Grain Ranches in every County in the State. Send 
Stamp for Catalogue. We can find quick sale for your 
farm, large or small, if it is cheap and you will send us 
full description. If you want to buy, tell us what you 
want, and we can suit you. 

GAMAN & CO.. 
5J Kearny St., San Francisco. 



SAN LUIS OBISPO COUNTY! 



Stools. Rancli for Sale . 

One Mile from the Town of San Luis Obispo, called the 

FILLMORE RANCH. 

THE BEST WATERED 2500 ACRES IN THE STATE; fenced; 2 houses thereon: 130 head of Stuck go with 
the property. Free range on adjacent (Jovernment Lands of about 3000 acre*, accessible only through this ranch. 

The above-mentioned 2500 acres of titled land, together with five to six thousand cords of wood worth $4.00 per 
cord, to be sold for $15.00 per aero, Stock, Wood, and Rancli privilege included. Terms, part cash — nalance credit, 
2, 3, 4, 5, an i years. 

Apply to G. W. FRINK, PACIFIC COAST LAND BUREAU, 

22 Montgomery Street, Sa Francisco- 
Or J. M. FILLMORE, San Luis Obispo, Cal. 

SAN DIEGO COUNTY! 



Celebrated El Oajon Valley Lands. 6617 Acres. 

Belonging to J. H. BENEDICT, Esq. 

The San Diego River traverses the land. L»rge lake and springs. All well watered. Grow to perfection* 
A'falfa, Fruit, Vines and Urain. This property is offered as a whole, at a GREAT BARGAIN, part cash; now occu 
pied by Mr. Ban. Hill. The climate, soil, and location cannot be excelled in the State. Must be examined to be 
appreciated. 

G. W. FRINK, 
General Manager Pacific Coast Land Bureau, 

22 MONTGOMERY ST., SAN FRANCISCO. 
R. J. PENNELL, Fifth St., San Diego. J. H BENEDICT, Florence Hotel, San Diego. 



SAN DIEGO COUNTY! 

ESI Cajon Rancho! 

16,500 ACRES, 

Situated 13 miles from San Diego, surrounded by high hills, protected from winds and fogs -the most eouable 
climate in the world— rich soil and lovely surroundings. Will be offered as a whole or in subdivisions, from 10 
acres upward, at prices according to desirability, from $10 to $75 per acre, part cash, balance on time. The wonder- 
ful Raisins and Olives grown in this valley command the admiration of every one. Water from to 12 feet. NO 
IRRIGATION, and Fruit and Raisins cured by solar heat. Inquire 

G. W. FRINK, General Manager Pacific Coast Land Bureau, 

Principal Office, 22 MONTGOMERY ST., SAN FRANCISCO. 
R. J. PENNELL, Fifth Street, San Diego, Branch Office, or 

DR. JOSEPH JAR VIS. Riverside, Cal. 



MRS. E. E. KELSEY 

Practical Dress and Cloak Maker, 

CUT BY THE S. T. TAYLOR SYSTEM. 

ALSO, PATTERN 8 OUT TO ORDER. 

Tare* Doors South of PostofHce, BERKELEY, CAL 



STENCIL PLATES. 

We have an arrangement by which we can furnish our 
readers w ith Stencil Plates for marking boxes, bales, and 
sacks of produce, at greatly reduced rates during the 
continuance of this notice in our columns. Address 
DEWEY & CO., 

252 Market St., S. F. 



THIS INVENTION 

SUPPLIES 

The Need of the Age. 



^ PATENTED JUNE 10, 1884. 



Simple, Practical and Servicea 

TWO MEN AND ONE HORSE 

Will Bore 300 Holes 
IN 10 HOURS. 




NEW 

Earth BorioiAier 

BORES HOLES 

36 Inches deep and 
24 inches diameter. 

The LIGHTNING TREE PLANTER! 

The TREK PLANTER represented on this page is a late invention, which was thoroughly cried last 
year, and proved to be the Simplest, Best, and Cheapest mode of digging boles either for Trees, Vines, or 
Posts. It will bore a hole of any given dimensions desired in an incredibly short space of time, and the work is all 
done by a horse, and a hole S feet deep and 2 feet in diameter can be dug in two minutes. One of these macbir.es is 
use I by the S. P. C. R. R. Co. PRICE, $150. 

Among our Many Testimonials we Offer the Following One : 

San Jose, Cal., June 2, 1SX4. 
DgAR Sirs: -In regard to the Boring Macbine I bought of you, I woull say that I am very much pleased with it. 
It is very easy on the horse and is easily managed. I have bored manv thousand boles at the rato of over 200 per 
day. Tile holes were 2 feet deep and 2 feet in diameter, and were much better boles than could be made by hand. 

SAMUEL MILLIKIN. 
We have the Finest and Most Complete Line of 

BUGGIES, CARRIAGES and WAGONS on the Coast 

AGENTS FOR THE 

Celebrated HOLLOW IRON AXLE WAGON, McCORMICK MOWERS. REAPERS and 
TWINE BINDERS. JOHN DODD'S H0LLINGSW0RTH RAKES, Etc. 

We have REMOVED to our new store, 421, 423, 425 and 427 Market St., where we 
have the Finest Repository on the Coast. Send for Catalogue. Address 

TRUMAN, ISHAM & HOOKER, 421 Market St., San Francisco. 



LIVE STOCK SALT ROLLER. 




The Only Practical Salt-Feeding Device. 
Always Ready. Never Wasted. 
Cheapest In the End. 

There is nothing more essential to man and beast than 
salt. To comply with tbis want we offer the SALT 
ROLLER, in tbe shape as shown above. Being round, 
and placed in a strong iron bracket, it revolves easily 
when licked, and the animal is enabled to partake of it 
when it has the desire for it. The animal is left to its own 
instinct as to quantity, and is not dependent upon the 
old irregular method of salting stock. Our brackets are 
arranged so they can be fastened to a post, barn, house, 
in or out of doors, in fact anywhere, as the Roller is fully 
protected from the elements, thus making sure that your 
stock is supplied for acertain time to come. Tbe Roller 
will last ordinarily three months, being made of the 
choicest, fine dairy salt, and it beingsubjected to an enor- 
mous pressure, is as solid as stone, but the saliva of the 
animal enables it easily to obtain all it wants. 

Roller and bracket, complete, 25 ct3. New Rollers easily 
inserted in old brackets, only 15 cents each. 

G. G. WICKSON & CO., 

— DKALER8 IN — 

Dairy and Agricultural Implements, 

38 California St., San Francisco. 



SACRAMENTO FOUNDRY. 

WM. GUTENBERGER, 

Front and N Sts., Sacramento. 

Steam Engines, all kinds of Mining, Ship, and 
Agricultural Machinery; Improved Split Pulleys, 
House Ca&tings, Iron Railing, and Ornamental 
Work. Sanders' Metallic Stuffing Box Packing; 
Horse Powers and the best Ground Rollers; Gol- 
den State Ground Roller and Olod Crusher. 

ALL AT THE LOWEST RATES. 

iS"Fair Warning is hereby given that any 
person caught infringing on my patent will be 
prosecuted to the full extent of the law. 





W. MELVIN, Pronator and Manufacturer, 



SACRAMENTO, CAL. 



14 



f ACIFK5 RURAL, pRESS. 



[Jan. 2, 1886 



Distribution of Plants and Scions. 

University Experiment Station Bulletin 
No. 50, 

The following kindsof plants andscionsof pro- 
ven or probable economic value in this State, will 
be available for distribution from the University 
during the present season. Plants will not, as 
a rule, be ready forsendingout until on or about 
February 1st, while scions may, if desired, be 
sent as pruning progresses. Applications should 
be made at once, and will be tilled in the order in 
which they have been received, omitting, how- 
ever, such plants as are known to be unadapted 
to the climate of the locality concerned. Since, 
moreover, the object of the distribution is to 
test the adaption of the plants in as many lo 
calities as possible, numerous applications from 
one and the same locality cannot be filled un- 
less a surplus remains after those from different 
sections have been supplied. 

I'lants will be forwarded by express, scions 
by mail (unless specially otherwise requested), 
in lots consisting of the number hereinafter 
mentioned for each kind, on remittance of 2o 
cents for each lot of plants, and 10 cents addi- 
tional for each additional lot, to pay expenses 
of packing, etc. l-'orscions send ten cents for each 
dozen ordered. Postal notes, payable at the 
Berkeley postotlice, are requested to be sent in 
lieu of stamps whenever practicable. Any sur- 
plus left after filling orders as far as possible 
will be returned to the senders, deducting let- 
ter postage. 

Plants. 

Ksparto grass, Sti/ia li iKiri.oima, the grass so 
extensively used in the Mediterranean countries 
for cordage, baskets, etc., and lately exported 
in large quantities as a material for paper mak- 
ing. It grows naturally on sandy beaches, 
within reach of salt water, but will doubtless 
be found adapted to many saline and alkaline 
lands now unreclaimed or occupied by the com- 
mon tule. It should be thoroughly tested in 
sandy coast lands southward of the bay, and in 
South California, ten plants ('2 large and S 
small) to each lot. 

Black Wattle of Australia — (Acacia decur- 
reus). A rapid growing beautiful acacii, with 
feathery leaves, and valuable for its bark 
("Mimosa bark"), which is highly prized as a 
tanning material. (See report of the College of 
Agriculture, for ISS'2, p. 109). The Black Wat- 
tle is best adapted to sandy lands. It should be 
understood that the tree is only transplanted 
successfully when small. Our stock is better 
and stronger than that offered two years ago. 
A quantity of seed still remains undistributed, 
and can be had on application. Lots of 10 
plants. 

Pistachio Nut — (Pi*tacia vera), A number 
of seedlings of this tree, which is as yet com- 
paratively rare in California, though manifestly 
adapted to a large part of the State, have been 
grown from seed imported last year. The 
Pistachio is naturally a slow grower, and will 
not become more than a small tree at best. Al- 
though small, these trees should be set out 
wherever they are to remain, as they are dif- 
ficult to transplant when once rooted, owing to 
the nature of the deep-going roots. As the 
plants are small, they, of course, need tender 
handling at tirst. Lots of ."> plants. 

The Carob tree, Geralonia Siliqua, the true 
"Algaroba" or St. John's bread of the Mediter- 
ranean region, has been heretofore recommended 
for cultivation in the southern part of the State, 
on dry and otherwise unavailable hillsides, as 
well as in richer and moister lands, for the pro- 
duction of an excellent milk-producing feed. 
(See report Coll. of Agr. of 1S.S4, page 100). 
The Carob is about as hardy as the orange, but 
owing to its drouth resisting qualities when 
once established, is destined to have a much 
wider range than that tree. Four plants to 
each, it being necessary to make sure of having 
both staminate and pistillate trees together. 

Kuropean or Knglish oak — [Qverout robur). 
Last season several thousands of acorns of this 
useful timber tree were distributed throughout 
the State. Unlike the American oaks, when 
transplanted to the climate of California this 
tree proves to be a rapid grower, unexpectedly 
resistant of drouth, and promises well as the 
hardwood timber tree of the future on the Pa- 
cific ('oast, it is not choice as to soil and lo- 
cation, and would probably do well both on the 
mountains and in the plains, where the latter 
are not too dry. Its success should be exten- 
sively tested. Six plants to each. 

The New Zealand Fiax, so useful to garden- 
ers and vineyardists for the purpose of tying 
with the ribbons into which the leaves readily 
split, and which are exceedingly strong, is 
again ottered for distribution. Reports re- 
ceived from the interior of the State point 
strongly to the conclusion that the plant is 
unadapted to the hot interior valleys. From 
all coast regions the reports are good. Although 
fond of moisture, it is not a marsh plant and 
will not succeed in a swamp. Six plants to the 
lot. 

The Rami:, the so-called Chinese grass, of 
-which the cheap preparation for textile pur- 
poses by machinery seems now to be in the way 
of accomplishment, should be more extensively 
tested. It succeeds exceedingly well at Berke- 
ley, in heavy adobe, and is known to do well 
on sandy soils. Lite reports prove that the 
plant is well adapted to the greater part of the 
State, and that it will succeed in a great variety 
of soils. Six plants to each. 

Australian Salt Bush) Ahi/ilcxniimniularia), a 
forage plant adapted to salty and alkali soils 
(see Rep. for 1SS2, p. 117), belonging to the 
Lamb's quarter group of plants, is much liked 



by cows. We have very conflicting reports as 
to the usefulness of the bush as a fodder, some 
praising it highly, others not being satisfied with 
it. Ten plants to each lot. 

Caper plant — (Cap/tari* n/nnosa, variety in- 
ermis). The thornless caper seems to succeed 
well, even at Berkeley, and would doubtless do 
much better in warm locations where it would 
not be cut down by frosts. It bears abundantly, 
and as a small industry, to be carried on by 
children, its cultivation would doubtless pay. 

Coffee tree — (Coffca arabica). To experiment 
with this tender plant will be useless for any 
but those situated in the most favored local- 
ities as regards exemption from frost. It 
will only succeed where the frosts are very 
slight and of short duration; such as the tomato 
will endure. We think that such localities 
may be found in the extreme southern counties. 
The plants were grown from seed imported 
from one of the mountain plantations in Guate- 
mala. Five plants to each. 

Resistant stocks. — A limited number of 
rooted cut ings of Vitis Arizonica are offered 
for trial as resistant stocks in vineyards infested 
by the phylloxera. Five plants to each. 
Cuttings and Scions. 

Cuttings of the Huasco grape, from Chili, 
producing the splendid raisins exported from 
that country. This grape has ripened in differ- 
ent parts of the State, on grafts distributed by 
this institution. It seems in many rebpects to 
be identical with the Muscat of Alexandria, 
but has fewer seeds and a more robust habit of 
growth. 

Scions of the following named varieties may 
be had on application, as stated above. 

Pears. 

Our collection of pears is very good, and the 
quality of many of our winter fruits, especially, 
excellent; but the presence of the summer fogs 
has the tendency to give them a russet surface 
—a tendency being more and more pronounced 
every year. Hence, they have never attracted 
a great deal of attention at the various fairs 
where they have been shown. A different cli- 
mate will change this the first season. As re- 
gards the pear fungus (or scab), so severe last 
season, it has this year done but little damage 
here, as in other localities; but we record the 
remarkable case of several varieties exempt last 
year, but badly infested this season. It shows, 
therefore, that none are entirely to be trusted. 

We give the time of ripening of this locality, 
which, compared with the greater part of the 
State, is very late. Those starred (*) have 
proved exempt, or nearly so, every year since 
fruiting here: 

Anne Ogereau; very handsome pear; begin- 
ning of August. 

Ott; middle of August, before Seckel; small, 
but delicious. 

Duchesse Precoce; above medium; a steady 
bearer, fair quality; end of July. 

* Doyenne Robin; medium to large; beginning 
of September; good bearer; fair quality; excel- 
lent keeper. 

Dr. Reeder, tasted here for the first time this 
season ; small, but of the highest quality; en$ 
of September, beginning of Oct., after Seekel. 

'Paradise d' Autumne; September and Octo- 
ber; medium size; very good. 

*Marie Louise d' Uccles; end of September; 
small grower, but a large and constant bearer; 
fruit large, good quality. 

"Sheldon; large; end of September; good. 

'Conseiller de la Cour; large; regular bearer; 
good; middle of October. 

'Jalousie Fontenay Vendee; medium; good 
bearer, resembles in taste Beurre gris, of 
Kurope. 

'Pitmastons Duchesse d'Angouleme; a pear, 
entirely different from the ordinary Duchesse; 
is later, large to very large; so far ashy bearer; 

good. 

'Baronne de Mello; medium; regular bearer; 
November; good. 

Augustus Dana; large; November; very good; 
so far a shy bearer. 

'Beurre griB d'hiver nouveau (new gray win- 
ter pear); a variety, we are told, which was 
formerly cultivated considerably in Santa Clara, 
but now not met with; large to very large; tree 
a good regular bearer; quality very good; No- 
vember and December. 

*Md. Lariol de Barny; large, good bearer; 
good (resembles Kmil d'Heyst). 

'Jaminette; above medium size; November 
and December; excellent keeper; good (ex- 
tremely sweet). 

Fondante de Noel; above medium; very hand- 
some; December; good. 

'Jones Seedling; small; a good steady bearer; 
October; good. 

Duhamel de monceau; December; above me- 
dium; very good; tree a poor grower. 

Plums. 

Black Morocco; small blue plum; the earliest 
we have. 

Ontario; the best early plum we have; green; 
above medium; quality fair. 

Wangenheim Prune; resembles the true Ger- 
man prune closely, but bears steadily here 
while the latter does not. 

Apricots. 

Blenheim, Alberge De Montagamet, Purple, 
Kaisha, Canino Grosso, De Coulorge, and 
"Beauge," improperly so named, (a handsome, 
highly colored, oval clingstone of medium size 
and good quality) are among the less known 
varieties worthy of trial in the State, and of 
which scions can he sent. 

Address applications to K. W. Hilgakd, 
University oj California, Btrkeky, Cal., Dec. 
:>9, 1SSJ. 



A Safeguard. 

The fatal rapidity with which slight 
Colds and Coughs frequently develop 
into the gravest maladies of the throat 
and hin--. i- u consideration which should 
impel every prudent person to keep at 
hand, as a household remedy, a bottle of 
AYER'S CHERRY PECTORAL. 

Nothing else {rives such immediate relief 
and works so sure a cure in all affections 
of this class. That eminent physician. 
Prof. F. Sweet/.er, of the .Maine Medical 
School, Brunswick, Me., .-ays: — 

"Medical science hat* produced no oilier ano- 
dyne expectorant so Hood ax AVer's ('uehky 
Pectoral. It is invaluable for diseases of tile 
throat and lungs." a 

The same opinion is expressed by the 
well-known Dr. I.. J. Addison, of Chicago, 
111., who says: — 

"I have never found, in thirty-five years of 
continuous study and practice of medicine, any 
preparation of so great value as A 1 Kit's C uehky 
Pectoral, for treatment of diseases of the 
throat and lungs. It not only breaks up colds 
and cures severe coughs, but is more effective 
than anything else in relieving even the most 
serious bronchial and pulmonary utTectione." 

AYER'S 

Cherry Pectoral 

Is not a new claimant for popular confi- 
dence, but a medicine which is to-day 
savins the lives of the third generation 
who have come into being since it was 
tirst offered to the public. 

There h not a household in which this 
invaluable remedy has once been in- 
troduced where its use has ever been 

abandoned, and there is not a person 
who has ever given it a proper trial 
for any throat or bun* disease suscep- 
tible of cure, who has not been made 
well by it. 

AYER'S CHEKRY PECTORAL has, 
in numberless instances, cured obstinate 
eases of chronic Bronchitis, Laryngitis, 
and even acute Pneumonia, and has 
saved many patients in the earlier stages 
of Pulmonary Consumption. It is a 
medicine that only requires to be taken in 
small doses, is pleasant to the taste, and is 
needed ill every house where there lire 
children, as there is nothing so good as 

A Y Kirs CHERRY PEC T( > B A L for 1 rest- 
meat of Croup ami Whooping Cough. 

These arc all plain facts, whic h can be 
verified by anybody, and should be re- 
membered by everybody. 

Ayer's Cherry Pectoral, 

PKKIM RED BY 

Dr. J. C. Ayer & Co., Lowell, Maes. 
Sold by all Druggists. 



FRESNO LAND 

At $10.00 per Acre. 

For a short t'me only new settlers can now obtain the 
choice of selection from the finest land in Fresno County 
for Fruit Raising or General Farming purposes. 

WATER ON THE LAND. 

Examine this land and convince yourself that it is the 
Lie -' in the county. Just think of it, a farm of 20 acree 
for $200, with the prospect of a railroad passing through 
the land. Any of the following |iartics will direct you to 
the land: Louis Einstein & Co., Fresno City; A. Barlear, 
Selma, Frosno county; P. D. Jones, Wildilower, Fresno 
couoty; William Peaks, Kingsburg, Fresno county. 

For terms and lull particulars address or oil on 
H. MATTHEWS, 
611 Clay St.. San Francisco. 

Or JAMES COTTLE, care of Louis Einstein & Co., 
Fresno City, Cat. 




PIANOFORTES. 

UNEQUALLED IN 

Tone Touch Workmanship and Durability. 

WILLIAM KVABE A CO. 

Nos. 204 and 206 West Baltimore Street, Baltimore. 
No. 1 1 2 Fifth Avenue, New York. 



RIVERSIDE NURSERY, 

O. O. GOODRICH, Pioprietor, 
Offers this season a I.arge and Fine Stock of 

FRUIT TREES 

At Reduced Rates. 

Peach Trees of all leading varieties a specially. Parties 
wishing to purchase will find it to their interest to com- 
municate with me. CVPrice List and Catalogue sent on 
application. O. O. GOODRICH, Sacramento, Cal. 

COLLINS' HAYWARDS NURSERY 

Offers for Sale the usual assortment of 

FRUIT TREES. 

Healthy and totally Free from Scale Pests. Special offer 
at very low rates: ''2000 Plums and Prunef , on Myrobo- 
lan seedling stock; 1000 Lewelling Cherry (best shipper), 
one-year-old trees, from 4 to 7 feet high. Reference: E. 
Lewelling, orchardist, San Lorenzo, Address 

ISAAC COLLINS, Haywards, Alameda Co., Cal. 



SUPERVISORS AND ROAD OVERSEERS 

rin-' notice that 

The "Boss" Road Grader 

Is the best in use in the I'nited State*. Was victoiious 
in 34 trials in ISS4. Took first premium in 68 Fairs, in 
every instance, except three, where an award was given. 
Send for terms and circulars to 

D. W. McLBOD, Ag't for Pacific Coast, 

Riverside, Cal. 



Ms and banking. 



GRANGERS' BANK 

OF CALIFORNIA, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

Authorized Capital, - - $1,000,000 

In 10,000 Shares of $100 each. 

Capital Paid up in Gold Coin, $645,360. 

Reserved Kind and Paid up stock, $21,178. 

OFFICERS: 

A. D. LOG AN President 

L C STEELE Vice-President 

ALBERT MONTPELLIER Cashier and Manager 

CRANK MoMULLEN Secretary 

DIRECTORS: 

A. D. LOGAN, President Colusa County 

U J LEWELLING Napa Couoty 

J. H. GARDINER Rio Vista, Cal 

T. K. TYNAN Stanislaus County 

URIAH WOOD Santa Clara County 

J. C. MEKYFIELD Solano County 

H. M. LARUE Yolo County 

L C. STEELE 8an Mateo County 

THOMAS McCONNELL Sacramento County 

a J. CRESS EY Merced County 

SENECA EWER Napa County 

CURRENT ACCOUNTS are openod and conducted In the 

usual way, bank books balanced up, and statements of 

aooounts rendered every month. 
LOANS ON WHEAT and country produce a specialty. 
COLLECTIONS throughout the Country are mad* 

promptly and proceeds remitted as directed. 
OOLD and SILVER deposits received. 
CERTIFICATES of DEPOSIT issued payable on demand. 
BILLS OF EXCHANGE of the Atlantic States bought 

and sold. ALBERT MONTPELLIER, 

Cashier and Manager. 

San Francisco, Jan. 15, 1882. 



UNION SAVINGS BANK 

OAKLAND, CAL. 

CAPITAL $2O0 OOO 

RESERVED FUND $100,000 

ASSETS $1,931,000 

BOARD OF DIRECTORS : 
A. C. Henry, J. West Martin, Q. J. Alnsworth, 

J. C. Ainsworth, S. Huff, R. S. Farrelly, 

R W. Kirkham, Samuel Woods, D. Heushaw Ward, 

Hiram Tubbs, H. A. Palmer. 

Wist Martin, Pres. U. A. Palmer,, V.-Pres. & Treas'r. 

INTEREST allowed upon all deposits remaining 
three calendar months, beginning from the first ol the 
month succeeding the date of deposit. 

Remittances from the country may be made by Express 
or Check upon Banks in San Francisco, and book will 
be returned. 

LOANS made only upon Mortgage of Real 
Estate and Bonds at current rates. 



STOCKTON 

SAVINGS and LOAM SOCIETY, 

(IllOORPORATID AUOCST, 1807.) 

8TOCKTON, .... CALIFORNIA. 

Paid up Capital, $500,000. 

Surplus, $152,634. 

L. U. 8HIPPEE, President, 
r. M. WEST, Cashier. S. a LITTLEHALE, Ass't Cashier 

BOARD OF DIRECTORS: 



L. U. Simfprb, 
R B. Lams, 
Cuas. Haas, 
A. W. Simpson, 
J. H. O'Brisn, 
Wm. Inolis, 



R Qnskow, 
Otis Psrrin, 
H. T. Dorranbi, 
F. Arnold, 
M. L. Hswrrr, 
Cuas. Grips, 
Jons Dcckrr. 



Soud^mforJ 



^ "WONDER o" WHEELS" 

Self Guiding;. Usee a wheel landside. Two hones 
instead of three. A ten year old boy instead of a plow- 
man. No pole (except among stumps). No side draft. 
No neck weight. No lifting at comers. Esmerdriving 

SSSrfSS LIGHTER DRAFT T ,\\^ A „^ 

on" wheel*. Will plow any ground a mower can cot 
over No equal In hard, stony ground, or on hillsides. 
Our book, "FUN ON THE KAUAI," sent Free 
to all who mention this paper. 

ECONOMIST PLOW CO.^WaSI*™ 

IY~ Special prlceo imd time for trial given 
on tirst orders from points where we have nu agents. 



OThe BUYERS' GUIDE Is 
Issued March and Sept., 
each year. « » ■ 816 pages, 
s i 1 1 Inches, with over 
3.500 Illustrations — a 
whole Picture Gallery. 
GIVES Wholesale Prices 
rffrerr fo BOHSMSWBrs on all goods for 
personal or family use. Tells how to 
order, and gives exact cost of every- 
thing you use, eat, drink, wear, or 
have fun with. These INVALUABLE 
BOOKS contain Information gleaned 
from the markets of the world. We 
will mall a copy FREE to any ad- 
dress upon receipt of 10 cts. to defray 
expense of matting. 1.1 1 us hear from 
you. Respectfully, 

MONTGOMERY WARD A CO. 

stall sV *2» Wabash A venue, Chicago, III. 



Jan. 2, 1886.] 



PACIFIC RURAb fRESS. 



15 



^Poultry "^ard. 

Third Poultry Show in San Francisco, 

As has been announced from time to time in 
the Rural, the third annual exhibition of the 
California Poultry Association will be held in St. 
Ignatius hall, in this city, during the week be- 
ginning January 11th. The handsomely printed 
list which we have received has an introduction 
which contains, besides information about the 
show, an appeal to all to take an interest in 
contributing to its success, which states the 
matter so well that we reproduce the greater 
part of it, as follows : 

In issuing the premium list of their third an- 
nual exhibition, the California Poultry Associa- 
tion returns cordial thanks to those public- 
spirited fanciers who have aided us substantially 
in our efforts to enlarge and stimulate the inter- 
est in fine poultry, pigeons and pets, by giving 
an exhibition of the best specimens of the Ameri- 
can breeders' skill on this coast. There is no 
disputing the fact that such exhibitions are the 
life of the wide-spread interest in pure bred 
fowls and pets. No one capable of admiring 
our feathered friends can visit a first class ex- 
hibition without becoming, sooner or later, a 
pronounced fancier. It is therefore the duty 
of every breeder to make exhibitions as attract- 
ive as possible, by sending his best specimens 
to compete for the prizes offered, and thus show 
the general public what can be accomplished 
by skill ful breeding. It is because the public 
is so great, influential and cosmopolitan in its 
character in Sin Francisco that we respectfully 
urge fanciers in all parts of the country to send 
their birds to our exhibition, showing not only 
the people of California, but visitors from all 
over the world that are always in our great 
city, what American fanciers are doing in the 
way of breeding birds unsurpassed in beauty 
and value. 

We call especial attention to the fact that 
our show will be held just previous to the open- 
ing of the spring season, when eggs and stock 
are most in demand, and San Krancisco is sec- 
ond to no city as a market for fine stock at 
good prices — exhibitors at previous shows hav- 
ing always reported extraordinarily large sales 
as a result of the exhibition. All awards will 
be given by able and honest judges, and no 
pains will be spared to please all that may ex- 
hibit with us or come to our show, January 1 1 
to 16, inclusive, 1886. 

We wish to call especial attention to the 
fact that our association offers no regular cash 
prizes. 

Exhibiting is not directly a money-making 
operation, and our best fanciers do not so re- 
gard it. To them the pleasure, the honor, and 
the advertisement in winning, are worth vastly 
more than the paltry cash prize usually offered, 
and so often never paid. 

We propose to make expenses to exhibitors 
bo much lighter than usual at first-class shows, 
that the saving to the whole will be much 
greater than the loss to the two or three win- 
ners — those who get the reputation and who 
can afford to let the cash prize go. 

In the place of the usual prizes, the society 
will give colored cards, designating the prizes 
won; and more than all, a score card rilled 
out by as good judges as can be found of every 
qualified bird exhibited, whether winning a 
prize or not. 

"The true theory upon which poultry ex- 
hibitions are held is that they are given for the 
advancement of the whole poultry interest, and 
exhibitors and breeders are much more inter- 
ested in this than any society is. Then come 
out, fanciers, with your birds, in force, and let 
us give pure-bred poultry a tremendous impetus 
in its onward march." 

The Exhibition Hall. 
St. Ignatius hall is situated on the south side 
of Market street, between Fourth and Fifth 
streets, and is located in the heart of the city. 
The cars of all the Market street and cable rail- 
ways pass directly in front of the hall, and the 
location is all that can be desired. Being so 
well known both in the city and out, an exhi- 
bition at this hall is sure to attract many visi- 
tors that would not think of attending a show 
of the sort in a remote quarter of the city— and 
those undecided whether to exhibit or not 
should give the above facts due weight in 
favor of entering specimens, and individually 
making the finest possible display. 

The Length of the Show. 

We trust no one intending to exhibit birds 
at San Francisco, will be deterred from so do- 
ing because of the length of time in which 
the show will be held. Past experience has de 
monatrated that it is almost impossible to have 
specimens shipped to the show, exhibited three 
or four days, and then returned to owners, all 
in one week, except from near by points. As 
a consequence, there has been much complaint 
of fowls lying over Sunday in express offices, 
when they would be much better off in the 
show-room. 

The three largest shows in the country this 
year — Chicago, Indianapolis and New York — in 
order to begin and close tlrj exhibition the first 
of the week, include Sunday in their dates. As 
a matter of fact, if the birds are properly cared 
for, as they will be at San Francisco, it makes 
little difference to them during the winter sea- 
son whether the show is held four or six days. 

We would also call special attention to the 



necessity of sending entries early and correctly, 
in order that they may be properly catalogued. 
We shall issue a fine catalogue, which will be 
of permanent value, as an advertisement to 
every exhibitor, whether he takes a prize or not. 
All the entries, name of exhibitor, P. O. ad- 
dress, sale price of birds, etc., will be inserted 
free of charge, and thousands of the books sold 
to visitors. Make your entries on, or before, 
January 7th, and they will go in the catalogue. 
If you are in doubt whether to exhibit at San 
Francisco or not, decide to do so, and our word 
for it, no matter whether you come from the 
west, south, east or north, you will not regret 
sending your best birds to St. Ignatius hall, 
January 11 to 16, 1886. 



The Panama Canal. 

Interest in the various enterprises on the 
Isthmus is keen on this coast. The following 
dispatch sent by the Associated Press, pur 
ports to be the latest information on the Panama 
canal: 

Panama (via Galveston), Dec. 11. — The 
present condition of the canal is described as 
follows by the officials of the company: "Oper 
ations are under way on two-thirds of the en 
tire length of the proposed canal. The other 
third will be the easiest of all to excavate, as it 
is composed of soft earth only. Active prepar- 
ations are being made for beginning work on 
this section, and the erection of machinery is in 
progress. The amount of machinery now in 
use is considerable, aud constantly increasing. 
Excavators for the Culebra section are now be- 
ing disembarked. If the excavators in actual 
practice prove to possess only one-fourth the 
power they have displayed when on trial, they 
will be sufficient to excavate the bulk of the 
Culebra section in less than three years. The 
company and the engineers are straining every 
nerve to bring the work to a speedy conclusion. 
Nearly all the requisite buildings are finished, 
and the American dredgers in the first twenty 
kilometers are all working to their full capa 
city. The number of laborers employed is 
12,000, and it is the purpose of the company to 
double this number during the dry season. 
Work will then proceed upon all sections. The 
inundations of the Chagres river this season 
have caused only slight damage to the work 
in progress. There are in the hospitals at 
Panama and Colon at present, about 450 canal 
employes. 

The "Rural" in Colorado. 

The Pacific Rural Press, published at San 
Francisco, Cal. , at $4 per annum is one of the most 
expensive of the agricultural journals published in 
the United States; but at the same time it is one of 
the most valuable. Especially is it so to the horti- 
culturists of Colorado, as its pages are full of practi- 
cal information about irrigation and fruit culture. 
It can be had at $r for three months, and those 
who try it for that length of time will be sure to 
renew their subscription. The subject of grape cult- 
ure, in which we are likely to be interested in this 
valley, is made a special feature of the Prkss. — 
Afesa Co. Democrat, Colorado. 

We are much obliged to our contemporary 
for the kindly mention. There is an error, how- 
ever, in the cost of the Rural as stated. The 
subscription price is $3 per year in advance, and 
has been so for several years. We claim that 
the Rural is one of the cheapest large weeklies 
in the United States, all things considered. It 
is a fact that the great amount of practical in- 
formation on horticulture which our columns 
contain is being found valuable to those who 
are developing the fruit industry in Colorado 
and in adjoining States and Territories. 

Our Agents. 

Our Friends can do much in aid of our j aper and the 
cause of practical know ledge and science, by assisting 
Agents in their labors of canvassing, by lending tbeii- in- 
fluence and encouraging favors. We intend to send none 
but worthy men. 

JarrdC Hoao— California. 

.1. J. Bartrll— Amador and Calaveras Co's. 

F. H. Horn— Nevada (State). 

O. W. — Arizona. 

E. L. Richards— San Diego Co. 

R. G. Huston — Idaho and Montana. 

Gro. McDowrll— Santa Clara and Santa Cruz Co's. 

Huoh Kuan — Nevada Co. 

J. Winki,kr, Alameda Co. 

M. L. Dknnys, Yuba and Nevada Co's. 

J. B. Patch, Nevada and Utah. 

L. D. Clark, Tehama and Shasta Co's. 



Complimentary Samples. 

Persons receiving this paper marked are re- 
quested to examine its contents, terms" of sub- 
scription, and give it their own patronage, and, 
as far as practicable, aid in circulating the jour- 
nal, and making its value more widely known 
to others, and extending its influence in the 
cause it faithfully serves. Subscription rate, 
$3 a year. Extra copies mailed for 10 cents, if 
ordered soon enough. If already a subscriber 
please show the paper to others. 

El Ca.ion Raisins. — Through the kindness of 
C. R. Buckland, of the S. F. Merchant,, we have 
had an opportunity of testing the raisins manu- 
factured by George A. Cowles, El Cajon, San 
Diego county, to whose enterprise we recently 
alluded in the Rural. They are exceptionally 
fine in quality and in style of packing, and as 
for quantity, the fact that they were made 
from vines which yielded at the rate of 16J tons 
per acre, gives his production a high rank in all 
respects. 



Trees! Trees!! 
Trees!!! 



WE CAN SUPPLY 



Fruit, 

Ornamental, 

and Shade 
TREES 

At Wholesale and Retail. 

Our Prices for Fruit Trees are as 
Low as the Lowest! 

While our Prices for Ornamental 
and Shade Trees are Lower 
than ever offered 
before. 

NURSERYMEN as well as GROWERS 

Will find it to their advantage to send for our 
Catalogue. We are not surrounded by Insect- 
riden orchards. 

WE WARRANT OUR STOCK FREE FROM 
ALL INSECT PESTS, AND SU- 
PERIOR TO ANY IN 
THE STATE. 

"liteiiriJlic" 

FIG! 

Do not be duped on the subject of this valu- 
able Fig. Our Mr. Milco was the man that 
named it, and the first to present it to the 
notice of fruit-growers in its ripe and dried 
condition. 

We grow and propagate the trees on a large 
scale, and are ready tp fill all orders with the 
genuine article. Parties claiming to be intro- 
ducing this Fig, all got their first supply from 
us. 

Every Tree Sold by us Warranted Genuine! 

While we claim that our WHITE ADRI- 
ATIC FIG is the best Fig to plant for profit, 
we would not advise planters to plant but a few 
to start in with, to find out how the tree will 
do with them. This rule, however, applies 
only to localities where other Fig trees have 
not been a success. 

We shall be glad to answer any question on 
the subject, and we do not know of any person 
that is more competent to tell the growers what 
the Fig is than our Mr. Milco, who has intro- 
duced the Fig, which is grown very extensively 
in his Dalmatian home on the Adriatic. 

NURSERY: 

ATWATER, MERCED CO., CAL. 

Depot for the Sale of Trees and Principal 
Office of the 

Buhach Producing and M'f'g Co., 

STOCKTON, CAL. 



Jieeds, Mapts, ttc, 



[Ebtaiii.isiikd 1852.] 



J. Hutchison's Nurseries, 

OAKLAND, CAL. 

Nursery Depot and Seed Store, 
cor. 14th & Washington Sts. 
The Largest Collection of the most desirable 

Flowering and Ornamental Trees 




and Shrubbery 



in the State. 



CYPRESS in large quantity. CUT FLOW- 
ERS and FLORAL WORK a specialty. 

Fruit Trees of all kinds Choice Flower 
and Vegetable Seeds, Bulbs, etc., of all kinds. 

tWSend for New Cataloirue. 
THE DIN GEE & CONARD CO'S 

BEAUTIFUL EVER-BI.OOi>IIN« . . 




Our Great Specialty isjrrowing and distributing 
KOSES. We have Hoses of all sizes a„d prim. The 
Latest Novelties and Finest Tested Sorts. We deliver 
Strong Pol Plants safely by mall, at all Post Ojfic: 



s $1 



7 Your Choice, all labeled, for 
16for$2; 40 for SS5. Alsoother Varie- 
ties, 2, 5, and 1 2 for SI .OO. orr„rdi„a to ralne. 

our NEW <;uioi: to Rose cue- rDCC | 

TIT RE, 76 pages, elegantly illustrated, lllCC ! 
Address THE IMNGEE cV CONAKD CO., 
Rose Growers, West tJrove, Chester Co., Pa. 



B. V. CUTTINGS. 

I OFFER 

1,000,000 

OF THE 

Best Tried and Selected Wine Cuttings. 

GUARANTEED HEALTHY. 
Carefully Prepared, and from First Cut, 
and Made Only to Order. 

«®-NO ORDERS WILL BE RECEIVED AFTER"!?* 
February 1, 1886. 



Will deliver, at any depot of San Jose or Santa (J'ara 
F. O. B.: $10 per 1000, tule packed, 25 per cent down- 
Portal Ploussard, Cabernets (inc'uding my Cabernet Sau 
vigion, imported from Montoellior Station, France,) and 
Teinturier or Hied Dc Perdrie, Petit Pinot or Crabbs' 
Black, Burgundy, and Merlot. 

$1.00 — Malb°c's, Mataro, Grenache, Carignane, Sau 
vignon Verte, F«lle Blanche, Blanquette or Clairette, etc 

$2.50— Fur all other Wine Grapes, well known as the 
Zinfandel, Rieslings, Trousseau, Charbono, etc. 

£^"Kirmt Okdbked, First Served. Discounts on Large 
Orders. Address 

J. B. J. PORTAL. 

San Jose, Cal. 



THE 0. W. CHILDS NURSERIES, 

L03 ANGELES, CAL. 

Our Stock of Deciduous Fruit Trees is exceptionally 
fine. We make a spec ialty of Orange, Lemon and Lime. 
Our Trees are clean and fiee of all injurious insect pests. 
Our Orange Trees include the celebrated Washington 
Navel and Satruma Orange; the latter a kid-glove va- 
riety of superior excellence. This variety, it is said, will 
endure hard frosts, much harder than other varieties 
grown here. Price list free. Address 

THOS. A. GAREY, Agent, 
P. 0. Box 452. Los Angeles, Cal. 



OESCr\lPj^ r pj^£P£_ 



\~FOtt 1886.; 

Will be mailed FREE to all applicants, and to customersof 
Ust year without ordering it. It contains about 180 pages, 
600 illustrations, prices, accurate descriptions and valuable 
direotlona for planum! oil varieties of VESETABLF 
and FLOWER SEEDS, BULKS, e£ Invaluable 
to all, especially to Market Gardeners. Send for it 

D. M. FERRY & CO., Detroit, Michigan. 

Buy No Grafted or Budded 
LE CONTE PEAR TREES, 

When you can get them on 

Genuine Le Conte Roots. 



The most prolific pear grown. For description sec 
Ri ral PRESS, Jan. 3, 1885, pp. 13 ana 20. 
tfSTSend for Circulars and Testimonials, 

C. W. DEARBORN, 

Oakland, Cal. 



Maule 



ja £ GARDEN 

OEEDS 



Cannot be Surpassed. New Seed Catalogue for 1886. 

Free to all. Best published. Over 225,000 copies al- 
ready mulled. You oueht to have it. Send your 
address at once on a postal card for a copv to 

Wm. Henry Maule, 1633 Filbert street, Pbiladelpbia, Pa. 



A m f\ VARIETIES OF 

JhU FRIMT TREES, 
J JO VINES* PLANTS* ETC. 

Apple, Pear, Peach, tinny, Plum, 
Quince, Strawberry, 'tiiNpbcrry, 
Blackberry, Currants, Grapes, 
Gooseberries, Bend for Catalogue 
J. S. toi.i.iivs, Hoorestowikj N.J. 




16 



JPACIFI© f^URAb p>RESS. 



[Jan. 2, 1886 



jSeedj, Waiits, fee. 



BARREN HILL NURSERY, 

NEVADA CITY, CAL. 

19 Varieties of Walnuts, 

1NCM DIM! 

CLUSTER WALNUT, the newest, most proline, 
and most valuable Walnut ever introduced intu this 
country. 

PRJEPARTUBIENS. or Karly-Bearing Walnut, in 
troduced in !871 by Felix Uillct; guaranteed of.niins. 
AH the Leading Varieties of Europe and 

America. 

<iur Pneparturiens, cluster, and all other Seedling 
Walnuts are trees of the "Second Generation," and there 
fore more likely to retain the characteristics of the sue 
.■it s. Prom 30 cents to $1 per Tree, according 
to age, s : ze, and variety. 

Varieties of Marrons or Grafted Chestnut9 
7 Varieties of the most prolific, largest, and finest 
Filberts. 

12 Varieties of Figs (White, H ack, Yellow, lirown and 
Purple). 

4 Varieties of April Cherries, the earliest and most 
prolific in California. 

178 Varieties of Grapes (tah'c, raisin, and wine), 
Blue Muscat and Bulhery Blinc(the earliest lirapes in 
California, 50 cents per root). 

81 Varieties of English and French Gooseber- 
ries, the finest collection of largest Gooseberries in 
America. 

APRICOTS, PLUMS, PEARS, Etc. 
CONSTANTINOPLE QUINCE, 

The Largest kind. 

New Varieties of Strawberries: "KING 
HENRY," "»e Ot the nest shipping varieties, truly 
*' Kcmontant;" bears all the year round. 

10 Varieties of Prunes. 

ST. CATHERINE, true Jrom the root; RED and 
BLUE PERDIGRON, Etc. 



Seed?, Wants, fee. 



jieeds, Mapts, fee. 



OLIVE CUTTINGS 




LOT D'ENTE! 

The purest and largest type of the PRUNE D'AGEN 
or Robe De Sergent. Direct Importation Trees 
"True from the Koot" and Grafted. 

MULBERRY TREES and CUTTINGS 

For Silkworm Feeding. 
Skkii.i i.turk Chart, Mi cents. 

All "iir iflnuilWn tree* heavily rooted. No Scales 
or any of the insect pests infesting other pirts of the 
state. No Phv lloxera. 

CSTSend for Catalogue, illustrated with numerous cuts 
representing Nuts, Prunes, and Fruit, the most of them 
raised on our grounds. 

FELIX GILLET, Nevada City, Cal. 

San Leandro Nursery. 



Fine Assortment of the 
Varieties of 



Leading 



FRUIT TREES. 

The Hardy White Tuscany, Hardy Yellow 
Tuscany, Cllngatone Peaches. 



LARGEST fEAOHKS IV CALIFORNIA, 
flavor; good shippers; excellent for canning. 



Splendid 



t«~All trees grown on new, rich soil, without irriga 
tion, ami are positively free from insect pests. 

G- TOSETTI, 
San Leandro, Alameda Co., Cal. 

CYPRESS AND GUM TREES. 

I . • g 'I I 1 1 i ■• i i i n-p I i ii i . <l iii boxes; all hardy, 
healthy 'stock. Monterey <-yprese, 6 to S inches, 
9L76 per luo, or $1:> per 1,000; 8 to 10 inches. $2 per ion, 
or $17.50 p»r 1000; 10»to 12 inches, $2.25 per 100, or $2u 
per 1000. Transplanted in Larger Spa'-es— 12 to 14 
inches, at $3.00 per 100; 14 to 16 inches, $3.50 per 100; 
16 to 18 inches at ¥4 no per 100; Is to 20 inches, $4.50 per 
100; 20 inches to 2 feet, $6 per 100 Seedling Cvpress, 6 
to 8 inches, at $5 per 1000. Monteiey I'ine',10 to 18 
inehes, 24 inches ai>art, at $3 50 per 100. Transplanted 
Hlue (iunis, 6 to 10 inches, at ¥1. 25 per 100, or $10 per 
loon; into If inches, at $1.. Ml per I'M), or $12.50 per 1000. 
Ki d Uums or Acacia (Black Wattle) 6 tt 10 inches, $1 75 
per MO, ur $15 per 1000; 10 to 15 inches, $2 per 108, or 
$17.50 per pioo Well Sacked Blue or Red cunts, 3 to 4 
feot. straight and stout, with brani hes m, nt f4 per dozen, 
or $14 per W. Seeds Qf Mil iIi .m Kinds at verv low 
rates, C B, stamps will be taken far orders not exceed 
tat; I 10 

GEO. u BAILEY, 
Purls Nurperleb: Utirkeley, Cal 



IN LOTS TO SUIT, AT LOW PRICES. 

SPECIAL RATES ON LARGE ORDERS. 

Vegetable, Flower * Tree Seeds. 

FRUIT and ORNAMENTAL TREES. 
FLOWERING BULBS and PLANTS, Etc. 
Large Stock. Best Quality, at Low Rates. 

R. J. TRUMBULL & CO., 

419 and 421 Sansome St., San Francisco 



CATALOG OtH on Application. 



20th Year. 



200 Acres. 



ROCK'S NUI^SEFflES! 



I WAS AWAKDKD THE FOLLOWING 



PREMIUMS AND MEDALS 



AT THK 



WORLDS EXPOSITION AT NEW ORLEANS: 

16 Premiums on Fruit Trees. 
15 Premiums on Evergreens and Shrubs. 
10 Silver Medals on Evergreens and Shrubs. 
8 Premiums on Roses. 
2 Silver Medals on Roses. 

The Largest and Most Complete Stock 

EVER OFFERED ON THE PACIFIC COAST ! 

New Descriptive \Jfa I.— Fruits, Grape*, Olives, etc., 4 Cents. 
Catalogue* will No. II.- Ornamental Trees, Evergreens, Palms, Plants, etc., 4 Cents, 
he ient as follows : j No. 111.— Roses »nd Clematis, gratis. 

JOHN ROCK, San Jose, Cal. 



FANCHER CREEK NURSERY, 

FRESNO CITY, CAL., 

Offe this season for sale an unexcelled stock of well-grown, health j and insect- free 

FB.UIT TREES, 

SUCH AS 

PEARS, APPLES, PEACHES, APRICOTS, QUINCES, CHERRIES, Etc. 
A full assortment of Ornamental Trees and Shrubbery, Soft Wooded and Bedding 

Plants. The Abyssinian Banana, the largest and handsomest of all ornamental plants. 

FORTY-FIVE different varieties of Oleanders. Rooted Grapevines for Claret and 

Sherry; imported kinds, such .is Palomino, Doradilla, Cabernet Sauvignon, Mataro, Pedro 
Ximcnes; also Sabal Kansk i. Imperial Table (1 rape of Russia, etc. 

THE WHITE ADRIATIC FIC, 

The finest drying Fig known. The San I'edro, the largest of all table Flat. The White Genoa, etc. The 
rapersliell and Spanish Ku by Pomegranates. The Ciiruba Iruit. Olives. Many novelties. Send for 
Circular ahout Fig Culture. It answers all your questions. 

We have a small quantity of Adriatic Figs, Dried and Cured, and will send a Sample Fig to each one of 

our cuBtomtrs who buys for at least $5.00 worth, or to any one sending us 10 cents in stamps to pay for packing and 
postage, which in any subsequent order will be placed at their credit. 

Fig Culture and Fig Curing is the coming paying industry ot California. 

KOSK-GRO WIN 3 a Specialty. Fine Plants true to label. Catalogue reidy In October, contains Guide 
to Koseculture. 

Mr. W. C. West, formerly of West's Stockton Nursery, is in charge of the propagating department. 
1ST All Letters to bk Audkkkbkd to 

GUSTAV EISEN, Fresno City, Cal. 



HALF A MILLION GARDI 




Our Sct-d Warehouses, the largest in 
New York, are fitted up with every ap 
pliance for the prompt and careful 
filling of orders. 





Our Green-houso Establishment at 
Jersey City is the most extensive in 
America. Annual Sales, 2,'j Million 
lants. 



Our Catalogue for 1886. of 140 pages, containing colored plates, descriptions and illustrations 
of the NEWEST. BEST and RAREST SEEDS and PLANTS, will be mailed on receipt of 

6 cts. (in stamps) to cover postage. 

PETER HENDERSON & CO. 35 MV ^' st • 



?d$, Wants, ttc. 



Rose Springs Nurseries, 

Roseville Junction, Placer Co., Cal., 

Offers for sale a fine stock of well-grown, health v, insect- 
free and non-irrigated 

FRUIT TREES. 

Also GRAPEVINE ROOTS, one and two veara old, of 
the leading shipping varieties, and Cuttings' of the had- 
ing sorts in the Stale for wine, shipping and drying. 

Fruit Trees. Vines, and amall Fruits, by 
mall, a specialty. 

Strawberries— Old Iron Clad, Big Bob, James Viek, 
Jersey <Jucen, and other varieties. Blackberries, Rasp- 
berries, Currants, and Gooseberries, both EnglUli and 
native. 

A lull assortment of Ornamental Trees and Shrubbery, 
•oft-wooded arid bedding plants. Wu have an immense 
stock of Greenhouse and other plants which we send by 
mail or express. 

We will send 10 Everb'oom'ng Koeee, or 10 B'gonias, 
or 10 Culeus, or 10 Geraniums, or 10 Kuschias, or 10 Car- 
nations, or 10 Heliotropes, all our choicest, by mail, to 
any address in the United States, we paying postage, for 
one dollar, but no order for less than one dollar will he 
sent. 

lyCorreapondence solicited. Send for descriptive. 
Cataloguo and price list. 

E. BOOTH, 
Roseville, Placer Co., Cal. 



GRAPE CUTTINGS. 
15,000 VERDELHO. 

"This is par excellence the finest of the Madeira varie- 
ties. It also enters into the Sherries of Spain and the 
finest liqueur wines It is also found in the State in 
very "mall lots."— Report of Chief Kxeciilire Vilirultu 
ral dficcr. 

15,000 BLACK BURGUNDY. 

A valuable „ru- . good bearer, ripening with Ziufandcl; 
pronounced by Mr. Crabb, of Napa, a rare variety. 

The above kinds and qualities of Cuttings, twenty 
inches long, are for sale at $10 per thousand by 

THE PACIFIC MUTUAL LIFE INS. CO. 
418 California St , 8. F. 

PACIFIC NURSERIES. 

Lombard Street, between Baker and Lyon, 
San Francisco. 

25.0OO OLIVES, PICHOLINE, from 310 to SM 

per hundred. 

250.000 BLACKBERRY. KITTITANY and 
LAWSONS, |U and flS per thousand. 

5O.000 MONTEREY CYPRESS. 
6000 BLACK WOOD ACACIAS. 
1800 TREES. ROSES :i to E feet high. 

Also Camellias, Azaleas, Araucarias excels'*, and 
Araucarias bidwillii. 

Also an immense stock of Ev ergreon Trees and Klo wtr 
ing Shrubs. 

F. LUDEMANN. 



TOKALON VINEYARD, 



NAPA COUNTY. 



Important Vine Cuttings for Sale. 



Merlot, 
Trousseau 
Carlgnan, 



Cabernet Sauvignon, 
Cabernet Franc, 
Petite Sirrah, 



Beclan, 
Mataro, 
Malbec, 



Black Grenache, 
Gross Blaue. B. Burgundy, 

Blaue Portugueses 
Tannat, Pied de Perdrlx, 

Gamay Telnturier, 
Clairette Blanche, Setnillion Blanc, 

Plneau Chardonay, 
Sauvignon Verte, Sauvignon Blanche. 
Black Farmot, 
And all the more common varieties in any qualities. 
H. W. CRABB, 

Oakville, Naps Co.. Cal. 



RESISTANT VINES! 

Mane vour Vineyards Permanent 
by Planting Resistant Vines. 

200,000 
Seedlings and Rooted Vines of 
Riparia and Californica. 

JOHN ROCK, 

San Jose, ... California. 



GILL'S NURSERIES. Oakland, Cal. 

Wc now offer for s«le a larire and complete stock of FRUIT, SHADE and ORNAMENTAL TREKS, 
SIIKUHS nml OKF.KN'HOl'.StC FI,,VNTfli, including AMleas. specimen Araucarias lmhricata, Camellias 
and llhiidodandronM. HOSES and PINKS, our specialties, for which this plaon has long been noted. 8KBD- 
UN(IS Cypress and Lnun-stiiiiis, all sizei, for hedging; SOOO Hlue and Red tiuuil, trajHuartetl j n baje* 
We invito inspection ol our itouk. Bend for Catalogue and Price pint. Address 

E. GILL, asth St., bet. Adeline and Market, near Sao Pablo Ave.. Oakland. Cal, 
t£>">M PtUC Avinue Horsv car* paps rjose to N usury, 



BELLEVUE NURSERY. 

All Descriptions of Fruit Trees for Sale. 

ALSO ORNAMKNTAL TREES. 

Our stock uf Rartlett Pears i« very fine and extensive. 
We guarantee our nursery stock to be perfectly free from 
either White or Rod Scale, or the San Jos* Scale. Send 
for Catalogue. 

MILTON THOM&8, 

p. o, Box 304, Loe Angeles, Cal. 

TlkKI'IIOMK Ho. 19. 



For Oilier seed AavertisRmeiits see Paees 22-2,1 



Jan. 2, 1886.] 



fACIFI(5 I^URAb fRESS. 



RNIA, ") 
IENT, V 
I88 S J 



Horticultural Society vs. W. M, Boggs 

At the regular meeting of the State Horticul- 
tural Society, held in this city December 18th, 
resolutions were unanimously adopted, con- 
cerning the new State Inspector of Fruit Pests, 
as follows: 

Whereas, W. M. Boggs has been appointed by 
the State Board of Horticultural Commissioners to 
the office of State Inspector of Fruit Pests; and 
whereas, the law requires that the incumbent of said 
position shall be qualified by actual experience of the 
duties thereof; and, whereas, the said \V. M. Boggs 
has, at divers and sundry times, admitted and 
declared that he had no experience whatever, and 
no qualifications for the position, except that he was 
as well qualified to draw the salary as any one else; 
now, therefore be it 

Resolved, By this society, thit the attention of Mr. 
Dunn, Controller of State, be called to the gross, 
violation of the law in the appointment of an inex- 
perienced person to the position aforesaid, and that 
he be requested to withhold the warrant for his 
salary, on the ground that it is impossible for the 
horticultural interests to receive any benefit from his 
services as Inspector of Fruit Pests, and because 
the purposes and objects for which the money was 
appropriated are defeated by his appointment. 

Resolved, That copies of these resolutions be for- 
warded to the Governor and Controller of the State. 
Replies by State Officers. 

In accordance with instructions, the Secre- 
tary transmitted copies of the resolutions to 
Sacramento, and received the following replies: 
From the Governor. 

StATE of California 
Executive Defaktmk 
Sacramento, Cal., Dec 

E. J. Wickson, Secretary State Horticultural 
Society— Dear Sir: Your favor of yesterday, to 
the Governor, transmitting certain resolutions re 
cently adopted by the State Horticultural Society 
in reference to W. M. Boggs, the Fruit Inspector, 
to hand. 

After an examination of the law, the Governor is 
of the opinion that he has no power in the premises 
as the Inspector is appointed by the State Board of 
Horticulture. Yours truly, 

W. W. Morelanu, Private Sec'y Governor. 
From the Controller. 
Office of Controller of State, ) 
Sacramento, Dec. 26, 1885. J 

E. J. Wickson, Secretary State Horticultural 
Society — Dear Sir: I am in receipt of your com 
munication of the 21st inst. , which is embodied in e 
preamble and resolution adopted by your society on 
December 18th, relative to the fitness of W. M 
Boggs as Slate Inspector of Fruit Pests, and con- 
taining a request that the Controller withold the 
salary warrant of Mr. Boggs, as said Inspector, on 
the ground of all-ged incompetency. In reply, 1 
would state that 1 h ive carefully considered the mat- 
ter and have come to the conclusion that I have no 
authority to comply with the request. The Act ere 
ating the State Board of Horticulture (Statutes of 
1883, page 289), provides for the appointment of 
members who "shall be specially qualified by prac- 
tical experience and sludy in connection with the 
industries dependent upon horticulture." 

Section 6 of the act reads: "The said Board shall 
elect of their own number, or appoint from without 
their number, a competent person especially qual- 
ified by practical experience in horticuliure tor the 
duties of his office, who shall be known as Inspector 
of Fruit Pests, to hold office at the pleasure of the 
Board," 

Section 9, amended February 18, 1885, fixes the 
compensation of said Inspector at $200 per month, 
and Section 12 appropriates the sum of $to,ooo for 
the use of the Board, including the payment of the 
salary of the Inspector, and directs the Controller to 
•draw warrants for the same, upon proper demands 
being made, 

From the foregoing, I respectful'y submit that the 
appointment of certain gentlemen a« members of the 
Board carries with it the presumption that they have 
the experience and study required by the Act, and 
the selection by them of Mr. Boggs presupposes the 
possession by him of the requirements mentioned in 
Section 6; and for these reasons it does not lie with- 
in the province of this office to refuse to draw a war- 
rant for Mr. Bongs' salary on the ground of incom- 
petency. If I am incorrect in my conclusion, I 
would suggest that a writ of injunction be obtained 
against my issuing the warrant. 

Awaiting a reply, I am respectfully yours, 

John P. Dunn, Controller. 

Oaklawn Farm. — A visit to this great horse im- 
porting and breeding establishment convinces us 
that its reputation, which has extended to all parts 
of the world, has been justly eirned. Located at 
Wayne, Illinois, its proprietor, Mr. M. W. Dun- 
ham, with remarkable foresight early comprehended 
the need and probable demand for improvement in 
the work horses of the country; and, in 1872, in a 
small way commenced the work which has attained 
such grand proportions, the sales to date having 
aggregated several millions of dollars. The adapta- 
bility of Percheron stallions in preference to other 
draft breeds in crossing on the native mares of this 
country has long been established. To this fact 
may be attributed the increasing demand lot Perch 
eron stallions that requires an annual importation of 
several hundred to supply the needs of "Oaklawn. 
In selecting this stock only horses of individual ex- 
ellence, possessing pedigrees tracing through an 
ancestry of choice breeding are purchased; certifi- 
cates of registry in the Percheron Stud Book of 
France being demanded as a proof of such breeding. 

An Extensive Seed Warehouse. 
Wm. Henry Maule, of Philadelphia,_has taken posses- 
won 'fa very commodious and elegant building:, which 
he has had built the past summer for his Seed business 
exclusively. It is unusually strong, substantial, ad- 
mirably adapted for the purpose for which it was erected, 
and is uaid to be the handsomest seed warehouse in the 
country. Some idea of the immense business done by 
this house in garden seeds may he inferred from the fact 
that lust year over 200,0(10 catalogues were sent out to 
market gardeners and others. 



SI. 00 



1.00 



Inducements to Subscribers. 

To favor subscribers to this paper, ond to induce new 
pat onB to try our publication, we offer the following 
advantages to all new subscribers who pay one year in 
advance, or present subscribers who will pay their sub- 
scriptions up to a date fully one year in advance of the 
present time. We will furnish the following articles 
while this notice continues), at the reduced rates named: 

REGULAR 

1. — The Agricultural Features of Cali- price. 
fornia, by Prof. Hilgard, 138 Urge pages, 
bound in stiff cloth, with colored 
maps Postpaid for 25 cts 

2. — World's Cyclopedia, 791 pages, with 
1250 illustrations, worth 81.75, Postpaid 50 cts. 

3. — Patent Binder (cloth cover) with name 
of this paper in gilt Postpaid for 50 cts. 

4-— Niles' Stock and Poultry Book, pam- 
phlet, 120 pages Postpaid for 25 cts. 

5. — Kendall's Treatise on the Horse and 
Diseases Postpaid for 5 cts. 

6. — To New Subscribers, 12 select back 
Nos. of the Rural Press Free. 

7. — Any of Harper's first-class periodicals, 
15 per cent, less than regular rates. 

8. —Frank Leslie's and most other U. S. 
periodicals, 15 per cent discount from 
regular rates. 

9. — Pacific Coast and Eastern Dailies, 
Books and Periodicals, except special 
publications, we can usually give 10 to 
15 per cent less than advertised retail 
rates. 

10. — Picturesque Arizona, 380 pages, in 
cloth and gilt Postpaid for 25 cts. 

11. — Life among the Apaches, 322 pages, 
stiff cloth Postpaid for 25 cts. 

12. — SI worth of choice seeds, to be selected 
from a list of 189 flower and 82 garden 
seeds, as previously published, or which 
list we will send on application 

Postpaid fir 25 cts. 
13 — Picturesque California Homes (40 

building plans and estimates).. Postpaid for $1.10 3.50 

14. — Dewey's Patent Newspaper File Hold- 
er (18 to 36 inch) Postpaid, 25 cts. 

15. — European Vines Postpaid, Sets. 

16. — The A B C of Potato Culture 10 cts. 

17. — Sugar from Melons, 56 pages 5 cts. 

18. — De Groot's Early History of Cal. Min- 
ing 5 cts. 

19. —Webster's Dictionary, 634 pages, witli 
1500 illustrations 50 cts. 

20. — Gen. Grant's Lithograph, size 24x19 in. 10 cts. 

21. — Cleveland Fine Steel Plate, size 12x16 
in 10 cts. 

22. — Gen. Grant's Fine Steel Plate, cabinet 

size 5 cts. 

Note.— The cash must accompany all orders. If too 

much is sent for any article or publication, the balance 
will be returned immediately. Address this office, No. 
252 Market St., S. F. 
Send for any further information desired. 
Readers will pleise inform their new neighbors and 
others concerning our paper and these offerings. On 
application, sample copies of this paper will be mf.iled 
free to the address of any persons thought likely to sub- 
scribe — especially to new settlers. Each subscriber is 
invited to send in 5 to 10 names, and we wilt mail such 
I ack Nos. as we have to spare. 



Books-Entertaining, Moral, Religious, 

At Less than Half Publishers' Prices 

To New and Old Subscribers who pay 1 year in adoance. 

To secure a host of new subscribers, and prompt re- 
newals from our old patrons of this paper, xohile this 
notice appears, we will mail, post-paid, within twenty 
days at farthest, any of the following publications, on 
the terms named below: In ordering, give only the No- 
of each book wanted: Pi BLisimRs' Our 

Prices. Terms- 



1.25 
1.00 



1.00 



.50 
.25 
.35 
.25 



3.50 



.50 



Dewey & Co.'s Scientific Press 
Patent Agency. 



1. Ingersoll Answered, by Parker $0 15 

2. American Humorists by Haweis 15 

3. No. One: How to Take Care of Him. .15 

4. '49 -Gold Seekers of the Sierras by 

Joaquin Miller 15 

5. Old Sailor's Yarns, by Coffin 15 

For all of above $0.75 

6. A Winter in India, by Baxter 15 

7. Self-Culture, by Blackie 10' 

For all of above $1.00* 

8. Aboird anJ Aboard by Breed 15 

9. Prince Saroni's Wife, by Hawthorne. .15 

For all of above $1.30 

Any of aboee ordered singly, or the 
following, at 4 Publishers' prices. 

10. Manliness of Christ, by Hughes 10 

11. The Persian Queen, by Thwing 10 

12. Joan of Arc, by Lamartine 10 

13. Light of Asia, by Arnold 15 

14. The Hsrmits, by Kingsley 15 

15. The Nutritive Cure by Walter 15 

16. Charlotte Bronte, by Holloway . .15 

17. French Celebrities, by Daudet (part 1) .15 

18. Arnold as Poetizer and Paganizer. .. .15 

19. Sharp's Culture and Religion 15 

20. Archibald Malmaison, by Hawthorne .15 

21. Macauley's Essays 15 

22 Carlvle's Essays 20 

23 Life of C. H Spu'geon, by Yarrow. . .20 

24. New Testament Helps, by Crafts 20 

25. Idyls of the King, by Tennyson 20 

.20 
.20 
.25 
.25 
.25 
.25 
.25 
.25 
.25 
.25 
.25 
.25 
.25 



Hutchison's Nurseries. — We have received 
a copy of the 34th annual catalogue of James 
Hutchison, of Oakland, who is too well known 
by his long career as a nurseryman and seeds- 
man to need introduction to our readers. His 
old location on Telegraph avenue and Twenty- 
sixth street has long since proved inadequate 
for his business, and he has branched oat from 
time to time, the last being the establishment 
of a new branch nursery at Piedmont. We 
find that Mr. Hutchison's new catalogue con- 
tains very full lists of desirable new and rare 
plants, ornamental and industrial, together 
with the old varieties whose value is attested 
by their popularity. 

In the Hkart of Africa. — Travels of Sir Samuel 
Baker, F. R. G. S. With map. i2mo., 286 pp., 
' paper. Price, 25 cents. 

" In all the literature of African travel, no single 
work can be found more exciting and also more 
instructive than this, in its disclosure of the myste- 
ries of the Dark Continent." — .V. Y. Journal of 
Commerce, 

We will furnish (within 20 days at farthest) the above 
work, post-paid, at half price to new or old subscribers 
on'paying for this paper up to one ye*rin advance of tbis 
date. See our offer of desirable books on similar termii, 
inserted from time to time in this paper. 



26. Calamities of Authors, by D'lsraeli 

27. Goldsmith's Citizen of the World. . . . 
■2H. Life of Cromwell, by Paxton Hood . . . 

29. Science in short Chapters, Williams. 

30. Essays of George E iot, by Sheppard. 

31. Successful Men of To Day, by Crafts. 

32. India: What Can It Teach Us'.' Mulle.r 

33. Scottish Characteristics, by P. Hood. 

34. Illustrations & Meditations, Snurgeon 

35. Memorie and Kime, Joaquin Miller. . 

36. In the Heart of Africa, by Baker 

A Yankee School Teacher, Bddwin . 

38. Chiistmas in Narragansett, by Hale 

39. Working People and their Employers ".25 

40. Life of Martin Luther, by Kostlin 25 

41. Sartor Resartus, by Carlyle 25 

42. Nature Studies, by Proctor 25 

43. With the Poets, by Canon Farrar 25 

44. The Bowsham Puzzle, by Habberton .25 

45. My Musical Memories, by Haweis 25 

46. Wit, Wisdom and Philosophy, Richter .25 

47. The Home in Poetry, bv Holloway.. .25 
4S. Rutherford, by Fawcett 25 

49. Howard, Christian Hero, Holloway . . .25 

50. Sam Hobart, by Fulton 25 

51. Letters to Workmen, Ruskin (2 vols.) .30 

52. Memories of My Exile, Koseuth, 2 vols .40 

53. Orations of Demosthenes (2 vols.) 40 

54 Life of Christ, by Farrar (2 vols.) ... .50 

55. History of Bible Translation 50 

56. Dickens' Christinas Books (I vols.). . . .50 
AU these books are printed in large, clear type, oil 

paper, and arc bound in paper covers. 

Remittances must accompany the order. Any sub- 
scriber can avail himself of this offer by forwarding suffi- 
cient to make his subscription paid one year in advance. 



Doctors will find microscopes to suit, from 
i?'J5 to $500 at Muller's Optical Depot. x 



Consumption Cured. 

An old physician, ret, red from practice, having had 
placed in his hands by an East India missionary the 
formula of a simple vegetable remedy for the speedy and 
permanent cure of Consumption, Bronchitis, Catarrh, 
Asthma and all throat and lung affections, also a posi- 
tive and radical cure for Nervous Debility and all Nervous 
Complaints, after having tested its wonderful curative 
powers in thousands of cases, has felt it his duty to make 
it known to his suffering fellows. Actuated by this 
motive and a desire to relieve human suffering, I will 
send, free of cnarge, to all who desire it, this recipe, t in 
German, French, or English, with full directions for pre- 
paring and using. Sunt by mail by addressing with 
stamp, naming this paper, W. A. Notes, 149 Power's 
Block, Rochester, N. Y. 



80. 7i 
• 74 



^ ' 7 * 
$0.25 

.74 

.05 

$0.35 

■7i 
■Ti 

$0.50 



.05 
.06 
.05 
•7i 

■n 
■n 
.7; 

-7i 

.74 

.74 
.7i 

•7£ 
.10 
.10 
.10 
.10 
.10 
.10 

.124 
.m 

.12i 

.124 

.12^ 
.12* 
.124 
.124 
.124 
.12* 
.124 
.124 
.12* 
.124 
.124 
.124 
.124 
.124 
.124 
.124 
.124 
.12} 
.124 
.15 
.20 
.20 
.25 
.25 
.26 
good 



ANNUAL MEETING. 

The Regular Annual Meeting of the Stockholders of 
the Grangers' Bank of California for the election of Di- 
rectors for the ensuing year will take place at the office 
cf the Bank, in the City of San Francisco, Stite of Cali- 
fornia, on Tuesday, the 12th day of January, 
1886. at one o'clock, p. m. 

San Francisco, December 14th, 1885. 

For Grangers' Bank of California, 

ALBERT MONTPELLIER, 

Cashier and Manager. 



DIVIDEND NOTICE. 
The German Savings and Loan Society. 

For the half-year ending December 31, 1885, the Board 
of Directors of the German Savings and Loan Society has 
declared a dividend at the rate of four and one-half (44) 
per cent per annum*, on term deposits, and three and 
three-fourths (3ij) per cent per annum, on ordinary de- 
posits, and payable on and after the 2d dav of January, 
1886. By order. GEO. LETTE, Secretary. 




Our U. S. and Foreign Patent Agency 
presents many and important advantages as a 
Home Agency over all others, by reason of long 
establishment, great experience, thorough sys- 
tem, intimate acquaintance with the subjects of 
inventions in our own community, and our 
most extensive law and reference library, con 
taining official American and foreign reports, 
files of scientific and mechanical publications, 
etc. All worthy inventions patented through 
our Agency will have the benefit of an illustra- 
tion or a description in the Mining and Scien- 
tific Press. We transact every branch of 
Patent business, and obtain Patents in all coun- 
tries which grant protection to inventors. The 
large majovity of U. S. and Foreign Patents 
issued to iuventors on the Pacific Coast have 
been obtained through our Agency. We can 
give the best and most reliable advice as to the 
patentability of new inventions. Our prices 
are as low as any first-class agencies in the 
Eastern States, while our advantages for Pacific 
Coast inventors are far superior. Advice and 
Circulars free. 

DEWEY & CO., Patent Agents. 
No. 252 Market St. Elevator 12 Front St. 
S. F. Telephone No. 658. 

A. T. DEWEY. W. B. EWER.- GEO. H. STRONG. 

GREGORY'S 

Spraying Pump. 



Situations Wanted, 



WANTED— BY A MAN OF LARGE EXPERIENCE, 
a position as superintendent or foreman of a ranch 
(stock ranch preferred); married; no children. Address 
P., care this office. 

WANTED -A SITUATION BY A FIRST-C'LASS 
Gardener. Address M. Neelson, this office. 



JOHN SAUL'S 
Catalogue of New, Rare, and Beau iful 
Plants for 1886, is Now Ready. 

It is full in realiy good and heautiful plants, as we as 
all the novelties of merit. The rich collection of fine 
Foliage, and other Greenhouse and Hothouse Plants, are 
well grown and at low prices. Orchids— A very large 
stock of choice East Indian, American, etc. Also Cata- 
logues of Roses, Orchids, Seeds, Trees, etc. 

JOHN SAUL, Wasbington, D. C. 



Knabe 

A. L. Bancroft & Co. 
721 Market St., 
Sau Francisco, Cal. 



Fifty years before 
the Public. 
The best Piano made. 

Pianos 



DIVIDEND NOTICE. 
San Francisco Savings Union, 

532 California St., cor. Webb. 

For the half-year ending December 31, 18S5, a dividend 
lias been declared at the rate of lour and one-half (4J) per 
«ent per annum, on term deposits, and three and three- 
fourths (3,5) per cent per annum, on ordinary deposits, 
tree from taxes, payable on and after January 2, 1S86. 

LOVELL WHITE, Cashier. 

AN EXTRAORDINARY RAZOR 

HAS BEEN INVENTED BY THE QUEEN S OWN 
OUMPANY, of Enelacd. The edge and body is so THIN 
and FLEXIBLE AS NEVER TO REQUIRE GRINDING 
a.wi batdly ever setting. It glides over the face like apiece 
of velvet, making shaving quite a luxury. It is CREATING 
A 'GREAT EXCITEMENT in Europe among the experts, 
who iwonounce i , PERFECTION. Two dollars in buffolo 
handle; S3 iu ivo y. Every razor, to be genuine, must bear 
on the reverse side the name of NATHAN JOSEPH, 641 
Clay street, San Francisco, the only place in the United 
State ?b where they are obtained. Irade supplied; sent by 
mail 10c. extra, or C. O. D. 

Our New Squirrel & Gopher Exterminator. 

Fa rnoers heretofore have paid prices for these Extermi- 
nators^© cover agents' commissions, etc. We have con- 
clude i to put the price down to agents' prices and give 
the F wiuera the benefit. Send direct to the Manufac- 
turers' and get them. We will send you our Patent Ex- 
terminator C. O. D. by Express, or by Freight, on receipt 
of the price, $3.00. Weight about 6 tbs. These Extermi- 
nators we guarantee to give satisfaction. No Agents 
Wants ft Address: P. E. BROWNE, No. 44 S. 
Spring Street, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Concrete Apparatus 

RANSO'VTE, 402 Montgomery St.,S. F. Send for Circulars. 



Hidden Netne.eU-. Perfumed Card* A Prize 
CLINTON BUOS, CllntonvllU, Coos. 




The above represents the only Pump which has been 
adopted by the State Horticultural Society. It is of 
California manufacture and entirely different intern- 
ally from a light Eastern Pump which resembles it very 
closely externally. The GREGORY Pump is the only 
one which will stand the corrosive action of the alkalies 
in the various insecticide mixtures. 

H. P. GREGORY & CO., 



2 and 4 California St., 



San Francisco. 




1,3^0 Engines now in use. 
40,000 Horse Power now running. 
Sales 2,000 H. P. per month. 

OrSend for strated Circular and Reference List. 

PARKE & LACY, 

Sole Agents for Pacific Coast & Territories 
21 and 23 Fremont St, San Francisco. 

AngbIiL'b Liver Pillb cure rheumatism and headache, 



18 



pACIFie RURAb p>RESS. 



[Jan. 2, 1886 



breeder?' birectory. 



Six lines i>r less in this Director; at 50c per line per month. 

POULTRY. 

J AS. T. BROWN, is Georgia St., Lew Angelas, On). 
Breeder of Ihomu gfcb ted Poultry ol the leading va- 
rieties. Send for cirrular and price list. 

T. D. MORRIS, Sonoma, Cal. Tuolouse and Enibden 
Oecse, Bronze aud W. Holland Turkeys, and all leading 

varieties of Thoroughbred Poultry. 

D. H. EVERETT, 1616 Larkin St.,S. P., importer and 
breeder of Thorough! red Langshans and Wyandottes. 

J. N. LUND, Box 116, Oakland, Cal. Wyandottes, 
langshans, L. Brahnias, P. Kocks, B. Leghorns, B. B 
K. dame Bantams, T. Guineas, Horn "g Antwerp Piegons. 



Houses \nd G^jtle. 



MRS. D. C. VESTAL, San Jose. Brown Leghorns, 
Langshans and Plymouth Rocks. Eggs and Fowls. 

CALIFORNIA POULTRY FARM. Stockton, Cal. 
Importers and breeders of Thoroughbred Poultry. Eggs 
and chicks lor salo. Cutting & Robinson, P. O. Box 7. 

JOHN McFARLING, Oakland and Calistoga, b'd'r 
Langshans, Partridge & Bull Cochins, L't Brahnias, Ply- 
mouth Rocks, Rose Comb, Am. Doniinick & Wyand'tt c 

R. Q. HEAD, Napa, Cal , breeder of high-class Land 

and Water Fowls and Berkshire Pigs, Brahnias, Cochins, 
Langshans, Plymouth Rocks, Leghorns, Geese, Ducks, 
Turkeys. Send 2-cent stamp for Circular. 

C. H. NEAL, Lodi, San Joaquin Co., importer and 
breeder of Thoroughbred Poultry for 20 years. Ha? 
all the leading varieties and birds of all classes for sale, 
as well as Eggs for hatching. 



O. J. ALBEE, Santa Clara, Cal., breeder of Langshans. 
Partridge Cochins, Pedigreed Scotch Collies, W. C. B 
Polish, Wyandottes, B. Leghorns, B. B. R. O. Bantams. 

MRS. L. J. WATKINS, San Jose, Cal. Pure bred 
Fancy Poultry. White and Brown Leghorns, Plymouth 
Rocks, Langshans, Houdans, Light Brahnias, and 
Black Spanish. Eggs and Fowls. 



W. O. DAMON, Napa, Wyandottes, W. and B. Leg- 
horns, P. Rocks, L. Brahnias, Pekin Ducks. 



D. D. BRIGGS, LosOatos, Cal., Fancy Poultry breeder 

MRS. M. E. NEWHALL, San Jose. White and 
Brown Leghorns, Langshans, Plymouth Rocks, Light 
Brahnias, Pekin Ducks and Bronze Turkeys. 

GEO. B. BAYLEY, 1317 Castro St., Oakland, Im- 
porter and Breeder of all the best known and most 
profitable Laud and Water Fowls. Publisher ol the 
Pacific Coast Poulterers' Hand Book and Guide. Price 
40 cents. Send 2-cent stamp for Illustrated Circular. 



HORSES AND CATTLE. 



J. A. BREWER. CeotervIUe, Alameda Co., Cal. 
Shorthorns and Grades. Young stock for sale. 

S. SCOTT, Cloverdale, Cal., Importer and Breeder of 
high-breed Short Horn Cattle of the best milking quali- 
ties. Imported Duke of Auckland (3SS)athead of herd. 
Jacks ami Spanish Merino Sheep. Alt kinds of stock 

for sale. 

CLYDESDALE HORSE CO , Petaluma, Cal. 
Full bloods and grades on hand and for sale. Address 
G. B. McNear, Secretary. 

GEO BEMENT, Redwood City, breeder of A} rshire 
Cattle, Southdown Sheep, Berkshire and Essex Swine. 

PETER SAXE & SON, Lick House, San Francisco, 
Cal. Importers and Breeders, for past 14 years, of 
every variety of Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Hogs. 

WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. Thorough- 
bred Poultry, Cattle and Hogs. Write for circular. 

COTATE RANCH BREEDING FARM, Page's 
Station, S. F. & V P. R. B. P. 0., Penn's Grove, 
Sonoma Co., Cal. Wilfred Page, Manager. Breeders 
of Short Horn Cattle, English Draft Horses, Spanish Me- 
rino Sheep and Berkshire Swine. 



R. J. MERKELEY Sacramento, breeder of Norman, 
Percheron Horses and thoroughbred Shorthorn Cattle. 

Estite of M. E. BRADLEY, San Jose, Cal., breeder 
of recorded thoroughbred Shorthorn Cattle and Berk- 
shire Hogs. A choice lot of young stock for sale. 

THE HYDE RANCH, Cornwall, Contra Costa Co., 
I. II. Schneider, M'g'r, Norman-Percheron horses. 

J . R. ROSE, Lakeville, Sonoma Co., Cal., breeder of 
Thoroughbred Devons, Roadsters and Draft Horses. 

SETH COOK. Danville, "Cook Farm," Contra Costa 
Co., breeder of Aberdeen Angus, Galloways and De- 
vons (Registered). Young stock for sale. 



J. H. WHITE, Lakevillo, Sonoma Co., Cal., breeder 

of Registered llolsteiu Cattle. 



SWINE. 



I. L. DICKINSON, Lono Oak Farm, S<.nora, Tuol- 
umne Co., Cal., breeder of thoroughbred Essex Hogs. 
Pigs now ready for sale. Prices reasonable. 

WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. Thoroughbred 
Poland-China and Berkshire Pitrs Circulars tree 

JOHN RIDER, Sacramento, Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire Swine. My stock ol Hogs are all 

recorded in the American Berkshire Record. 

TYLER BEACH, San Jose, Cal., breeder of 
thoroughbred Berkshire*. 



SHEEP AND GOATS. 

JULIUS WEYAND, breeder of pure-blooded An- 
gora Goats, Little Stony, Colusa Co., Cal. 



KIRKPATRICK & WHITTAKER, Knight's 

Ferrv. Cal.. breeders of Merino Sheep. Kama for sale. 

EASTON MILLS, Lakeville, Sonoma Co., thorough- 
bred Spanish Merino Sheep. Choice rams for sale. 

L. U. SHIPPEE, Stockton, Cal. Importer and breeder 
ol Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Red Duroe 
»nd Rerkahlrn Swine High graded Rams for »U 



BEES. 



WM. MUTH-RASMU8SEN, Independence, Inyo 
County, Cal., dealer in Honey, Comb Foundation, and 
Italian Queens in season. Bee-hive and '.unit ma- 
terial sawed to order. 



Clydesdale and Eng- 
lish Shire Horses. 

Thonnlv stud In Ameri- 
ca containing the very 
best specimens of both 
breeds. Prize winners at 
ChleuKoKair.the World's 
Fair at New Orleans, the 
Roviil Society Of Eng- 
land, etc. Ijirgc Impor- 
tation arrived August IS, 
and more to follow, 
our buying facilities be- 
ing unequalled, there 
y is no such opportunity 
offered elsewhere, to 
procure tlrst class animals of choicest breeding at 
very lowest prices. Every animal duly recorded 
and guaranteed. Terms to suit all customers. 
Catsil'igucs OB application. 

OALBRAITII BROS., Janenvllle, Wis. 




SHORTHORN 
DURHAIvTcA TTLE. 

Registered Bulls of All Ages for Sale 
at Reasonable Prices. 
Apply to 

G. H. HOWARD. 

San Mateo, Cal. 

Or W. H. HOWARD, 

523 Montgomery St., San Francisco. 




New Importation of French Horses 

T. SK1LLMAN, the pioneer importer, has Just re- 
turned from France with ono of the best importations 
ever made, including French Draft anil Coaching Stall- 
ions and Mares. Horses for sale on reasonable and favor- 
able tnrms at his sale stable in Petaluma. 
£3TCatalogue on application. 

T. SKILLMAN, 

Petaluma, Cal. 



BADEN FARM HERD. 
Of Short Horn Cattle and Dairy Cows. 

Catalogues and Prices on application to 

ROBERT ASH BURNER, 
Baden Station, ... San Mateo Oo. 



CALVES and COWS 

Prevented sucking each other, also, self-sucking, by 
Rice's Patent Weaner. Used by all Stock Raisers. 
Prices by mail, postpaid; For Calves till one year old, 
65 cents; till two years old, 80 cents; older, 11.12. Circu- 
lars free. Agents wanted. 

H. C. RICE. Fartnlnfirton. Oonn. 



SINCLAIRVILLE STOCK FARM. 




Trijutje(370 N. H. B.,2943 H. H. B > 

Record— 9f> ha of milk per day, and 18 It*. 9 oz. unaalted 
butter in seven days in February. Winner of sweep- 
stakes prize at (Jhent, Belgium, as giving the most and 
best milk of any cow on exhibition. 

HOLSTEIN-FRIESIAN CATTLE ! 

Over One Hundred Head, 

With Barrinsrton (278 N. II. B., 210S H. IL B.) at head 
of herd, whose dam, Hamming, has a milk record of 99 
lbs. in one day. Zuarta, of our 1881 importation, made 
600 lbs. -butter in 2.10 consecutive days; Armada, 1 lb but- 
ter from 15} ll.s. milk; Linaria, 1 It,, butter from lf>4 lbs. 
milk; Jennie II 2d, 18} lbs. butter in seven days in March, 
S(',J lbs. milk in one day; Bexje, 93i 11,8. in one daj ; 
Baroness S. , "2 lbs. milk per day at three years old. Cows 
and heifers in calf by Barrington and other noted bulls. 
We employ no aornt, but visit Holland and personally 
select from the dkktkst milk and m ttkr, families to be 
found. Stock of alt ages and both sexes for sale. Address 
B. B. LORD & SON, 
Sinclairville, Chautauqua Co., N. Y. 



FINE IMPORTED 

Pare Bred & High Grade Animals 

FOR SALE 

BY TUB 

PETALUMA STOCK BREEDERS' ASSOCIATION, 

location: 
PETALUMA, SONOMA CO., CAL., 

BOARD OP DIRKCTORS: 

J. R. ROSE, TUEO. SKILLMAN, E. DEN MAN, 
ROBERT CRANE, J. H. WHITE. 

LARGE INVOICE OF DRAFT AND COACH 
STALLIONS JUST RECEIVED! 
The Pick of France. 

Everything Guaranteed as Represented. 
Fine Breeding Animals a Specialty. 

HORSES: Draft, Carriage and Roadsters. 
CATTLE: Uolstein, Devon, Jersey, Ayrshire and Short 
Horns. 

SHEEP: Merinos, Shropshires, Southdowns and others. 
SWINE: Berkshire, Duroc and Poland-China. 
POULTRY: All approved varieties. 

Call on or address J. H. McNABB, Sec'y, 

McCune's Block, Petalun.a. 




Norman and Percheron Horses 

rOlrt S.A.X.E. 

All Registered in National Register. 

Selected by me in France and imported direct to San 
Jose September, 1886; took first premium for 4 year-old 
stallion; first premium for 2-year-old stallion; second 
premium on 3-vear-old stallion; first premium on 4-year- 
old mare at California State Fair of 1S86. Stock may be 
seen at Dexter Stables, San Sose. Sales at reasonable 
rates, and time given il desired. Send lor Catalogue. 

J. C. DUNCAN, San Jose, Cal. 



HOLSTBIN — PRIBSIAN CATTLE. 

ALL AGES AISIJ BOTH SEXES. HOME- 
ItKEl) AND IMPORTED. Cows and Heifers 
bred to best Netharland and A aggie Bulls. 

The average Records of a Herd are the true test of its 
merit. The following Milk and Butter Records have all 
been made by animals now in our Herd: 
Mll.K RECORDS. 
Three Cows have averaged over 20,000 tt>s. In a year. 
Five Cows have averaged over 19,000 lbs. in a year. Ten 
Cows have averaged over 19,000 lbs. in a year. We know 
of about 30 Cows that have made yearly records exceed- 
ing 18,000 lbs., and 14 oi them are now in our Herd and 
have averaged over 17,500 lbs. Twenty-fivs have aver- 
aged over 16,000 lbs. in a year. Sixty three, the entire 
number in the Herd that have made yearly records, in- 
cluding fourteen 3-year-olds and twenty-one 2-year-olds, 
have averaged 12,785 lbs. 5 ozs. in a year. 
BUTTER RECORDS.- Five Cows have averaged lbs. 7 ozs. in a week. Nine Cows have averaged 19 
lbs. | oz. in a week. Fifteen Cows have averaged 17 •* 6 04 s. in a week. Six 3-year-olds have averaged 14 lbs. 3 
on. in a week. Eleven 3-vear olds (the entire number tested) have averaged 13 lbs. 2 ozs. in a week. Six 2-year- 
olds have averaged 12 lhs."lj ozs. in a week. Fifteen 2-year-olds (entire number tested) have a\eraged 10 lbs. 8 3-10 
ozs. in a week. The entire original imported N.-th.-rland Family of six Cows (two being but 3 years old) have aver- 
aged 175 lbs. in a week. This is the Herd from which to get foundation stock. Prices low for quality of stock. 

SMITHS, POWELL & LAMB, Lakeside Stock Farm, Syracuse, N. Y. 




MISSION ROCK DOCK 
GRAIN WAREHOUSE, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

75 OOO TONS CAPACITY. 7K Ofifi 
f U,UUU Storage at Lowest Rates. ' OjVAJW 

CHAS. H. SINCLAIR, Supt. 

Cal. Dry Dock Co., props. —Office 318 Cal. St room S 




This paper is printed with Ink Manufac- 
tured by Charles Eneu Jobnson & Co., 6O0 
South 10th St., Philadelphia. Brancn Offi- 
ces— 47 Rose St., New York, and 40 La Salle 
St., Chicago. Agent for the Pacific Coast— 
Joseph H. Dorety.629 Commercial ^T,, S. F. 



HORSE POWERS, WINDMILLS, TANKS 
and all kinds of Pumping Machinery built to order. 
Awarded Diploma for Windmills at Me- 
chanics' Fair, 1885. 

F. W. KROGH & CO;, 

61 Beale St.. San Francisco. 



ne Comic Transparent and 26 (no 2 alike) Chromo Cards, 
CQ name 00, Ilk. Present free. A Hlnee, Case vi lie, 



Sw 



INE. 




For Sale at our Farm at Mountain View. 

From our Thoroughbred Berkshire Boar and Sow, 
which we imported from England in 1880. Pigs from Im- 
ported Boar and Sow, 125 each; from Imported Boar and 
Thoroughbred Sow, $10 to $20. Our Imported Pigs are as 
oice Pigs as there are in the State. Address, 

I. J. TRUMAN. San Francisco, Cal. 



BERKSHIRES A SPECIALTY. 




My Berkshire* are Thoroughbred, and selected with 
great care from the best herds ol imported stock in the 
United States and Canada, and for individual merit, can- 
not be excelled. My breeding stock are recorded in the 
"American Berkshire Record," where none but pure-brad 
Hogs are admitted. Pigs sold at reasonable rates. Cor- 
respondence solicited. JOHN RIDER, Eighteenth 
and A Streets, Sacramento City, CaL 



JONESA POLAND CHINA FARM. 




ELIAS GALLUP, Hanford Tulare, Co., Cal. 

Breeder of pure-bred Poland China Pigs of the Black 
Beauty, Black Bess, Bismarck, aud other noted families. 
Imported boars King of Bonny View and Gold Dust at head 
of the herd. Stock recorded in A. P. U. K Pigs sold at 
reasonable rates. Correspondence solicited. Address as above. 



Sr|EEf» \kq Sr|EEf>W^Sr|< 



MILLER & COSGRIFF, 

DKALKH- IN ALL KINDB Or 

Tobacco for Sheep Wash Purposes 

Or for VINES and TREES. 

"If we have to keep on constantly spraying, we had 
better use Tobacco decoction, which costs ten times less 
than ether washes."- Kllwood Coopkk, President, Cali- 
fornia Fruit Growers in Council, 1S85. 
417 Battery St., cor. Merchant, San Francisco. 

,t7*Prict-s furnished on application. 



LITTLES 




SHEEP DIP. 

Price Reduced to 
$1.25 

PER GALLON. 



Twenty gallons of fluid 
mixed with cold water will 
make 1,200 gallons ol Dip. 
It is superior to all Dips and Dressings lor Scab in 
Sheep; is certain in effect; is easily mixed, and is applied 
In a cold state. Unlike sulphur or tobacco, or other 
poisonous Dips, it increases the growth of the wool.stlm- 
lates the fleece, and greatly adds to the yolk. It destroy! 
all vermin. It is efficacious for almost every disease (in- 
ternal and external) sheep are subject to. 



FALKNER, 



BELL & CO-. 

San Francisco. CaL 




Calvert's Carbolic 

SHEEP WASH 

$2 per Gallon. 

After dipping the Sheep, Is use- 
ful for preserving wet hides, de- 
stroying the vine pest, and for 
wheat dressings and disinfecting 
purposes, etc. T. W. JACKSON, 
8. K, Sole Ageut for Pacific Coast. 



OORHIN'S 

GREAT HORSE LINIMENT. 

Cure for Swinney, Weakness of the 
Kidneys and Spine, Sprains, Strains* 
Corrin's Great Horse Liniment has all 
the properties Claimed for it. 
DIRECTIONS— Rub well the swinnied shoulder and 
gently raise the hide from shoulder blade during the 
friction. PRICE— $1 per bottle. For sale by all Drug- 
gists. All rights secured In U. S. Patent Otfioe. 

A. C. JOSEPH, Proprietor. 
For Sale by Rbddinqton & Co., 8. F. 




DR. PIERCE'S 




ELECT RO*M AO NETICB 

BELT. A Oalraals B«*.y- 

Bnttery, entirely dlffcrwit 
fr<>in nil other appliance*.! 
It fivciaii Electric Current 
with or without arid*. Dit- 
eita-'S or WeakiMnseaof miUs 
or f. Ni.ilo *\-< edily rh<1 tw-nnan«i)t1r eurrd, •fVRircti^fl fliu* 
l-eOMtry for men fummhea free of cli&rg*. Deserfptlva ctrcuUt% 
with 1'iios totiiuouiala, etc., lorwwdod to any aJdrw-M. 
MAGNETIC ELASTIC TRUSS COMPANY, 
704 SavramfrttQ St., cor. X*KU-ny, 8an rVanc/too, Co/* 



Jan. 2, 1886.] 



f ACIFie r^URAb fRESS. 



P©iIlthy. 



CALIFORNIA 

Poultry Association 




THE THIRD ANNUAL EXHIBITION 

Of this Society will be held at 

ST. IGNATIUS HALL, 

Market Street, between 4th and 5th. 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

FROM TUB 

11th to the 16th of January next, 

BOTH DAYS INCLUSIVE. 

KB" Entry List positively closes January 6th. 

For Premium Lists, entry blanks and any further in- 
formation, Mr- - , the Secretary, 

H. G. KEESLING, San Jose. 
Or California Poultry Association. 

Box 1771, San Francisco. 

Thoroughbred 
LANGSHANS 

■ — AND — 

WYANDOTTES. 

D. H. EVERETT, 

Importer and Breeder, 
1616 Larkin St., San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. 

EGGS and FOWLS 

EAGLE POULTRY FARM. 

Fruit Vale. Alameda County, Cal. 

RDUBEKNET, BREEDER OF THO- 
• roughhred Fowls. Eggs and Fowls for sale. Brown 
and White Leghorns, $1 per setting. Plymouth Rocks 
and Houdans, SI. 50 per setting; White Face Blacl 
Spanish and Langshans, $2 per setting; Pekin Ducks, $1 
per setting. Money to accompany order. Address, 

K. DUBERNET, 
P. O. Box 76. Brooklyn. Alameda Co., Cal. 




CALIFORNIA POULTRY FARM. 




P Headquarters for Thorough- 
bred Poultry and Eggs. We 
have all the leading and most 
profitable breeds. Chicks for 
delivery Sept. 1, 1885. Agents 
for White Mountain Incubator. 
Send 2c. stamp for price list. 
CUTTING & ROBINSON, P. 0. 
Box 7, Stockton, Cal. 



GRIND YOUR OWN BONE, 

Meal, Oyster Shells & Corn in the 

yHAND MILL 
(F. Wilson's Patent.) lOO 
per ct. more made In keeping Poultry. Also Power 
Ulills and Farm Feetl Mills. Circulars and testi- 
monials sent on application. WIL.WON BROS. 
EASTON, Pennn.. The Pacific Coast supplied by 

HAWLEY BROS. HARDWARE CO.. 

3ul to 309 Market St.. San Francisco. Cal. 




HORTON & KENNEDY'S 

FAMOUS 

ENTERPRISE 

Self- Regulating 

WINDMILL 

Is recognized as 
tub Bkst. 

Always gives satisfaction. SIMPLE, 
STRONG and DURABLE in all parts. 
Solid Wrought-iron Crank Shaft with 
double BBAB.IN08 for the Crank to 
work in, all turned and run in adjust- 
able babbitted boxes. 

Positively Self-Regulating, 

With no ooll springs, or springs of any kind. No little 
rods, joints, levers, or anything of the kind to get out of 
order, as such things do. Mills in use 6 to 12 years in 
good order now, that have never cost one cent for repairs. 
AH genuine Enterprise Mills for the Pacific Coast trade 
come only through this agency, and none, whether ol 
the old or latest pattern, are genuine except those bear- 
ing the "Enterprise Co." stamp. Look out for this, as 
inferior mills are being offered with testimonials applied 
to them which were given for ours. Prices to suit the 
times. Full particulars free, "Beet Pumps, Feed Mills, 
etc., kept in stook. Address, 

HORTON & KENNEDY. 

GENERAL OFFICE AND SUPPLIES (as always before), 
LIVERMORE, ALAMEDA CO., CAL. 

San Francisco Agency— JAMES LINFORTB 
116 Front St.. San Francisco. 




YOU CAN DYEiSTSSESS 

With Diamond Byes, for 10 cts. They never 
Tall. Blest colors. They also make Inks, colorpboto's 
etc. Send for colored sam(K<s and live book. Gola 
Silver, Copnerand Bronze Palntsforany use— only 1o 
cents a pk'cri-. Dmnglsts sell or we send post-paid. 

WELLS, RICHARDSON & CO., Burlington. VI, 




BIG HEDGE POULTRY YARDS, 

1321 Sixth Ave., East Oakland, Cal. 

Partridge Cochins, Light and Dark Brahmas, White 
Cochins, Wyandottes, Hamburgs, Black Spanish, 
Fancy Pigeons, Toulouse and Embden 
Geese, Peacocks, Pheasants, Dogs, 
Maltese Cats, etc. 

WINTER & THELER, Importers and Breeders, 
12 & 88 Center Market, cor Sutter & Dupont, S. F. 



WILL'S & POCK MAN'S 




IMPROVED INCUBATOR AND BROODER 

Is sold on its merits, and warranted to be exactly as represented. "T It is absolutely SELF- 
RK( i ULAT1NG. It is a simple, substantial, beautiful and perfect machine, doing the best 
work and giving thorough satisfaction. The eggs can be all turned in half a minute, and it has 
a combined brooder by which the chicks can be reared by the aame heat they are hatched in. 
Send for Circular. 

OFFICE AND SALESROOM: 

ISTo- 328 GT Street, 

S ACR AMSINTTO , CAL. 



GOLDEN GATE INCUBATOR. 

Glen Kcho Farm, Oakland, Cal , May is, 1835. -The Golden Ga f e Incubator purchased of you has given grea* 1 
satisfaction, At my first attempt in running it I got a tine percentage. I never have to attend to it at uight, and -it runs 
wi' li vt ry little attention at any time. Having iuu a no .-regulating machine for some time, I unhesitatingly pronounce 
yours superior in every respect. Your regu'ator seems perfection itself.— WM. HUNT. 

SaucEHTO, June 2, 1885. - I have had very g od success with my chickeos. I can raise about 90 percent of all I hatch, 
and dock* I do uot lose a single one. I will want another machine.— J. A. ENljUIST. 

Send for Circular t? (J. G. INCUBATOR CO., East Oakland, Oal. 




S. W. Corner Kearny and Montgomery Avenue, San Francisco. 

Free Coacb to and from tbe House. J. W. BECKER.Fproprietor. 



QUEEN LILY SOAP 

MANUFACTURED BY TUB 

NEW ENGLAND SOAP CO. 



The Queen Lily Soap was the first and is the only Soap that washes 
without rubbing. From our long experience, and with improved ma- 
chinery, the great reduction in material and labor, we are now able to 
offer this brand at a greatly reduced price, and in quality and finish, 
vastly superior to any heretofore manufactured by us. In using tbe 
Queen Lily Soap, it is impossible to boil the dirt in, it boils it 
out. The finest Linens, Ca abries and Laces washed with this Soap, 
come from the wash, sweet, pure and uninjured. 
«-ASK YOUR GROCER FOR IT. 

FISCHBECK & GLOOTZ, 

Office— 214 Sacramento Street, 
Factory— Sixteenth and Utah Sta., San Francisco. 




Send now if you are interested 

in Farming, Gardening, or Trucking, 
for our 1886 Catalogue, which 
fully describes our Seed-Drills, 




S. L. ALLEN & CO 

127 and 129 
Catharine Street, SS 
PHILADELPHIA, FA. 



THE PACIFIC INCUBATOR! 

Awarded the Gold Medal 
at the State Fair, Sacra- 
mento, and at the Mechan- 
ics' Institute Fair of 1885 

as the best machine made. 

It will hatch any kind of Eggs 
better than a Hen. 
Send Stamp tor Illustrated Cir- 
cular to GEORGE B. BAYLEY, 
Manufacturer, 1317 Castro St., 
Oakland, Cal 

N. B.— A large line of Poultry 
Appliances, such as Wire Netting, 
Bone Mills, Chopping Machines, 
etc., for sale at the lowest rates. 

The Pacific Coast Poulterers' 
Hand Book and Guide; pnee 40c. 

THE PETALUMA INCUBATOR. 

The Simplest, Cheapest and 
Best Incubator made. Three 
Gold Medals, 1 Silver Medal, and 
15 first premiums. Send for 
large illustrated circular — FRK8. 








etc 





TOR. CO. Petaluma Cal. 




JAQUES' INCUBATOR. 

Send 50 Cents in Stamps, 

FOR OUR 

PAMPHLET 

containing full instructions for 
making and managing an Incuba- 
tor costing $5.00, that will hold 
100 eggs, also illustrations and lull 
description of an Egg Tester and 
Artificial Mother. 

Charles B. Jaques k Co., 

Metnchen, New Jersey. 

THE LAST IS FIRST. 
Tlao Star Incutoator 

Has proved itself to he the most successful hatcher, pro- 
ducing healthier chickens than any other in use. It is 
made en the principle of nature, and nature is true to 
itself; the nearer we come to it the better the success. 
No burnt chickens or burnt air. So simple that a child 
can use it. £3TIt has also a simple attachment by which 
the eggs can be turned at once, in a moment's time. 
Call and see them at R. WALKER'S, 

364 Twelfth St., Oakland. Cal. 



J. M. HALSTED'S 

INCUBATORS 
From $20 up. 
The Model Brooder 
from $5 up. Send 
for circular contain- 
ing much valuable 
information. 

Thoroughbred 
Poultry and Eggs. 
1011 Broadway, 

Oakland, Cal. 





THE MODEL. 

SELF - RE GULA TINQ t 
RELIABLE, 

AND SIMPLE. 




Dkar Sir :— Having so many inquiries about prices of 
Gates and County Rights, etc., I herewith give prices of 
this celebrated Gate: 

For a Wood Frame Gate, Wire Rod $25 00 

For a Wood Frame Gate, Wire Rod, Hog and Rab- 
bit tight 30 00 

For a Wi ought Iron Plain Gate 40 00 

Frr a Wrought Iron Plain Gate, Hog and Rabbit 

tight 45 00 

For a Wrought Iron Plain Gate with fancy scroll 

on top 45 00 

For a Wrought Iron Frame, filled with Marsh Wire 50 00 
For a Wrought Iron Frame, filled with Marsh Wire 

with fancy scroll on top 60 00 

For a Tubular Iron Plain Gate 35 00 

ForaTubularlron Plain Gate, Hog and Rabbit tight 40 00 
For a Tubular Iron Plain Gate with fancy scroll on 

top 45 00 

For a Tubular Iron Frame, filled with Marsh Wire, 

with fancy scroll on top $60 00 to 60 00 

For Very Fancy Iron Gates from $60 00 to 100 00 

In asking for prices of County Rights, and discount to 
agents, etc., it is hard to make any fair impression on any 
person who has never seen the article they are inquiring 
about. Even if I quoted the largest discount given by 
any firm, or if I quuted the price of County Rights to you 
almost for nothing, yet any business man would not buy 
or handle any article before viewing it, and ascertain 
what it was. 

The question would naturally follow, "Will it pay to 
canvass for this; if it does, will it pay better to buy the 
territory in which he wishes to canvass in?" Those are 
questions any business man will ask himself before he 
embarks into any enterprise of this kind. And to place 
you on a fair basis, I will ship you a gate $5.00 less than 
the prices quoted. You put it up according to our direc- 
tions, and if the gate don't give satisfaction, send it back, 
freight paid, and I will refund you the money, or you can 
deposit « ith Wells, Fariro & Co.'s express agent the price 
of the gate, less the $5.00, subject to my order in ten daya 
after receiving the gate. This will give you ample time 
to test the gate and see what it is. Should you return 
the gate, upon presenting the shipping receipt, freight 
paid, you can draw the amount from the agent with 
whom you deposited the money. I make this proposition 
because I know the gate will give the best of satisfaction, 
and 1 can show you figures whereby you can make more 
money on the sale of this gate every year forfifteen years, 
than you can on the best 160 acres of land in your county. 
If you have any desire to enter into this business and buy 
County Rights, and thoroughly canvass, I will send you 
a confidential circular gi\ ing the bed-rock figures of the 
cost of these gates, which will show you the large profit 
there is in them, and as to the sale of the gate, they are 
easily sold, more especially where they are introduced for 
any length of time, there is where they sell the fastest. 

For further particulars inquire of yours truly, 

JOHN AYLWARD, 
P. O. Box 88, Livcrmore, Alameda Co., Cal. 

4*"Sw my other advertisement in this paper. 

SpLENrnn- Lat st style chromo cards, name, 10c. Pre* 
n ium with 3 packs, F. H. PAKDEE, New Haven, Ct,, 



20 



pACIFie F^URAb fRESS. 



[Jan. 2, 1886 



Note.— Our quotations are for Wednesday, not Saturda) 
Jje date which the paper bears. 



Weekly Market Review. 

DOMESTIC PRODUCE, ETC. 

San Francisco. Dec. 30, 1885. 
It is mid-holiday week, and as stated last week 
the markets havp shown the effects of the close of 
the year and holiday attractions. There has been, 
however, some little trade, and values have been 
maintained for the great staple products. Markets 
at the East and abroad have been quiet. The latest 
by cable is as follows: 

Liverpool, Dec. 30.— WHEAT— Dull. Cali- 
fornia spot lots, 6s iod to 7s id; off coast, 35s 6d; 
juit shipped, 35s 6d; nearly due, 35s 6d: cargoes off 
coast and on i.assage, steadier; Mark Lane wheat 
and maize, quiet but steady. 

FrelKbta and Cnarters. 
The following is a summary of the engaged and 
disengaged tonnage here and at adjacent points and 
on the way to this port Monday morning: 

1884. 1885. 

Engaged tons in port 80,500 46,500 

Disengaged 113,000 131,000 

On the way 201,000 135.000 



Totals 394 S°o 312,500 

Decrease, 1885 82,000 

Under engagement for Wheat Monday 

morning, tons 40,000 

Same time last year 68,000 



Decrease, 1885 28.000 

The spot disengaged list includes 30 British ves- 
sels, 44 American, 1 Nicaraguan, 2 German and 1 
Norwegian. 

Foreign Review. 

London, Dec. 28. — The Mark Lane Express, in 
its review of the British grain trade for the past week, 
says: The weather has been cold, damp and foggy. 
Growing crops are healthy. The principal features 
of the Wheat market is the ability of holders of Eng- 
lish Wheal to undersell foreign Wheat. Sales of 
English Wheal duiing the past week were 61.268 
quarters at 30s 2d, against 59.792 quarters at 31s 5d 
during the corresponding week of last year. Trade 
in foreign Wheat is confined to merchant retailers. 
Stocks are heavy. Amtrican Klour is chea|>er. 
There is no feature in the cargo market. Eight ar- 
rived, two were sold, both of them C alifornia — one 
being sold at 35s 3d, the other at a secret price — 
two cargoes were withdrawn and two remained. 
Trade in forward is stagnant, and to-day's market 
business was of a holiday character. Flour was very 
dull. New American Corn was 6d cheaper. Grind- 
ing Barleys are tending downward. 

London Asrricultural Seed Trade. 

I Reported by Jons Shaw & Sons, Seed Merchants ) 
Monday, Dec. 14, 1885. 

The quietness customary towards the close of 
the year has now settled down upon the Seed 
trade, and transactions are f'jw and unimportant. 
Meantime values all round continue to exhibit ex- 
treme firmness. Some further shipments of Red 
Cloverseed have been made to America. In Trefoil 
the late advance is well sustained. There is no 
change in Alsike and White Cloverseed. Canary 
and H-impseed meet a quiet demand at last week's 
quotations. In Rapeseed the tendency is upwards. 
For mustard the sale is very small. Feeding Linseed 
is steady. 

7; Mark Lane, London, E. C, 
Eastern Wool Markets. 

Ni.w York, Dec. 28. — The general outlook for 
slock of most kinds is considered good, but the de- 
velopment of the movement is slow in some cases, 
owing to the continued feeling of caution among 
buyers who have not fully tried the chances regard- 
ing heavy goods. I.arge concerns, however, do not 
hesitate to invest beyond immediate wanls. They 
make no complaint over the cost of Wool, and hold- 
ers seem to feel well assured that the outlook is very 
promising. Texas and California Wools are rather 
slow at present and there does not appsr to be 
much doing in Tenitorial Wools. Foreign stock is 
general'y selling in moderate lots at former prices. 
Among sales were 75 bales choice California spring 
at 24 cents; 10,000 pounds scoured California on 
private terms; 55,000 pounds scoured Territon at 
47 % cents. 

Philadelphia, Dec. 29.— Wool is firm; prices 
steady; demand moderate. Tub-washed, choice, 
37@38c $ lt>; fair, 34@36c. 

Boston, Dec. 29. — Wool is steady at full prices. 
Ohio and Pennsylvania fleeces, 33(0)380 ^ lt>; Mich- 
igan X fleeces, 3i@32c; unwashed fleeces, 30@38c; 
pulled Wools, 25(0' 40c for common and choice 
supers. 

New York, Dec. 29. — Wool is quiet and very 
steady. Domestic fleeces, 27@36c fcf tt>; pulled, 14 
(0.33c; Texas, 9(0 22c. 

New York Hop Trade. 

New York, Dec. 28.— There is no business here 
worth speaking of, brewers buying only for immedi- 
ate use and shippers liking only bales of choice 
stock. Holders offer no special inducements, but 
raielv miss a chance for any profit. Pacific Coast, 
crop of 1885, good to choice, 8@to cents; do, 1884, 
fair to choice, 4@7 cents. 

California Fruit at the East. 

CHICAGO, Dec. 28.— California Dried Fruit, quiet; 
good supply; no demand. California Pears, green, 
$i.50@2; pitted Plums, 8@ioc; Apricots, I2faj20c; 
Pears, 8V.c; Plums, 7J4c; California London Layer 
Raisins, $2.15. 

BAGS — Calcutta Wheat, 4?i@sV»c; California 
Jute, June, 5^c; Potato Gunnies, 7K@8Kc. 

BARLEY — Bailey has regained strength and 
lone, somewhat, and is now quotable at the same 
rates as last week. Brewing, especially, shows 
strength. 'There is, however, but little doing, and 
the disposition is that of the holders, mainly. On 
call, sales were made to-day as follows: Buyer sea- 
son— 100 tons, $1.34^ ; 100, $1.34^. Buyer 1885 



PACIFIC COAST WEATHER FOR THE WEEK. 

rFumlshed for publication Irj this paper by Nelson Gokom, Sergeant Signal Service Corps. U. 8. A. 





Portland. 


Red Bluff. 


Sacramento. 


S.Pranclsco. 


Los Angeles 


San Diego. 


DATE. 












at 


5 








- 




1 




3 


f 


M 

E 


3 








— 


jj 








1 


s 


S 


S 


S 


5 


a 


} 


B 


r 


9 


W 


§ 


B 


s 




B 


ET 






B 


5 


9 


Dec. 24 -:0. 


P 


e 




ther.. 




■c 


p. 


ther. . 




<e 


a. 


ther.. 1 






o. 


ther. . 






a. 


? 




■p 


a. 


ther.. 




.08 


51 


w 


LR 


.40 


54 


s 


LR 


.02 


63 


SE 


Cy 




U 


8E 


Th. 


.CO 


70 


E 


OL 


.00 


67 


W 


CI. 




.26 


48 


s 


I.K 


.45 


56 


8 


Cy 


1 87 


58 


SE 


IV 


70 


60 


8 


Cy. 


.00 


68 


8 


Ft. 


.00 


67 


w 


Ol. 




.05 


4/ 


SE 


Cy. 


.45 


53 


N 


a. 


.56 


s; 


trw 


Cy. 


.70 


54 


NW 


Fr. 


.51 


54 


E 


Fr. 


.02 


64 


s\V 


Fr. 




.00 


41 


SE 


Cy. 


.00 


58 


N 


CL 


.00 


54 




0.. 


.00 


56 


NE 


CI 


08 


58 


8 


CI. 


.45 


54 




Th. 




.22 


48 


8 


Cy. 


.00 


56 


N 


CI. 


.00 


61 


sw 


Fr. 


.00 


re 


N 


CI. 


.00 


61 


SW 


Fr. 


.12 


61 


8W 


CI. 




.27 


45 


SE 


LR 


.00 


SO 


srw 


Cy. 


.00 


45 


NW 


Fy. 


.00 


54 


N 


CI 


.oo 


60 


NE 


CI. 


.00 


59 


W 


CI 




.56 


41 


8 


Ol 




53 


8 


Fr. 


.00 


49 


N W 


<-'y. 


.02 


67 


w 


Fr. 


.00 


61 


W 


Fr. 


.00 


60 


W 


Cy. 


Totals 


1.43 








1.30 








2.45 








1.42 








.59 








.59 









Explanation. — CI. for clear; Cy , cloudy; Fr., fair; Fy., foggy; — indicates too small to measure, 
wind and weather at 12:00 h. (Pacific Standard time), with amount of rain 



rainfall In the preceding 24 hours. 



Temperature 



— iootons. $1.27. Buyer 1886--100 tons, $1.34!-. 
Selltr season— 100 tons, $1.25^1 800, $1.26 I* ctl. 
Seller season, 100 tons, $1.26}^ per ctl. 

BEANS -Beans are depressed again, and prices 
show an unfavorable change in nearly all kinds, the 
decline being about 5c per ctl. The supply is large, 
and buyers are, at present, very narrow in their 
views. 

CORN— All kinds of Corn are dropped off this 
week 2%c \S> ctl. For while and yellow, $1.15 seems 
to be about the top price for the best lots. Ntbraska 
Corn is quotable at $t.io. The trouble is in part at 
least owing to the heavy arrivals of Nebraska Corn. 

DAIRY PRODUCE— Butter rates are the same 
as last week, as arrivals about meet the demand. 
Cheese is doing well, as choice lots of new Cheese 
are scarce, and some sales are made as high as 14c. 
The high price is helping off the old Cheese at a 
little better figure. 

EGGS — Eggs have dropped siriously, having lost 
5c per dozen from last week's rates. The market is 
described as quite weak. 

FEED~-Bran and mil feeds are unchanged and 
firm. Hay maintains its value, but there is not 
much tone to the market. Fair to choice lots run 
as follows: Wheat and wild oat, $12(0)14; barley, 
$io@ii; Alfalfa, $t2f« 14; cow $to@t2; stable, $12 
(a 14 ton. 

FRESH MEAT An advance of a full cent per 
pound on all grades of beef is offset by a decline in 
mutton. Supplies of each meat are to be charged 
with the changes. Pork is still advancing which 
wilj give the swine growers more courage. Spring 
lamb is bringing good prices. 

FRUIT — There is not much new in the fruit mar- 
ket Apples and pjars are about as before. In the 
citrus fruit trade there has been a great supply of 
limes and low rates. Oranges are selling at former 
rates, running up to $4. 50 per box for Riverside 
navels, and other sorts proportionately lower. Sup- 
plies both of oranges and lemons are large, and buy- 
ers fastidious. There is no change of moment in 
dried fruit 

HOPS— The rate is nominally 8c fc» lb for the 
best, but there is nothing doing to measure values 
by. 

OATS— Oats are selling fairly and values do not 
change much. There is no particular movement ex- 
cept that receipts are very liberal, 

ONIONS — Large stocks of onions and many 01 
indifferent quality have crowded down values se- 
ven ly this week, so that the range is 50 to $1.25. ac- 
cording to quality. 

POTATOES— Potatoes have also suffered this 
week through very large supplies, Our list shows a 
reduction of 5 to 10 c. per ctl. on most kinds. Sup- 
plies are coming from all California districts and 
from Oregon. 

PROVISIONS— There is no change in meat 
products this week. 

POULTRY AND GAME— There is still fair arri- 
val of poultry, including dressed turkeys. Prices of 
fowls are firm and supplies well taken. Hens and 
roosters are $1 per dozen higher; quail are doing 
belter and game ducks are selling well. 

VEGETABLES —The vegetable trade is quiet and 
devoid of notable features. Mushrooms are not sell- 
ing well, and cultivated stock is now quoted at 12 'ic 
$ lb for the best. 

WHEAT — There is a little selling for export at 
$ I -37'A ctl, but no general movement of any kind. 
Holders think the rale too low, and seem inclined to 
trust the future. Buyers seem indifferent. There 
is some speculating in futures. On call, sales to-day 
were : 

Buyer season — 100 tons, $1.44; too, I1.43&, 
Buyer 1885 — 300 tons, $1.36'.. ; 100, $1.36^. Buyer 
1886 — 100 tons, $t.47H; '00, $1.47; 200, $1.46^6; 
500, $1,46^2 ctl. Buyer season— 300 tons, 
$1.43^2; 200, $t.43H; 200, $1.43^; 700, $1.43'/,; 
1500, $1.43. Buyer 1885—100 tons, $1.36. Buyer 
'885, season's storage paid — 300 tons, $1.37. Buyer 
1886—400 tons, $1.46'/.; 400. $1.46^; 1400, $1.46 
# ctl. 

WOOL — Saiesof the better class to scourers is 
about all there is in the market at present. It is 
thought supplies to be carried over the year will be 
round to be unusually small this year. 

AVer's Cherry Pectoral cures Colds, Coughs, and 
Consumption; an unequa'ed anodyne expectorant. 



Domestic Produoe. 



BEANS AND PEAS. 

Bayo, otl 1 35 a 1 53 

Butter 1 40 @ 1 60 

Castor 4 00 & - 

Pea 1 75 a 1 85 

Red 1 30 « 1 35 

Pink 1 20 @ 1 25 

Large White. ... 3 00 @ — 
Small White.... 1 75 1 85 

Lima 2003 250 

Fid Peas.blk eye 1 75 & - 

do green 1 60 ■ 1 75 

BROOM CORN. 

Southern 3 a Si 

Northern 4 a 6 

CHICCORT. 

California 4 & 

German 64@ 

DAIRY PRODUCE:. 1 

BUTTER. 

Cal. fresh roll, lb. 30 & 

do Fancy br'uda 34 a 

Pickle roll 21 a 

Firkin, new 20 a 

Eastern 121® 

CHEESE 

Cheese. Cal . Ib.. 8 fit 
Eastern style... 14 @ 

EUQ8. 

Cal.. ranch, dot. 35 <3 

do, store — A 

Ducks —@ 

Oregon 371 1 

Eastern, by ex.. 32 j a 
Pickled here.... cf 

Utah - § 

FEED. 



WHOLESALE. 

Wednesday. Dec. 30, 1885. 
NUTS — Jobbing. 
Walnuts, CaL. lb 71 
do Chile. 7] 
Almonds, hd sbX 6 

.Soft shell 9 A 

Brazil 11 a 

Pecans 9 A 

Peanuts 3 a 

Filberts 13$) 

POTATOES. 

Burbank 621; 

Early Rose 25 ' 

Cuffey Cove — 

Jersey Blues.., 

Petaluma 

Tomales 

River reds 

Humboldt 60 

do Kiduey 

Chile 50 

33 do Oregon... 50 

U Peerless 50 

27 Salt Lake — 

221 Sweet ctl 66 

IB POULTRY AND Oi 

Hens, doz 4 00 

14 Roosters 4 00 

16 Broilers 3 50 

Ducks, tame.... 4 00 
3711 do Mallard.. .. 2 60 @ 3 00 

— do Sprig 1 25 (g 1 50 

Geese, pair 1 25 a 1 50 

Wild Gray, doi 2 00 
White do... 1 51 

Turkeys, lb 11 

do Dressed.. 13 



ETC. 





1 2 50 



TurkeyFeathers, 

Bran, ton 14 00 M 4 50 tail and wing.. 10 

Cornmeal 27 00 @2» 00 Snipe, Eng., doz. 2 00 

Hay 10 00 @14 00 I do Common.. 50 

Middlings 16 00 Sill 00 Quail 1 00 

Oil Cake Meal. 27 0} $20 (0 Rabbits 1 00 

Straw, bale 50 ■ 75 Hare 1 50 

FLOUR. Venison 5 . 

Extra, City Mills 4 37i(« 4 75 I PROVISIONS. - 
do Co'ntry Mills 4 00 fl 4 75 Cal. Bacon, 

3 50 Heavy. tt> 

Medium 

Light 

Eitra Light. . . 

Lard 

Oal SmokedBei f 

Hams, Cal 

do Eastern.. 
6)1 SEEDS. 

11 Alfalfa. 12 <t 

< do Chile 

1 39 Canary 

1 45 Clover red 

1 50 White 

1 20 Cotton 

— FUxiead 

1 10 «t 1 15 Henp 

1 10 3 1 15 Italian RyeGrass 

— \ Perennial 26 

— Millet, German.. 
1 40 do Common. 
1 >5 Mustard, white.. 

1 171 Brown 

1 75 Rape 

1 15 (S 1 25 Ky. Blue Grass.. 

1 25 @ 1 271 2d quality 

1 .'71 Sweet V. Grass. 

321 Orchard. 20 

42} Red Top 16 

Hungarian.... 8 

17 Lawn 30 

91 Mesqult 10 

Timothy ( 

24 TALLOW 

13 Crude, Oi 411 

6 ite lined 6{4 

41 WOOL, ETC 

mi 1886 

— { Humboldt and 
8 Mendocino .. 

I Free Mouutain. 

— Nhern defective 
Siiverskin 50 a 1 25 San Joaquin. . . . 

doOreKOn.... —a — Southern Coast. 



Superfine 2 75 

FRESH MEAT 
Beef,lstqual.,lb 71 j 

Second 61Q 

Third 5H 

Mutton 5 

Spring Lamb.... Wt 
Pork, undressed. 3 <t 

Dressed 61 1 

Veal 6 i 

GRAIN, ETC. 
Barley, feed, ctl. 1 25 j 
do Brewing.. 1 35 » 

Chevalier 1 40 i 

do Coast. , . 1 10 4 

Buckwheat 1 25 

Corn, White... 

Yellow 

Small Round. - & 

Nebraska 1 10 a 

" its. choice 1 30 a 

do No. 1 1 20 a 

do No. 2 1121« 

doblaok 1 45 

do Oregon . 

Rye 

Wheat, No. 1 
do No. 2. 
Choice milling 1 40 <g 1 
HIDES. 

Dry 161® 

Wet salted 7t <t 

HONEY, ETC. 

Beeswax, ft> 23 & 

Honoy in comb. 6 a 
Extracted, light. 518 
do dark. 4 Q 
HOPS. 

Oregon — 

California. 6 ..r 

ONION8. 



MANUFACTURERS OF 

Fine all Wool Knit Hosiery 
and UNDERWEAR. 

Ladies' all wool Vests and Drawers. 
Ladies' and Misses' all wool Under Shirts. 
Misses' all wool Vests and Pantalettes. 
Men's all wool Shirts and Drawers. 
Boys' all wool Shirts and Drawers. 
Ladies' and Misses' Wool Hose. 
Men's Wool Hose. 
Men's Shaker Socks. 

FOR SALE EVERYWHERE. 

SALESROOMS: 

31 SUTTER ST., SAN FRANCISCO. 

Mills-Oakland, Cal. 



CHAMBERLIN AUTOMATIC 



00 

OP 




C53 



is a 

13 iff 
12 a 
9 @ 
10 (<t 



Fruits and Vegetables. 



WHOLESALE 



Wednesday. Dec 


30, 


1885. 


Dates 


" a 


10 


Figs, pressed.... 


6 <s 


7 




41 






81 




4)2 


5 


do pared. .... 


10 <n 


12; 


Pears, sliced.... 


iU 


5 




•lift 


3 


do evaporated 


8 a 


10 




2 a 


3 


Plum i pitted.... 


5 <a 






5 1 


6 




5 S 




RalsiuK, Cal. bx. 1 35 @ 


2 00 


Zante Currants. 


s a 





FRUIT MARKET. 

Apples, box. .... 25 a 1 00 

Aprkots, It. Ig 1 

Bananas, bunch. 2 00 a 4 00 
Blackljerrieii.cht - a — 

Cranberries 8 00 (oil 00 

Figs, V x - (8 

Grapes white, bx 75 a 1 2 

do black 1 00 a 1 50 

do Tokay 1 25 a 1 SO 

do Comichon. 1 7o a 2 00 
do Isabella... 1 25 a 1 
do Missiou. ... 75 (<r 1 
do wine, ton ..25 U0 (a30 

Limes, Mex 4 00 a ti 

do Cal. box ... 75 a 1 
Lemons, Cal .bx I 25 @ 2 
do Sicily, box. 5 00 a f 
do Australian. — @ 
Nectarines, box. — @ 
Oranges, Cal., bx 1 25 @ 4 
do Tahiti, M 9 00 aiA 
do Mexican.M 7 50 @12 
do Panama... — <g 
Peaches, bx. . . — a 

Pears bx 25 a 

do Nelis 2 00 M 3 

Pe r s i m m o n s, 

Jap, bx 35 @ 

Pineapples, doz. 3 00 <g 5 
Pomegranates, b 1 00 <a 1 

Plums th — a 

Prunes bx — @ 

Ouinces bx 15 a 

Strawberries ch. 5 00 a 10 

DRIED FRUI 
Apples, sliced, lb 2 
do evaporated, 
do quartered .. 

Apricots 

do evaporated 
Backberries . . . . 
Citron 28 ® 

NOTICE.— Parties wishing local agencies to represent 
ur Nurseries for the sale of our stock, will please address 
. Lube ft Son, Box 9, North Temescal, Oakland, cal, 




5' I 
00 
110 

00 

00 I VEGETABLES 
00 Artichokes, doz. 30 
50 Beets, ctL 60 

- 'Cabbage, 100 lbs. 50 

- Oarrots, sk 35 

SO Cauliflower, doz. 30 

00 Celery, doz SO 

50 Cucumbers box. 75 

- Eggplant, box ... 1 CO a — 

- Garlic, lb 8 ■ - 

75 Green Corn, box 1 00 @ 1 65 
00 jGreen Peas, sk . — a - 

1 do sweet, lb, 
75 Lettuce, doz..., 
00 Mushrooms, lb.. 
25 I do cultivated. 

- Dkra, dry, lt»... 

- Parsnips, ctl.... 1 00 
Peppers, dry lb.. 10 121 

do green, box 50 a — 
Rhubarb box... 75 @ 1 50 
Squash, Marrow 

fat, coo 8 00 & 

do Summer bx 75 @ 1 00 
Tomatoes box.. 60 a 75 
Striug beans. ... 6 a — 
runups ctl 7S @ — 



5 S 

10 a 

6 (S 

16 a 



75 

40 

1 00 



C/2 



CO 



.9 

ea 

OJ 

•3 
p 

rt 
>> 
X> 

-a 



Wayne, Du Page Co., Illinois, 
HAS IMPORTED FROM FRANCE 



Pvrvheron M . - - 
uhlch In 



ulurtl it. .umi 

lutU-M about 




70 PER CEMT OF ALL KORSES 

Wh Re nuritvof hlno'l bj Wft* btfohed by pedlfci ee« re- 

Sud^^uteiW^ L^ftr*- th ° " n,y 

EVER IMPORTED TO AMERICA. 

STOCK ON HAKD: 
140 
Imported Brood Harts 

S200 
Ituportrd Stallions, 

Old enough for 
Sen* ice, 

126 COLTS 

year* old and 
younger. 
Reme -irlmr thp prin- 
ciple ai-rvptpd bvall lntelll. 
Bint liniders tht.t. how- 
ever w. 11 bred i nlmals may be 
- _ - so»f to be.ir their rfiliL'n-ps an- not 

recorded, they shonlcl be vn'utd onlT as t-r i l.s Tl Sm 
sell all Imported stock at mde mi«"w"."n I einnot 
fu J2i"\"y ,h < he nnimal -old. pedfirr.-e verified hvThe 

th .*P r XZZS&'&S&nS* " nd record In 

the I ereherqn Btud Bonk or Franee. 1 Ao.puire III... 
(rated I t atalocar sent free. Wayne. Ills. . isVl miles 
west of Chicago, on the chicmjro A North Western Ry 

THE FARMER'S REMEDY FOR 
RHEUMATISM. 

A Liniment guaranteed to immediately remove RHEU- 
MATIC pain. It has been used for years and has never 
yet failod. 

For CHILBLAINS It will at once stop the irritation. 
No house should be without a bottle. 

Put up in 50c, fl 00 and $2.00 bottles; sent on receipt 

of price by 

THE FARMER'S REMEDY OO., 
64 and 66 Broadway and 10 New Street 
New York. 



w 



AUTtm l-AIHK- IMl <1 VI I.KMKN «lu> 
All I tU"l'' "< Ak ' •* 10 *)4 ailav mil; X ttidr 
o« 11 tiomt-.. Work kdi br mail. NooSDvaasing. address 
with •wmp, Vrewu Mfe l'o„ ZM Vlav si., CUVU, u, 



Jan. 2, 1886.] 



pACIFie F^URAb fRESS. 



21 



tdtatiopal. 



WASHINGTON COLLEGE. 



For Ladies and Gentlemen. 



Full Course of Instruction In Classics, 
Science, Literature, Vocal and Instru- 
mental Music and Business. 

BUSINESS COURSE-Book-keeping, Banking, Ship- 
ping, Wholesale and Retail, Commusion, Railroading, 
and Telegraphy. 

Full Set of Offices and Desks for Actual 
Business Transactions. 

Two Large Bu Id. iig<; one for boys and one for girls. 
In the country, 33 miies from Sati Francisco and 14 milts 
from San Joss, on San Jose branch of th« 0. P. K. R. 

Location hea'tby and free from vices and temptations 
of city life. Faculty enthusiastic. 

All ages admitted and instructed in manners and 
morals, Primary, Preparatory, Academic and Business 
Departments. 

Regular hours of study of evenings, under the direct 
supervision of teachers, preventing running out of even- 
ings and promoting the formation of good habits. 
Terms reasonable. For further information, address 
I. H. McCOLLOUGH, President, 

Irving, Alameda Co., Cal. 



LITTON SPRINGS COLLEGE 

Sonoma County, Cal. 

This institution has the advantages of country location 
and of entire exemption from the temptations incident 
to cities and towns. The climate is fine and the build- 
ings are large mid commodious There are 800 acres of 
land, a dairy ot 20 cows, and an orchard and vineyard, to 
which boys have access at all recesses. The drainage is 
perfect, and in the 15J years of its history the scheol has 
not lost a boy by death— the best testimony to the ex- 
cellence of sanitary conditions and to the care taken of 
boys' health. In the great universities of the East, the 
highest honors that have been gained by C'alifornian 
student? have been won by members of this school. 

JOHN GAMBLE, B. A.. Principal. 



SACKETT 

(Day and Boarding.) 

SCHOOL 



Takes first rank for thoroughness 
and ability of its teachers; also 
for home care. 

Business, Classical, and 
English Departments. 



The 



next term will commence 
Monday, Jan. 4, 1H86. 



Send for Catalogue to 

D. P. SACKETT, A. M , Principal, 

OAKLAND, CAL. 

THE HOME SCHOOL, 

FOJ=l "YOUNG LADIES, 

1835 Telegrapn ave., Oakland, Cal 

(Founded in 1872 by the late Mi s H N. Field.) Gives 
thorough instruction In foundation studies. ' Admits 
special students. Prepares for College. Has a resident 
French Teacher £PTlie Next 'lerni will begin 
on Wednesday, Jan. 6, 1836. AdJress 

MISS L. TRACY. 



Sacramento 




SACRAMENTO, CAL. 



Tha Practical Business 
Training School of the Pa- 
cifio Coast. Students in- 
structed in Actual Business 
Practice. Graduates assisted 
in obtaining employment. 
Cheapest board in the State. 
Send for B"siness College 
Journal. E. C. ATK1N 
SON, Principal. 

WT nterest Made 
Easy, the shortest and rao't 
practical method, by mail, 
60 cents. 



LiJS 



BUSINESS 
COLLEGE, 

24 Post St. S. F 

Send for Circular. 



GlADDING.McBMff&CO. 



SEWER, WATER AND |3 



CHIMNEY PIPE. 



LINCOLN PLACER CO.CAL.&l 



£ V358 MARKET ST. S.F. 



The SHASTA COUNTY LAP & LOAN CO. 

Have for rale tracts of land from 20 acres up to 5000— 
valley or uplaid. Best of Fruit and Vine, Vegetable, 
Agricultural or Alfalfa Lands at from S10 to $30 per acre; 
also posses-ory rights. Can locate Government Lands, 
either timberoragricultural. Climate unsurpassed; 
no snow, no freezing. Kainfall always suffi- 
cient; no irrigation needed. For full particulars 
address: D. N. HONN, Business Manager, 
Redding, Cal. 



COMMERCIAL HOTEL, 

A. & J. HAHN, Prop'rs, 
Nos. 273, 276, 277 and 279 Main Street, Stockton, Cal. 
Rates, $1.25 to $3 Per Day. 
Stage offices for Collegeville and Oakdale, Roberts and 
Union Islands, and Lane's Mineral Springs stages. The 
most desirable location in the city. Refurnished and refit 
ted in the best style for the accommodation of the public 
Fre coach from all trains anil steamboats to th« hotel 



T> T T Tj> C Instant relief. Final cure in 10 days, and 
X X 1 J Ej U • never returns. No purge, no salve, no 
suppository. Sufferers will learn of a simp'e remedy Free, 
y addressing C. J. MASON, 78 Nassau street, New York. 



DOW STEAM PUMP WORKS, 

San Francisco, Cal. 




DOW'S IMPROVED STEAM PUMPS 
And Pumping Machinery 

FOR EVERY POSSIBLE DUTY. 

COMPOUND PUMPING ENGINES, 

Condensing and Non-Condensing, 

for 

Watcr-worlts, 

IVtixxixxs Purposes, 

Irrigation, Etc. 

GRAND SILVER MEDAL Awarded at Mechanics' Institute Industrial Exhibition for 
Best Direct and Double-acting Pump. 

Works: 114 & 116 Beale St. Correspondence solicited. Call or send for Catalogue. 



"THE PRACTICAL" 

Orchard and Vineyard Plow. 

The superior qua'ities of this Plow are: 
Center Draft, Pivoic i Beam and Adjust- 
able Handles. Cm plow close to Tree or 
Vine with OSis or TWO HOUSES, 
and not touch them with anything but 
the mold board or landsidc. The beam 
can be set to any desired angle, to or 
from the land Handles adjustable to 
height or siJewise. The Standard is the 
usual height, and by being in the center 
of the Plow is not ai liable to Clojr in 
High Weeds as an ordinary field plow I use a standard bottom of hardened steel with slip share. The e shares 
can be duplicated at anv Agricultural House. The Plow is light, strong, easily adjusted, and is warranted to do 
good work. PRI('E-8-'iich, S'6.ft0. Other sizes made to order. Pate ted July 1, 1884, by C. B. STEANE, Pleas- 
anton, Cal. aSTTne Plow wi 1 be shipped by Express, C. O. D., if desired. 

HA.WLEY BROS. HARDWARE CO., Agents, cor. Market & Beale Sts , San Francisco. 




THE BEST 





WASt 

We will guarantee tie " LOVEI.I." WASIIER to do better 
work and do it easier and la less time than any other machine 
the -world. Warranted five years, and if ft don't wash the 
clothes clean without rubbing, we will refund the money. 

AGENTS WANTEDS^ 

PROOF that Agents are mailing from S75 to SISO per 
month. Fanners m-ke $200 to $500 during the wintsr. La- 
dies have great Buccesssel'ingrthis WaEhcr. Retail pricoonly 
£5. Sample to those desiring an agency C2. Also the Cele- 
brated KEYSTONE WRINGERS at manufacturers- 
lowest price. We invite the strictest Investigation. Send 
your address on a postal card for further particulars. 

LOYELL WASHER CO., ERIE, Pa. 



CHOLERA 

INFANTUM, 

DIARRHEA, 

DYSENTERY 

Are cured without the least chance of failure 
by the use of 

DARWIN'S TRIUMPH, 

A Celebrated English Remedy. 
Numerous Testimonials in circulars. Add ess 

PROF. SMITH, Proprietor, 

1808 Laguna St., S. P. 



RUPTURE 



COMPOUND. The "PERFEC- 
TION" RUPTURE REMEDY re- 
lieves KVERY CASE and CURES all 
curable one*. Retains some ruptures WITHOUT A Tkusc 
Can be used with anv truss. A Grand Remedy! Price, 
13.00. i^Send for Circulars. 

J. H. WIDBBR, Druggist, 
No. 701 Market Street, San Francisco. 



THE FAMOUS 



DUPLEX 



The most wonderful Cur- 
ative Agent In the world. _ 

Full Power Belt, for Lady or Gentleman, price $io. 

Cures without the aid of Medicine 

General Debility, Nervous Prostration, Rheumatism 
Neuralgia, AMI If II LB I ft Disease of 

Paralysis, llfill H fl N I B a Kidne" V., 
Constipation UllLI fl I 1 I U Bladder, 
Seminal Weakness, Dyspepsia, Female Weakness, 
Sick Headache, Insipient Catarrh, Insipient Con- 
sumption, Lame Back, and many other diseases. 
W|P| f For particulars and Circulars address 

ULI I PACIFIC ELECTRIC CO. 

SOLE PROPRIETORS, 

I 330 Sutter St., San Francisco- 



BADGES FOR ALL SOCIETIES, 

Police, firemen, etc., presentation prizes or 
charms, in gold, silver, or metal, sold at society 
prices by the agents of the Universal Badge 
Manufacturing Co., NATHAN JOSF.PH & CO., 
(i41 Clay St. Workmen and K. of P. badges in 
gold, $1 each, sent C. O. D. Trade supplied. 



Comrni33ion jvierchapts. 



WM. T. COLEMAN & CO , 

Shipping and Commission 

MERCHANTS, 
San Francisco and New York. 

Receive consignments of Produce for sale in San Fran- 
cisco, New York, Boston, Philadelphia, England, Aus- 
tralia, etc. M ike advances on approved consignments. 
Fill orders for staple goods in New York and other mar- 
kets. Effect fire and marine insurance in best offices. 
Charter vetsels and engage freights for all trades. Agents 
for line clipper ships from Philadelphia, China, etc. All 
business has faithful and watchful attention. 

PORTER BROS. & CO., 

Commission Merchants, 

404 and 406 Davis St , S. F. 
tM Special attention paid to shipping. 

PttTKR MKT KR. LOUIS MKYKR. 

MEYER BROS. & CO., 

Importers and 

Wholesale Grocers 

And Dealers in 

■r TOBACCO AN D CIGARS "» 

412 FRONT STREET. 

front St. Block, bet. Clay & Washington, San Franoisoo 
l»"Speoial attention given to country traders. 
P. O. Box 1940. 



MOORE. FERGUSON & CO.. 

COMMISSION MERCHANTS. 

WOOL, GRAIN, FLOUR, 

ETC., ETC. 
Members of the San Francisco Produce Exchange 

810 Calilornla St., San Francisco. 
tS~ Liberal advances made on consignments. 

Geo. Morrow. [Established 1854.] Geo. P. Morrow. 

GEORGE MORROW & CO., 

HAY and GRAIN 

COMMISSION MERCHANTS, 

39 Olay Street and 28 Commercial Street, 

San Francisco, Cal. 

Sg- SHIPPING ORDERS A SPECIALTY. "®t 



Grangers' Business Association, 



SHIPPING AND 

108 Davis Street, 



HOUSE, 
San Francisco 



Consignments of GRAIN, WOOL, DAIRY PRODUCE, 
Dried Fruit, Live Stock, etc., solicited, and liberal ad- 
vances made on the same. 

Careful and prompt attention paid to orders for the 
purchasing of Grain and Wool Sacks, Wagons, Agricult- 
ural Implements, Provisions, Merchandise, and supplies 
of all kinds. 

Warehouse and Wharf: 

At "THE GRANGERS'," Contra Costa Co. 

Grain received on storage, for shipment, for sale on 
consignment. Insurance effected and liberal advances 
made at lowest rates. Farmers may rely on their grain 
being closely and carefully weighed, and on having their 
other interests faithfully attended to. 



REMOVAL. 

DALTOiTBROS., 

Commission Merchants 

AMD DEALERS IN 

CALIFORNIA AND OREGON PRODUCE. 

GREEN AND DRIED FRUITS, 

Qrain, Wool, Hides, Beans, and Potatoes. 

808 and 310 DAVIS ST., 
P. O. Box 1938. SAN FRANCISCO. 

Kr CONSIGNMENTS SOLICITED. TBI 



American Exchange Hotel, 

SANSOME STREET, 

Opposite Wells, Fargo & Co.'s Express, one door from 
Bank of California, SAN FRANCISCO. 

This Hotel Is in the very center of the business portion 
of the city. The traveling public will find this to be the 
most convenient as well as the most comfortable and 
respectable Family Hotel in the city. 

Board and Room, $1.00, $1.25 and $1.50 

Pkr Day, According to Room. 

£3THot and Cold Baths Free. None but most obliging 
white labor employed. Free Coach to an<l from 
the Botel. 

MONTGOMERY BROS., Proprietors. 




TOE THE BEST IMPROVES g> 

ARTIFICIAL LIMBS W>* 

ADDRESS 

MENZO SPRING. 

?| 9 Geary St. || 

JSAN FRANCISCO, Cal.|| 



OFFICE 5, S 



1*9. 

<t 2 = 



22 



fACIFie I^URAId fRESS, 



[Jan. 2, 1880 



jieeds, Wapts, ttc. 



ESTABLISHED 1858. 

Pepper's Nurseries 

A General Assortment of 
FRUIT TIIEES 

AT U1IULKSALR AND KKTA1L. 

Apricot, Plum and Prune on first-class Myrobolan 
Seedling stock. Apple, Cherry, Peach; Bartlett, Winter 
Nelis, Beurre Clairgcau, and other kinds of Pears; 
Quince, Fig, Currant, Gooseberry, Blackberry, Kaspberrv, 
etc. 

LAWSON or COMET PKAB in dormant bud 

at 50 cents each. 

MYROBOLAN PLUM SEEDLINGS, 

I10MK OR ■'AN. 

PRICES— 1st size, per 100o, $10; 2d size yer 1(00, §G. 

My Treen ar#» Grown Without Irrigation; 

wood fully ripened; are carefully taken up with fiuely 
proportioned roots, anil securely packed for shipment to 
any part of the Pacific Coast. 

1 offer no Trees for sale hut what has been grown by 
myself, and claim they are FR8E FKUM SCALK BUG 
and other Tree Pests. 

NOTE— Persons Intending to plant Trees should ho 
very careful and procure e'ean, healthy Trees. The 
better waj is to jfo to the Nursery and examine before 
purchasing. 

employ no Canvassers or Tree Agents. 

Send orders direct to tne Nursery and save from 90 to 
4') pur cent. Prices low, and furnished on application. 
Address 

W. H. PEPPER. 

Petaluma, Cal. 



Rancho Chico Nurseries. 

Large Stock of 

FRUIT TREES and VINES 

Grown upon new land without 
irrigation. 

tWW'K Hats a stock: 

TRUE PRUNE D'AGEN 

Upon Myrobolan Root. 

JAPAN FXjTJJVES. 

Our Own N^w Pear, 

THE KENNEDY, 

Superior to Winter N^llis, but little 
earlier in ripening. 

MUSCAT GRAPES. Callfornica StocK for 
Resistant Vineyards. 

JOHN BIDWELL, 

Chico, Cal. 



MYROBOLAN NURSERY. 



Per 1000. 
STHJ 00 
90 00 

SO 00 
90 00 
fiO (10 
90 00 

90 00 
DO 00 



OFFERING FOR 1885: 
Per 100. 

Apricots on Myrobolan 810 00 

Nectarine on Mvrobolan 10 00 

Nectarine 00 Peach 6 00 

Peaches on Mvrobolan 10 00 

Peaches on Peach fi 00 

Plums on Mvrobolan 10 00 

PRINKS. 

60,000 French Prunes on Myrobolan 10 00 

2Hj806 Bulgarian on Myrobolan 10 00 

Kelsev Japan Phm on Mvrobolan, *P_'J<"15 00 

Soft Snell Almonds 6 00 

(Quinces 12.50 

Prices of Cherry, Apple and Pear <>n application. 

A general assortment of Nursery Stock always on hand, 
Free from all insect pests ami Trees raised Without Irri- 
gation. JAMES O'NEILL, 

Haywards, Alameda Co., Cal. 

VALLEY NURSERY CO., 

Successors to W. E. SIBLEY. 

15,000 Bartlett I'oars. 80,000 of other va- 
rieties, including KeilTer ami I.** Conic 1.1,000 
Soft-shell Walnuts. Also a general assortment of 
Nursery Stock. Address 

WM. SHAKPLES. Manaeer, 

Santa Ana. i_,os Angeles Co.. Cal. 



OLIVE TREES FOR SALE. 

BOOTED OLIVE TUBES for sale; also OI.IVE CUT- 
TINGS, grown at and shipped from San Fernando. 
Apply to 

ALFRED WRIGHT, 

Los Angeles, Cal. 

FOR SALE. 
200,000 GRAPE CUTTINGS 

At $3 OO per M. 
Emperor, Flam Tokay, Muscat, Sultana, and Muscatel. 
OAK SHADE FRUIT COMPANY, 
Davisvil.e, Cal 



APPLE SEEDLINGS 

ROOT CRAFTS 

of Apple Pcur, Plum and Cherri ui l.ow 
i; \TI>. S-ii.1 l..r prices and sample* \d.lr.-ss 

BL00IY1INGT0N Phoenix NURSERY 

Kstnbl'il 1 W>2. BhOOJIIXCTO.N, II I. 



CLEAR YOUR LA ND WITH JU DSON POWDER. 

RAILROAD MEN, FARMERS AND VITIOULTURISTS HAVE, 

by practical experience, found that the JUDSON POWDER especially, la the best adapted to REMOVE 

STUMPS and TREES. 

FROM 5 TO 20 POUNDS OF THIS POWDER will always bring any sized stump or tree with 

roots clear out of the ground. The EXPENSE IS LESS THAN ONE-HALF the cost of Grubbing. 

In most instances, Uiant Powder, or any other "High Explosive," is too nick, and ordinary Blasting Powder 
not strong enough. 

tft'oT particulars how to use the same, apply to 

BANDMANN, NIELSEN & CO., General Agents 

GIANT POWDER COMPANY, 

SAN FRANCISCO. CAL. 



SOLE AGENTS FOR 

W.W. GREENER'S BREECH-LOADING 

XJouble Guns. 

For Strength, Durability, Style, Finish and Extraordinary 
Shooting (Qualities those Guns are unsurpassed. 

COLT, PARKER, SMITH, and REMINGTON 

I^OUlDlo Grllll«. 

Champion, Forehand & Wadsworth, and 
Remington Single Guns. 

Winchester, Bullard, Colt New Lightning, Marlin, and Kennedy Repeating Rifles. 

BALLARD and REMINGTON SPORTING and TARGET RIFLES. 
Colt aixd JSrxxitlx c*j Wesson Pistols, 

AMMUNITION AT LOWEST PRICES. 

N. OURRY & BRO., - 113 Sansome St.. San Francisco. 

Pacific Coast Agents for the Merino Elastic Felt Gun Wads. 




200 Acres In Oloso Oviltlvatlon ! 



J. LUSK & SON'S 



Oakland, Alameda County, Cal. 



000 000 NON-IRRIGATED FRUIT TREES 

FOR THE SEASON OF 1885-86. 

Embracing all the Leading Varieties of Apple, Pear, Peach, Plum, Prune, Apricots, Nectarines and Cherries. 
Also tne Largest and Most Complete Assortment of 

3NTE!A7Vr AKTD 117VI1E: FRUITS 

On the Pacific Coast, including many California productions of great promise. 




CD 
CD 



£2. CD 



CD 

CO 

CD 
ED 

CD 



CD 

OO 



CD 



CD 



OP 



CD 



LARGE STOCK OF 

SHADE and ORNAMENTAL TREES, 

EVERGREENS, SHRUBS, ROSES, 

Clematis and Flowering Plants, Small Fruits, Grapevines, Etc. 

Our Tries are grown on new ground without irrigation, ami are Free from all Insects anil Disease. 
Before purchasing elsewhere, people intending to plant Trees will Bod it to their interest to Dome and see our stock 
and learn our prices. • 

NURSERIES AND RESIDENCE— NORTH TEMESCAL. 

The University and Telegraph Avenue Street Cars Stop at the Nurseries. 
*S* CORRESPONDENCE SOLICITED. Address all Communications to 

J. LUSK & SON, P. O. Box 9, North Temescal. 

Office at Nurseries, 45th St. and Telegraph Ave-, Oakland, Cal. 

CATALOGUE for 1886-86 Free on Application. 



geedg, Mailt?, ttc. 



1883-86. 

LEONARD COATES. S. H. TOOL. 

NAPA VALLEY 

NURSERIES 

FULL ASSORTMENT OF 

FRUIT TREES AND GENERAL 
NURSERY STOCK. 

"CENTENNIAL" CHERRY. 

(Offered now for sale for the first time.) "An Im- 
provement on its parent, the Napoleon Bl- 

garreau."— Hon. Marshall P. Wilder, President 
American Penological Society, and a host of other testi- 
monials from experts all over the United States, Canada, 
and England. 

Grapevines. Resistant Grapevine 
Stock. 

PR^EPARTURIENS WALNUT, 

Imported direct by us, and in bearing in our 
orchard at three years old. 

"Muir" Peach, Glalster Plum, Kelsey Japan 
Plum, Marshall's Seedling, or Red 
Bellflower Apple, and many 
other novelties. 

BE WISE, and don't bin tr 
have been subject to irrigation. Don't buy cheap stock, 
but get the best, and from a reliable firm. Don't buy 
from districts known to be infested with scale bug and 
other ]>■ -r- 

Start your orchard with absolutely healthy trees, and 
the expense and trouble of keeping them so is reduced to 
a minimum. Let there be but one egg of scale not de- 
stroyed, and the probabilities are that the pest will 
spread through the whole orchard. An annual wash of 
whale oil soap or lye will prevent the attacks of Insects, 
but it will not kill all t ho oirgs. Therefore, to get 
trees from an uniiifesteil locality, is essen- 
tial to success. 

Our handsome Catalogue, with colored lithograph of 
our "Centennial" Cherry, a Treatise on lose t Pests and 
their Remedies, anil much other valuable information, 
mailed free to all applicants. 

MTOnr prices arc reasonable, and parties planting 
large orchards can get special rates. Address 

COATES & TOOL, 

Napa City, Cal. 

San Francisco Branch, 234 Bush St. R. 38. 

Fine Small Fruits a Specialty. 

CUTHBERT RASPBERRY. 




BEST MARKET BKKRY KNOWN! Lar^e, 
Kirm ami Lu<<cious, stands tra\el finely, bears im 
tncnsely, and had two crops a year. 76 cents per dozen; 
$i per 100. Also, Strawberries, Blackberries, Gooseber 
ties, Currants, etc., of finest imported varieties. Prices 
on application. L. U. M ■ ANN Santa Cruz, Cal 

THOMAS' NURSERY, 

VISALIA. CAL. 
This Nursery contains more varieties of Tested Fruits 
than any other Nursery in the State, the proprietor hav- 
ing fruited 70 varieties of Peaches, 13 Apricots, and 12 
of Nectarines thiB season. Iiono's Nrctakikr, the latest 
in the State, a specialty. Send for Catalogue. Address 
I. H. THOMAS, 

Visalia, Cal. 



QUITO OLIVE FARM. 

ROOTED TREES. 

Two and Three-year-old MissioD. 
One and Two-year-old Picholine 

CUTTINGS. 
In lots to suit. Apply on the premises to LUDO- 
VICO GADDI. at Gubservllle, Santa Clara 
CO., Cat , or to A. T. MARVIN, 516 California St., S. F. 



100,000 

PURPLE DAMASCUS CUTTINGS 

For Sale. 

Also MUSCATS, ROSE OF PERU, and oil er varieties 
Price, J4.00 per M. Addrets 

J. B. WHITCOMB, 

Colfax, Placer Co., Cal. 



FOR SALE. 



ALL Choice Varieties of Wine and Raisin Grape Roots 
and Cuttings, including Rii-aria, at b»w prices, by 
M. DENICKE. 
Vineyard Del Monte, Fresno, Cal. 



Jan. 2, 1886.] 



fACIFie RURAlo fRESS. 



23 



jieeds, Mant3. fee. ?eeds, Mapts, ttc. 



Stook.ton HXTLXx-sery. 

TRUE SMYRNA, ADRIATIC, AND SAN PEDRO FIGS. 

PRUNE D'AGEN, Imported Direct. 

Prseparturiena Walnuts. Persimmons. Picholine Olives. Resistant Vines, and a full line 
of Fruit and Ornamental Trees, Shrubs, New Roses and Hot house Plants. Ouaranted free from scale. 

E. C. CLOWES, Prop. (Successor to W. B. WEST), Stockton, Cal. 




Washington Navel 

AND 

EUREKA LEMONS. 



SEND FOR PRICES. 



Will also contract to bud 
special varieties for future 
delivery in quantities to suit. 

Address : 
BYRON O. CLARK and 

RIGGINS BROS.. 
Box 83, Pasadena, Cal. 



If You Want to Save Money and avoid a life of trouble, buy Trees Free from Scale. 

■ffT -MMa " llM1 '™ , " M,M '™ M " 1 1111 ■'■ J> 



c 




o> 




o 




i— 




0> 




CL 




O 




CM 








> 




CS 




V> 


er 


-a 


-a 


c 


t- 


rt 


o 


^> 


i_ 


i_ 




<D 


o 


</> 




Nur 


on 


o 












o 




<u 




I- 








-a 




c 




a> 




C/5 





W. M. WILLIAMS' 

SEMI-TROPICAL and GENERAL NURSERIES. 

375,000 TREES. 1,000,000 ROOTED VINES. 

FOR THE SEASON OF 1885. 



Appbs, Pears, Peaches, Apricots, Nectarines, French and Hungarian Prunes, Plums, Figs 
and Cherries. Cypress, Gums, Acacias, Ornamental Shrubs, Greenhouse Plants. 

8,000 WHITE ADRIATIC FIGS— The fig of commerce, home grown, for sale thecoming 
season. Sixty varieties of Grapes, rooted and cuttings, including all the best Wine and Raisin 
varieties. Catalogue free. 

-VCT. 3Vt. WILLIAMS, 



P. 0. BOX 175. 



Fresno, California. 



W 

3 | 

CD 

X» O. 

■o 

3' Tl 
30 

m 
m 



o 
to 



Kieffer's Hybrid, Le Conte and P. Barry Pears, at Reasonable Prices. 



TREES! TREES! TREES! 

We have greatly enlarged our CAPITAL, NURSERIES, and are now enabled to furnish to the Trade the 
finest and largest stock of Fruit, Shade and Ornamental Trees, Shrubs. Flowering Plants, Grape 
and other roots to be found on the Pacific Coast, which we will sell at the lowest market rates. 

Besides the leading Standard Fruits, we have a large number of new and rare kinds of great promise. We will 
furnish the widely advertised (Kelsey) Japanese Plum at half the price usually asked. This is true of other 
new and choice Fruits, etc. We have propagated and distributed many new and choice varieties, and will continue 
to do so at whatever cost. 

We call especial attention to the following: Stitson, Boquier, Twenty-ounce Cling, Edwards' Cling, French 
Cling, Blood Leaf Muir and Wneatland Peaches. The New Pacific White Fig. Climax, Markley, and 
Violett Apples (the last-named is the finest apple we know of, see description in Catalogue), and other varieties named 
in our Catalogue. 

OUR SEED DEPARTMENT 

Embraces every description of Field, Garden, Flower, and Tree Seeds, Our long experience in this line 
enables us to know just what is best adapted for cultivation and for profit. Our Seeds are Fresh, Reliable, and 
their germinating quality well tested before offering for sale. 

Our SEED and TREE CATALOGUE for 188fi. with its beautiful lithograph cover and plates, is 
the finest ever published on the cost, and will be an ornament to any parlor table. These Catalogues we furnish 
free, on application, to anyone requiring Seeds and Trees. 

OUR FRUIT AND PRODUCE DEPARTMENT 

Is very extensive. This is constantly filled with tho best the market affords, of Green, Machine, and Sun Dried and 
Canned Fruits, etc., Nuts, Honey, and General Farm Produce. 

Being so closely identified with tho interest of tho producer and grower, we are able to know and meet their 
wants in furnishing Seeds or Trees best for cultivation and profit. Orders filled with dispatch. Consignments 
and Correspondence solicited. 

W. R. STRONG & CO., Nos. 102 to 110 J St., Sacramento, Cal. 



SHINN'SJPSERIES. 

1^ EALTH Y, WELL-GROWN TREES. J True to Narae and raised without irrigation. 

FRUIT TREES. { A " tne Best Varieti; ' J ,or Shipping, Canning, Drying and Home Use. 

NUT TREES AND ORNAMENTALS. {$^JK%&£ 

We especially recommend Seller's Golden Cling Peach, Nichols' Cling, the Kaghazi Persian Walnut, and the 
Shipley or Blenheim Apricot. Also our choice BUDDED ORANGES AND LEMONS, home grown and 
Free from Scale, and hardy. 

The Stock grown in this Nursery has always been free from Tree-infesting Pests. 

ISFWe arc able to offer SPECIAL TERMS to parties wishing to plant largely, and to the trado. Corkkspond- 
rnck Soliciikd. Send for Catalogue. Address 

SHINN & CO., Niles, Alameda Co., Cal. 



P 



ESTABLISHED 1853. 



A. D. PRYAL, Prop'r. J^J" "^J 

North Temescal, near Oakland, Cal. 



Y 



As usual, I offer for sale, at the lowest possiblo prices, a large and choice assortment of non-irrigated Fruit 
Trees, all healthy and free from insect pests. Of APPLES, APRICOTS, CHERRIES, PLUM, PEACH, PEAR, 
QUINCE, NECTARINE, FIGS, GRAPES, and all kinds of Small Fruits, including the BERKELEY GOOSEBERKY, 
1 havo a full and complete stock. This year, on account of the excellence of my new varieties of Japan 
Plums, I received the First. Premium from the Mechanics' Institute Fair of San Francisco, for the hest 
collection of Plums. A full line of Forest, Street, Lawn, and Garden Trees, Ornamental Shrubs and Plants, 
Roses, etc, 4&*Dcscriptive Catalogue sent free upon application. Address as above. 



IatalogUI 



1886 



FAIR a1 SQUARE DEALING. 

Believing that if a man has dealt squnrelv with his fellow, 
men his patrons are his best advertisers, 1 invite all to 
make inquiry of the character of my seeds among over a 
million of Farmers, Gardeners and Planters who buve 
used tuem during the past thirty years. Raising a 
large portion of the seed sold, (few seedsmen raise the 
seed tlicy sell) 1 was the first seedsman in the United 
tates to warrant (as per catalogue) their purity and freshness, 
ly n<v Vegetable and Flowei Seed Catalogue for 1888 Will be 
.lit FREE to all who write for it. Among an immense variety, 
uiy friends will find in it (and in none other) a new drumhead Cu'b- 
bage, just about as early as Henderson's, hut nearly twice a» 
large I James J. II, Gregory, Marblcui-ud, Mas*. 



?eeds, Wants, ttc. 



{Seed?, Wants, ttc. 




Price's High-Wheeled Platform] 

Or STOCKTON GANGS, 
With Tongue and Lifting Device. Draft 
one-quarter less than those with the 
small cast wheels. 

These Gangs are made with from S to 6, 8 or 10 inch 
reversible plows, or with 10 and 12 inch Moline Bottoms, 
or with Oliver Chilled Bottoms. They have front or rear 
seeders, if ordered. Wheels are 30 inches high with de- 
tachable hubs that have mud bands on each end, two 
inches wide. Standards have wrought iron centers— 
can't be broken. Rear furrow wheel with guiding at- 
tachment adapts them to hillsides. For Catalogue and 
prices address the manufacturer, 

Hartford, Tulare Co., Nov. It, 18S5. 
D. N. <fr C. A. Hawley— Gentlemen: * * * The 
Price High-wheeled Stock' on Gang that I bought of yon 
is working splendid')/. My neighbors admit them to be 
the best they ever saw. * » * Yours truly, 

M. C. MULCAnr. 
Concord, Cal , Nov. 0, 1885. 
Jacob Price, Esq.— Dear Sir: « « * In conclusion, 
I will say that 1 never sold a tool of any kind that, gave 
such complete satisfaction as your High-wheeled Stockton 
Gangs. Yours, etc., J. Q. BLACKMAIL 

JACOB PRICE. 

San Leandro, Cal. 



PRICE'S SEED SOWER 

Does Perfect Work and Twice as much of 
it as any other. 

Improved and Per- 
fected for 1885. Price, 
$35.00, and cheaper at that 
figure than any other kind at 
nothing. Will be eent any- 
where on trial, to be paid for 
after it sustains the following 
Warranty: To sow with 
almost mathematical even- 
ness. To sow 100 feet wide. 
To sow 200arres per day. To 
feed exactly at the rate the 
team travels; that is to Fay, fast when they walk fast 
and slowly when they walk slowly. To sow all kinds of 
grain, including wet blue-stoned wheat, and barley not 
well cleaned, without closing or skipping. To sow from 
5 to 500 pounds per acre at the will of the operator. All 
repairs free for one season. Send for circular. 
Dealers invitkd to write for terms. 

JACOB PRICE, 

San Leandro, Cal. 




ROSENDAHL'S NURSERY, 

Washington Colony, Fresno, Cal 

200,000 Fruit Trees and Vines 

OF all kinds. 
Particulars on application. Lowest rates to the trade 
Address C. P. WALTON. Sole Agent. 

Box 570. Fresno. Cal. 



J. N. KNOWLES, Manager. EDWIN L. GRIFFITH, Secretary. 

ARCTIC OIL 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

Sperm "SJV l3.nl o, Slepliant and Pisli Oils. 

WHALE OIL SOAP, 

STRONGEST MADE ON PACIFIC COAST. 
Especially adapted for Vineyards and Fruit 0*r< hards. OFFICE-28 California St., San Francisco. 



SAMUEL BRSCK, 

SUCCESSOR TO 

DF\ Silvester, 

IMPORTER AND DEALER IN 

GARDEN and VEGETABLE SEEDS, 

Alfalfa, Timothy, Red and White Clover, Millet, Flax, Red Top, Blue 
Grass, Lawn Grass, Orchard and Rye Grass, Bird Seeds, etc. Imported 
Red and Blue Gum and French Mangel Wurzel and Sugar Beet Seed. 

• No. 317 WASHINGTON STREET, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL 




B. J. BOWEN'S ILLUSTRATED DESCRIPTIVE and PRICED CATALOGUE OF 

VEGETABLE, FLOWER, and FIELD SEEDS, 

Cntaining 128 pages of valuable information for the Gardener, the Farmer, or the Family, mailed free to all 

applicants. Address 

E. J. BOWEN, Seed Merchant, 

815 and 817 Sansome St.. San Francisco. Cal. 



ESTABLISHED 1863. 



THOS. MEHERX2T, 

Importer, Wholesale and Retail Dealer in 

Seeds, Trees AND Plants 

A Large Stock of AUSTRALIAN PERENNIAL RYE GRASS at Reduced Rates. 
EVERGREEN MILLET, ALFALFA, RED AND WHITE CLOVER, 

Timothy and Orchard Grass, Kentucky Blue Grass, Hungarian Millet Grass, Red 
Top, etc. Also a Large and Choice Collection of 
FnTJIT AKTTJ ORIMiV.lVt33KrTA.il TREES , 

BULBS, ROSES, MAGNOLIAS, PALMS, Etc., AT REDUCED PRICES. 
£3TEudding and Pruning Knives, Greenhouse Syringes, Hedges and Pole Shears. 

(p.o. box 2059. THOS. MEHERIN, 516 Battery St., S. F. 

tfSTPrice List Mailed on Application. "WX 



AGENT FOR R. D. FOX'S NURSERY. 



NURSERIES OF C. W. REED & CO., 

Sacramento, Cnl. 

500,000 FRUIT TREES FOR SALE 

AT LOW raiOESS. 

Call and examine our stock before purchasing elsewhere. Our Seed and Seedlings all im 
ported in order to obtain the best naturals for nursery stock. Trees all grown on strong clay 
loam, comprising all the leading market varieties. A large stock of Bartlett and Winter Nelis 
Pear Trees. O^end for Catalogue and Price List. 



O. W. REED & CO., 

Box 161 , Sacramento, 



Cal 



Meeds, 

Cox's Seed Annual. 

MAILED FREE ON APPLICATION. 

A valuable hook for every Farmer and Gardener. It contains description and price of VKCH- 
TABLE, FLOWER; FIKf.D, GRASS, CJ.O VEK, and HIKE SEEDS. All the Bist Varieties of 
1'ruit Trees adapted to the Pacific ('oast. 

THOS. A. COX & CO., Seed Merchant, 409 Sansome St., San Francisco. 



24 



f ACIFI6 I^URAlo p>RESS, 



[Jan. 2, 188G 



19 REASONS WHY THE " GLIDDEN " LEADS ALL OTHERS: 




BECAUSE being made from new ingot Bteel wire it is 20 to 50 percent stronger than others 
made from "merchant" or scrap steel wire, and 

BECAUSE being composed of oue-half to full size larger main wires its strength is increased 
200 to 400 pounds breaking strain. 

BECAUSE the Galvanized wire is treated by the English process, which instead of burning 
the wire, as the acid processes do, actually increases its stkkmjtii. We guarantee it to be 
300 to 600 pounds stronger than acid galvanized wire. 

BECAUSE the (Hidden is one to four ounces per rod lighter than any other barb fencing 
composed of equal size main wires, for reason of its liciiter bark. 

BECAUSE it has the greatest number of barbs per rod, hence gives better protection. 

It has in the "Thick Set" scyle 20 t<> 40 '"ore barbs than other wires. 

BECAUSE though it has more barbs, they weigh less, requiring as they do twenty to fifty 
inches less material to make them. 

BECAUSE owiug to its lighter weight per rod. it will cost for one hundred rods of fence, 
$1.00 to $3.00 less than other styles at oame price per pound. 

because it has the shortest, sharpest, lightest, strongest and most effective harb. 

BECAUSE its barbs cannot be removed or Oisplaced. 

BECAUSE it holds its tension better than any other, as barbs do not bind main wires to- 
gether, thus interfering with contraction and expansion. 

be» :ause it is more evenly twisted, thus giving full strength of both wires. 

BECAUSE it is twisted just enough to give it spring and elasticity, and not enough to over- 
come those qualities or to make it unnecessarily heavy. 

BECAUSE main wires bind the barb instead of barb binding main wires, thus giving 

JOKTES dfe 

JSTo. 1G BEALE ST.. JS-A-TNT PRAKTCISCO. 



spring and elasticity the whole ; lenoth of the line, instead of between the barbs. It is 
any V ot r her admiWed the GhMm remains taut through varying temperatures better than 

weiglrtta tarto!* h " m08t Wdght 8Dd 8tren e th in main wire8 where nee<led . "d least 

.~ - E n^V' S ff a J! the barbs are at »8 ht <">g'e» to the line, and each standing alone makes 
every point effective. 6 

J iE f A .Y SE T, 6 hun, ' red P° und ? of «>. idden makes as many rods of fence as one hundred and 
thirty of other styles, where same size main wire is used. 

BECAUSE a guarantee of quality goes with every pound sold and the manufacturers stand 
ready to make it good. 

inspe 1 cted AUSE ** the " 108t P erfectlv made 00 m08t approved machinery and most rigidly 

BECAUSE, in a word, it is universally admitted to be the BEST 

Mo , re i f 1 armers " 8e tl >e ("Hidden than all others combined. More railroad companies use it 

OT^Wnltf^%^Wowi^? ^ D0W - , i aDd • better liked than oth «- 14 iB the 

/ j . °* / Hfc yKLD, and where its merits are known, readily commands *1 per 
one hundred pounds more than any other wire in the market. 

The manufacturers have never yielded, in the sharpest 'competition, to the temptation of 
decreasing the size of the wire nor the quality of the wire itself, knowing that any fabric like 
Birbed Wire is only as strong between any two posts as the weakest place within that distance 
and bnlieving their customers would, sooner or later, recognize their settled determination to 
afford the soundest and strongest fencing offered in the market. 

, PACIFIC COAST GENERAL AGENTS, 

3XTo. 200 O" ST., SACRAMENTO. 





Territory 
trolled 117 the 
SF.one: 



A 111 ZONA, 
CALIFORNIA, 
OREGON. 
WASHINGTON 

TERRITORY, 
NEVADA, 
IDAHO, AM. 
HAWAIIAN 

ISLANDS. 



AGENTS WANTED 
IN UNOCCUPIED TERRITORY. 



We have pur- 
chased the Sewing 
Machine Interest 
of The Estate of 
Samuel Hill, and 
have renoved from 
loR Post, to 634 
Market Street, 
opp. I'alare Hotel. 

THE NEW HOME 
S EW I NO MA- 
CHINE CO. 

IV. W. £gtiew, 

UAN'AOkK. 



Best 


Stand, 


Best 


Feed, 


Best 


Shuttle, 


Best 


Attachments, 


Best 


Woodwork, 


Best 


Wearing. 



The "FARMER'S FRIEND" Gang Plows at Greatly Reduced Prices 



I have a Large Stockof these well-known 
Plows now on hand and will sell them as 
follows : 

3 Plow Gang with steel or chilled shares $.i0 00 

4-Plow (!ang with steel or chilled shares 65 00 

, r ) Plow Gang with steel or chilled shares fiO 00 

5 per cent discount for Cash. 

The .'! PI >«• < i in? is suitable for ( irchard and Vineyard 
as well as for Pie I J wcrk. In ordering please state if 
wanted for Field or Orchard purposes and nature of soil. 

THESE PRICES ARE GOOD FOR 30 
DAYS ONLY ! 




And all Farmers who have not tested this Gang will do weU 
to take advantage of this offer, and secure a Cang Plow 
that will do more work with less team and men, and d i it 
better, than any other < ■ m : in Cal fornia. 

OVEE 200 TESTIMONIALS. 



Note my prices on the J. I. CASE PLOWS : 

No. 1 — 10-inch J. I. Case MiMed plow with exira share ...COM! 

No. 2 -12-ioch J. I. Case Chi led plow with extra share 10 no 

No. 3 - Hindi . I. I. Case Chilled plow with extra share 10 SO 

No. 10— 10- ni h.I. I. Case Sieel plow K 00 

No 12 12-inch J. I. Case Steel plow In ou 

12 inch J. I. Case Sice! Beam Center Draft Sulky Plow Ml 00 

14 inch .1. L Case Steel Beam Center Draft Sulky Plow 65 00 

l«inch J. I Case Steel Bj»m Ccutei Dralt Suiky Plow 80 00 



A LARGE STOCK OF AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS AT CORRESPONDINGLY LOW PRICES. 

FOR CATAL03UE AND PRICE LIST, PLEASE ADDRESS 



THU 



128 California St., S- 



This Plow is especially designed for Vineyard 
work. The Standard and Beam are thrown to the 
center so as not to interfere with the growing 
vines. The Landside handle is adjustable, and 
can be thrown to or from the land at will of 
operator. 

The share of thin plow is made in two pieces, the 
wing forming one and the point the other, each re- 
versible independently of the other, yet as a whole, 
forming a very strong and most complete share. 

The Wing, as shown in the illustration, is so 
made that the bearings or fitting parts are entirely 
concealed from view when in position, so that they 
are not exposed to wear in the least, thus insuring 
graduated as to be almost, if not quite uniform and perfect, and thus nearly the entire 
taken off the foot of standard and exposed portion of the slip point, thereby avoiding 
the liability to breakage, so common in the ordinary points and standards. 

The bearings of the slip point, like those of tho wing, are entirely concealed, hence 




PLOW, HXTo. 8. 



a complete tit under any and all circumstances. 
The special design of the wing is such that a con- 
cave surface is always presented to wear, and this 
holds good until worn out, no matter how often 
reversed. 

The Slip Point is a marvel of strength and 
utility, which is clearly apparent when the princi- 
ple upon which it is constructed and held in place 
is considered. The peculiar notched prongs form- 
ing the upper portion of the point, or that part 
which fits into the standard, are held in position 
by a lever resting against the inside of the stand- 
ard, and when the strain is applied as the point 
comes into use the pressure on these prong* is so 



strain is 
much of 



effected by any use the point may be subjected to and a perfect fit always results. 

TO OBTAIN THE BEST RESULTS FROM THE USE OF THE SLIP POINT, 
are not ! REVERSE IT OFTEN. Address: 



Oliver Chilled Plow Works, 37 Market St., San Francisco. 




TT7V3E33STTY-r , OXJH. PAGE EDITION. 



Vol. XXXI-No. 2.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 9, 1886. 



3 a Year, in Advance 

Single Copies, 10 (Jts. 



Wheat. 

The new wheat is growing well. The cold 
weather and dry northerly winds of the past 
few days have served to check too rapid top 
growth and have removed surplus moisturefrom 
lands which have been untillable. So far the 
outlook is promising for plenty of wheat next 
summer. 

Many who have wheat in warehouse wish 
the outlook for value was as clear as that for 
crop. The market has dragged along in a most 
unsatisfactory fashion thus far 
and buyers are, of course, 
making the most of it to de- 
press the trade and the hold- 
ers. In this city matters are 
made more unsettled by the 
operators on call, who blow 
hot and cold alternately and 
do their best to confuse and 
weaken those who are hold- 
ing wheat. In spite of these 
untoward influences, and 
others like them operating 
in other markets, it cannot 
be denied that the situaticn 
stands much as we have 
claimed from time to time in 
reference to the visible sup- 
ply of wheat and the reserves 
to be available before another 
harvest can be gathered in. 
The deficiency in the wheat 
product of the United States 
for 1885, which compensates 
for the large surplus carried 
over from 1884; the fact that 
the Russian crop is about 20 
per cent short of an average; 
the fact that the latest ac- 
counts indicate that the In- 
dian surplus will not be very 
much more than has been 
furnished during two or three 
years preceding — all these 
things do not seem to war- 
rant the present low val- 
ues. It is true, also, that the growing coun 
tries on the continent of Europe are somewhat 
short this year, but the advantage of this is 
counterbalanced by the import duty which has 
been placed by some countries upon our wheat, 
and which will force the people to seek other 
food. Our producers are injured somewhat by 
this movement, and the promise is that they 
will be even more injured by the movement 
against silver if it should prevail, for the degra- 
dation of silver in this country would throw 
the advantage into the lap of Iniia, where sil- 
ver is honored, and whence goes ultimately the 
silver dollars sent out from this country. In 
spite of these unfavorable influences we feel 
quite sure that there must be an improvement 
on the balance of the crop now in hand, what- 
ever may be the result upon crops now going. 

The unfortunate condition of the wheat mar- 
ket is shown by a review which the telegraph 
says is published this week in the Commercial 
Bulletin of New York. It shows that the 
price of wheat in Great Britain at the close of 
the past year was lower than in any year since 
the average market prices were recorded, a 
period of one hundred and ten years. The av- 
erage price in British towns, officially reported 
during 1885, has been only 323 lOd per quarter. 



There is a gleam of hope in the latest dis 
patches from New York, where on Monday 
wheat was reported in better demand and firmer. 
The advance is said to bs owing to fresh war 
rumors, which are not a very stable foundation, 
but a more important claim is that the visible 
supply has shown an unexpected decrease, and 
western operators are bulling the market on the 
theory that the growing crop is endangered by 
the severe weather and the lack of a snow pro- 
tection. We fully believe, as said before, that 
the available supply must show signs of de- 



Hioh Freight Rates at the North. — The 
grain-growers of Eastern Oregon and Washing- 
ton Territory have been complaining for a long 
time of the enormous freight charges exacted 
by the Oregon Railway and Navigation com- 
pany for carrying wheat to Portland. The rate 
on wheat from The Dalles to Portland, a dis- 
tance of 88 miles, is 12 cents a bushel, and from 
Wallula to Portland, 214 miles, it is 18 cento a 
bushel. A telegram from Washington states 
that Senator Mitchell introduced a resolution 
I in the Senate Tuesiay, instructing the Commit 




ON THE WAY TO THE MORNING BATH. 



crease when consumption progresses a little far- 
ther. 

Careless Handling ok Produce. -Producers 
have often much cause for complaint at the 
manner in which their produce is abused and 
reduced in market by careless handling on the 
part of those to whom it is entrusted. From 
the time the product leaves the farm it has to 
run a gauntlet of evils from common carriers 
and from wharf men and draymen, and too often 
from the city receivers. There should be some 
manner of tracing out and righting these 
wrongs. The latest indication of injury is 
found in the complaint of Sonoma county 
potato growers, who claim that malicious per- 
sons are in the habit of mutilating their sacks 
of potatoes stored on Jackson-street wharf, 
without interference from the guardians of the 
wharf or harbor police. During the past few 
weeks many of the sacks have been cut open 
and their contents mutilated. This naturally 
lowers the value of the products, aud the farm- 
ers are losers. Several producers have suffered 
quite heavily. As the rate of storage on the 
wharf is five cents per ton, it is thought that 
the State should be responsible for the products 
while they are under its charge. 



tee on Transportation Routes t3 the Seaboard 
to inquire into these grievances, both as to their 
( xtent and the proper measure of relief, and 
also as to the impoitmce of the speedy comple- 
tion of the canal and locks at the Cascades of 
the Columbia and the proper means to over- 
come the obstructions to navigation at the 
Dalles. 

Contract for Agistment. — The Supreme 
Couit has decided that if you make a contract 
for agistment or grazing of cattle upon your 
land you must have land which will sustain 
them. Land on Sherman Island was thus let for 
for agistment in 1877, and suit to recover pay has 
just been decided by the Supreme Court. As 
the land was under water, and otherwise unfit 
to sustain the cattle, the owner is debarred from 
collecting his fee for grazing. 



A Distinguished Family. 

As kindred to the themes which will be 
widely discussed this week, because of the com- 
ing of the poultry show in this city next week, 
we give an illustration of a family of honorable 
lineage — honorable, because of the part which 
its members played in the saving of Rome. 

We give the picture rather for its historic and 
poetic interest than for any practical value 
there may be in it. We are not sure that our 
motherly goose would score many "points" at 
the fair, but it is just as well, 
once in a while, to forget the 
artificial creature of the breed- 
er?, important and valuable 
though it be, and bring to 
mind the picturesque, the 
natural, which delight the ar- 
t : st and please the observer. 
Our simple dame goose lead- 
ing her brood to their morn- 
ing's plunge in the limpid 
waters, makes indeed a pretty 
sight either in nature or in 
the artist's portrayal. The 
goose, when she does not lift 
her voice, is a philosophic 
lird, and may perhaps serve 
many of us a as forcible hint 
that we are wisest when we 
hold our tongues. When she 
siugs she becomes undignified 
and ridiculous. Do not we 
often resemble her ? But 
whatever we may think of the 
mature goose, the goslings, in 
their lovely coat* of down, 
generally win admiration from 
all, and the fearlessness with 
which they launch their barks 
upon the bosom of the waters 
is an interesting instance of 
implanted instinct. Let us 
hope that there may be no 
voracious turtle waiting for 
his breakfast as they ap- 
proach the stream, nor pot- 
hunting gunners, careless whether his bag con- 
sists of wild game or tame. 



Agricultural and Mineral Lands.— A dis- 
patch from Oroville'on Tuesday cites an impor- 
tint decision by Judge Freer, which will be re- 
ceived with satisfaction by many, that the 
United States patent to the railroad company 
carried with it all the minerals not known to 
exist at the data of its issuance. This decision 
follows a recent one of the Supreme Court of 
the United States, and gives general satisfac- 
tion, as it disposes of a vexed question which 
has long kept the agricultural title in mineral 
sections in dispute and litigation. 



California Trout at the East. — The trans- 
planting of California fish to Eastern waters has 
been in progress for a long time, and the results 
are beginning to be apparent. Rainbow or 
California trout, coming from the overstocked 
ponds of the Southside Club on Long Island, 
are selling in New York (Jity at $1.25 a pound. 
The season lasts from September to May. 



The State Wants Her Lands.— The State 
of California filed with Secretary Lamar, on 
Jan. 4th, complaints against the Commissioner 
of the General Land Office for not preparing 
patents for land granted to the State of Califor- 
nia by Congress, and subsequently confirmed to 
her in a special Act, and approved to her by 
Secretary Browning in 1 806, and certified to the 
State by Commissioner Wilson in the same 
year which Land Commissioner Sparks has re- 
cently decided may be still further contested by 
anyone desiring to claim them under other laws. 



26 



PACIFI6 RURAId press. 



[Jan. 9, 1886 



C[o^ESPONDEJM(§E. 



Corret.|K>rulents an alone responsible for their opinions. 

Eist Riverside Enterprise. 

Editors Press:— It was my pleasure a few 
days ago to take a spin to the upper end of Sin 
Bernardino valley in company with Mr. Mat- 
thew Gage, of Riverside. The day was all that 
a Southern California sun and balmy air could 
produce; the driver full of anecdote and 
mother wit, and when I tell you as a secret 
that though raised and educated in Kingston, 
Canada, he was born on the Kmerald Isle, you 
may be sure I lost nothing by my trip. 

Mr. Uage wishes me, however, to understand 
that he is not the kind of Irishman who can be- 
come a citizen of this great republic in 24 hours 
after leaving Castle Garden. He has had to 
wait patiently five years for that privilege, but 
in six more months he will be a full-fledged 
American citizen. He is a man of indomitable 
pluck and perseverance, else he never could 
have accomplished the feat he is now carrying 
out, to wit: developing water and building a 
canal from which over 4000 acres east of and 
adjoining Riverside will be irrigated. He 
steadily worked on this problem for over three 
years against diUioultiea which to any ordinary 
man would be insurmountable. At times every- 
thing seemed to work against him, but he con- 
quered one difficulty after another until within 
two months water will flow in the (ia^e canal, 
and bring joy to the owners of these dry claims, 
put money in their pockets and enhance the 
general prosperity of Riverside by opening a 
large tract of beautiful land for settlement. In 
order to carry out his scheme and secure the 
water source he purchased 2630 acres of land 
from Mr. Carit, of San Bernardino, for the sum 
of $175,000. Of this tract 1500 acres are valu- 
able fruit lauds, the balance only useful as a 
water-source. 

About 700 inches now flow from the cienegas 
and are collected into the canal. The 1130 
acres not considered arable is one vast strata of 
artesian supply, and extend s distance of five 
miles on either bank of the river. 

Mr. Gage has already six flowing wells, which 
aggregate over .">00 inches. The water-produc- 
ing strati of coarse gravel and boulders, is 40 
feet deep and varies in depth from the surface 
of the grouud from 125 fee: to 175 feet. The 
last well completed flows over 100 inches. 
Boulders have been thrown up by the force of 
the water— the largest weighing seven pounds, 
from a depth of L25 feet. These wells are sim- 
ply immense. The only well I ever saw to 
compare with these, is one a mile south of Santa 
Ana, formerly owned by Professor Andrews, 
now of this city. 

Deeper Welle. 
Mr. Gage intends, at a later date, to test the 
lower strata, and will put down wells from 300 
to 500 feet deep. 

He has engaged the services of Mr. William 
Manscn of Gait, Ontario, with a well-boring ap- 
paratus of his own construction . He is a thorough 
engineer and machinist. 

Drills and sinker bars are used, varying in 
weight from 400 to 2000 pounds, according to 
the ground in which he is operating. In this 
locality the most he has made in a day was 
through clay 105 feet and got a flowing well. 
"When he strikes a large boulder he puts on 
extra weight, and in no case will he fail to a 
depth of 5000 feet. Mr. Gage expects to keep 
him at work for two years. 

The canal is being built under the supervision 
of Mr. C. C. Miller, surveyor of Riverside, who 
surveyed and platted the Arlington tract in 
Riverside, and superin'ended the construction 
of canal No. 2 of the Riverside Water Company. 
He also spent two years developing the irriga- 
tion system of the Blythe estate on the Colo- 
rado river. He is a careful engineer and will 
spare no pains to make the entire work the best 
of its kind. A tunnel of over 1240 feet was 
worked by two gangs of men from each end. 
When they met in the center they were within 
one- fourth ol an inch on the grade and three- 
eights on alignment. There will be (100 feet of 
tunnel at Point of Bocks through granite. 

To get water on the land at the earliest pos- 
sible date, a temporary flume will be con- 
structed around this point, and the tunnel 
drilled as fast as may be. 

Extent and Cost of the Work. 

The total length of the Gage system will be 
12 miles to Turquesquite Arroyo. For a time 
the water will be carried in an open ditch until 
Mr. (iage determines how much water he can 
develop. The tunnel will be lined with brick 
set in cement and made of sufficient capacity to 
carry 3500 inches. The en ire tunnel is six feet 
wide and six feet high in the clear, and varies 
from 50 to 100 feet from the surface of the 
bluff. 

There will be 2500 feet of fluming, which will 
also be made sufficiently large to carry 3500 
inches. As soon as the amount of water is de- 
termined, the ditch will be enlarged and the 
entire length lined with concrete. 

This Bystem will cost a vast deal of money, 
as the following will show: 

Carit tract, water sources, etc SI 75,000 

Constructing and cementing canal 175,000 

Developing water and incidentals 50,000 



Mr. Gage believes in the doctrine of "live and 
let live," and sells the water outright to the 
owners of the land at the rate of $100 an acre, 
.*500 an inch, while the usual estimate of the 
value of water in Southern California is .-?1000 
an inch. He sells at rate of one inch to five 
acres, delivered at the main canal at a point 
nearest the land of the purchaser. He has al- 
ready about 1200 inches, which has a commer- 
cial value of $1)00,000, leaving him, after all im- 
provements are paid for, a handsome margin of 
profit, to say nothing of 1500 acres of the Cant 
tract, worth at least §150 an acre, and a section 
of land adjoining Riverside, which he has taken 
up under the Desert Act, for which he will re- 
ceive title this winter, and is worth with water 
$200 an acre. Mr. Gage deserves his success. 
He worked against odds that would kill many 
men. He checkmated every opposition, until 
to-day, all seems smooth sailing, and in a few 
more weeks another beautiful tract will be open 
for settlement. 

I have always advocated plenty of water. I 
do not believe in "dry irrigation." Mr. (J age 
has now the honor of bringing in the best sup- 
ply in Southern California, next to the River 
side Water Company. We are not at all jeal- 
ous of this new enterprise. We will cordially 
welcome every new settler in east Riverside, 
and guarantee him that he can raise just as 
good oranges as we can, and make equally good 
raisins, provided he uses the same caie in culti- 
vation and practices the same kind of grit on 
which we have been experimenting for so long. 
These new-comers must learn to labor and to 
wait just as long as we have done, and in the 
end success is assured. D. W. MuLeod. 

Rivernide, Cal. 



State. Everything is kept in its proper place, 
and an air of neatness and order here prevails 
to an extent that is highly pleasing to those 
who delight in prudent management, without 
which success cannot be attained in anything, 
much less in farming, where every advantage 
should be taken of the natural and acquired re- 
sources of the farm in order to make it profit- 
able. 

Now that the storm Beems to have spent its 
force I hope to see more of our farmers, and to 
often communicate with them through the 
Rural, as I continue my rambles among the 
fields, orchards, and gardens of agricultural 
Tehama connty. Eldro. 

Bed Bluff, Cal., Jan. 1st. 



J^Or^TIGUbTURE. 



Rural Rambles— No. 1. 



Total ; $400,000 



Editors Press :— The familiarity of the 
heading above written, precludes the idea of 
my laying any shadow of a claim to originality 
in the construction of a title for the series of 
papers which is to follow. As you have learned 
ere this, through the dispatches to the daily 
newspapers of your city, and no doubt through 
private sources, Jupiter Plnvius has conspired 
to prevent any very extensive wanderings 
among the patrons of husbandry on the part of 
the dwellers in this city. Indeed, most people 
residing or sojourning here during the greater 
part of the past two months have been obliged 
to don rubber boots in order to safely navigate 
the watery thoroughfares within the corporate 
bounds of this fair little city. It is for this 
reason that my "rambles" have been chiefly 
within the city limits, and my interviews with 
farmers confined to chats with those who have 
come to town between showers to pay taxes or 
purchase supplies. I did, however, one day 
not long since, during a suspension of hostili- 
ties on the part of the storm-king, take a trip 
among the farmers of 

Antelope Valley, 
But the limited time which was allowed me for 
the visit did not permit me to gather all the 
data I could have wished for this letter. 

For a distance of nearly a mile from the east 
end of the Sacramento river iron bridge (which 
I ought to pause here to say is an object of' 
pride to the citizens of Red Bluff, being the 
finest of its kind west of the Rocky mountains,) 
one traverses an almost unbroken bar of sand 
and gravel, over which the Tehama connty 
wagon road passes. Right on the bank of the 
slough, which at high water forms an arm of 
the Sacramento river (and of which this gravel 
bar forms the bed), begin the wide fields of rich 
soil, which render Antelope valley famous for 
its fertility. Stretching away to the eastward, 
almost to the foothills, are broad, rich acres 
divided into numerous farms of greater or less 
extent, devoted to grain and fruit growing, of 
which more definite mention may be made in 
future letters, as opportunities offer for further 
investigation and inspection. 

Almost at the extreme north end of the val- 
ley is the farm of General N. P. Chipman, con- 
taining nearly 1300 acres. This place is in 
charge of J. M. Henderson, a thorough farmer, 
and, judging by his courteous treat'nent of 
your representative, a very genial gentleman. 
Mr. Henderson informed me that of the lands 
comprising this farm, 700 acres are devpted to 
grain raising, 500 acres being sown to this ce- 
real the present year; 35 acres are planted 
in trees, of which there are 1600 ap- 
ricot trees, 1200 prunes, 1500 peaches and 400 
pears. There are on this farm 53 acres of vines, 
all of the best varieties of wine, table and raisin 
grapes. The trees and vines are all thrifty, so 
much so indeed that I could hardly believe 
that water had not been used to "push" them; 
but such is the fact. Neither trees nor vines 
have ever been Irrigated. I was informed that 
the general had turned his attention soon after 
his purchase of the farm in 1SS1 to the raising 
of fine Jersey cattle. He now has on this farm 
15 head of these cattle. He ulso has 30 head of 
stock horses and 20 head of work horses, most 
of the latter being required to work the farm. 
He also has 120 head of stock hogs, chiefly 
Kerkshires, and annually turns off a consideia- 
ble number for the market. This stock roams 
at will over the portion of the farm used as past- 
ure lands, and has access to the stubble fields 
after harvest. 

The method observed by the owner and man- 
ager of this farm could be pursued with profit 
and satisfaction by every farmer in our golden 



"Benefits of Local Organizations." 

Editors Press : — Under the above heading, 
in the last Rural, your correspondent from 
' Summer Home Farm" has struck the key- 
note, and his suggestions and recommendations 
are equally as important for a local organiza- 
tion for the disposal of our fruits and products 
as the Fruit Union is for their shipment and 
sale in the Kastern States. 

The close of the year is an appropriate season 
for a review of the past, and the relating of our 
experiences may serve as good teachers and 
guides for the future. Laet year I had occasion 
to send what little fruit I had to a commission 
house in San Francisco, and was unfortunate in 
not having enough to cancel the small advances 
I required. This year I commenced sending to 
the same firm with the purpose of liquidating 
my indebtedness. After having made two or 



prominent fruit centers in the' State. The de- 
velopments in the business there have been 
marvelous. There are already about 50 en- 
gaged in fruit culture there, where three years 
ago there was only one. The'area devoted to 
trees and vines in bearing is already more than 
600 acres, and is being added to faster than in 
any other locality. The importance of Colfax 
as a shipping place will not be limited by the 
amount of fruit grown in it) immediate vicinity. 
It is the outlet for large quantities of apples, 
and pears grown at Iowa Hill and Yankee 
Jim's, and for a large part of the fruit that is 
now raised in Nevada county. Even during 
this past season the shipments of Nevada connty 
fruit from Colfax foot up to a total of 1,614,340 
pounds, and'many'new trees are, being planted 
in the district from which this large quantity 
came. 

The shipping, business at Dutch Flat is also 
in its infancy, but a good beginning has been 
made. Dutch Flat cannot be beaten in the 
State for fine apples and pears, and the increase 
of apple and pear orchards is larger than would 
be suspected in a community so thoroughly 
given up to mining. Peaches also do well on 
many ranches there. 

The shipments from the five points named 
have bi-i r as follows: From Penryn, the total 
number of pounds by both freight and express 
was 575,732 pounds; from Newcastle the num- 
ber of pounds sent by Wells, Fargo & Co.'s Ex- 
press was 806*478) while 4,548,020 pounds went 
by freight, making a total from that point of 
5,355,398 pounds; from Auburn, 142,273 pounds 
were shipped by freight and 9754 pounds by ex- 
press, making a total number of 152,027 pounds 
from Auburn; from Colfax, the total number of 
pounds shipped was 1,080,390, and from Dutch 
Flat the total shipments amounted to 101,880 
pounds. 

Of the fruit shipped from Dutch Flat, 55,300 
pounds were sent to Newcastle for re-shipment; 
deducting this from the Newcastle shipments, 
we have 5,300,093 pounds from Newcastle. Of 



three small consignments, my adjoining neigh- th Colf ax shipments, 1,014,340* pounds came 

1 1 . , »- aiinnaotaH trvind t >i 11 uvrurimiin) nf da linn . 1 . . 



bor suggested trying the experiment of selling 
our fruits ourselves. Arrangements were ac- 
cordingly made. 

The da/ I went to the city for this purpose, I 
shipped a portion of a lot of apples to my con- 
signees and the balance for myself. At a per- 
sonal interview a few days thereafter they in- 
formed me that the apples sold for 50 cents per 
box — but upon rendering accounts of sales sub- 
sequently they were knocked down to 35 cents, 
with a note on the margin stating that at the 
personal interview they "confounded them with 
a consignment belonging to another person"!! 
A few weeks thereafter, upon a temporary visit 
to my home, I was handed their account current 
for collection by a constable, with instructions 
if not settled immediately to sue and attach 
growing crops. Upon arriving in the city the 
following morning I called at their store for the 
purpose of arranging the matter, and was con- 
fronted by the senior partner — at the tail end 
of the firm name — that one of the reasons for 
taking such summary proceedings was that 
"you are competing with us." Taken by sur- 
prise, I recovered myself, and straightening up 

to my full stature I replied: "Mr. , is not 

this world large enough for us all?" Somewhat 
abashed, he said, "Well, perhaps so if on the 
square." But enough; he incautiously displayed 
the animus. 

Is it not time to boycott such concerns and let 
them severely alone? Has it come to this, that 
the fruit growers of this State have to submit 
to the dictates of a few conscienceless monopo 
lizing middlemen? Are they so enthralled and 
bound that they have not independence and en- 
terprise enough to throw off this incubus, and 
by organization establish a headquarter and 
agency in San Francisco, for the sale and dis- 
posal of their products at the best market rates, 
and with honest returns? Who speaks next? 

Sonoma, Dec. ;?Sth. J. R. Robinson. 



The Sierra Foothill Region. 

It is probably true that most people are not 
aware of the extent of the fruit interests of 
Placer county foothills, and we take pleasure 
in re-publishing from the Placer county Repttb- 
liran an article in which are given the results 
of a careful inquiry as follows: It has suc- 
ceeded in getting the exact figures of all the 
fruit that has been shipped out of the county 
during the past season, gaining the facts 
mainly from Mr. Hughes, of Penryn; Mr. Rice, 
of Newcastle; Messrs Boardman and Hollen- 
beck, of Auburn; Mr. Lobner, of Colfax, and 
Mr. Disque, of Dutch Flat. 

The five places mentioned, Penryn, New- 
castle, Auburn, Colfax and Dutch Flat are the 
only points from which fruit has been shipped. 
Newcastle thus far has been the principal ship 



from Nevada county, which leaves 06,050 
pounds of fruit produced in Placer county 
shipped from Colfax. An element of guess- 
work now comes in with respect to the Placer- 
grown fruit shipped from Auburn. As stated 
above, the total shipments were 152,027 pounds. 
There are no figures to show exactly how much 
of this came from El Dorado county, but, 
after making a careful estimate, A. F. Board- 
man thinks that about one third of it came 
across the American river. This would make 
the Auburn shipments of fruit grown in 
Placer county foot up to 101,351 pounds. 
Therefore, while the total shipments 
from the county aggregate 5,510,127 pounds, 
the shipments of fruit grown exclusively in 
this county are, to recapitulate, from Penryn, 
575,732 ponnds; from Newcastle, 5,300,093 
pounds; from Auburn, 101,351 pounds; from 
Colfax, 66,050 pounds; from Dutch Flat, 101,- 
880 pounds; grand total, 6,145,111 pounds. 
Estimating carloads at 20,000 pounds, Placer's 
shipments would be equivalent to more than 
192 full carloads. 

[In a subsequent paragraph the writer men- 
tions the fact that three places are omitted in 
the list above and that Pino, Rocklin and Hose 
ville sent forward fruit enough to make 50 
carloads in addition to the amount stated 
above.— Eds. Press. 1 



Citrus Fruit Exhibition. 

Editors Press:— A good deal of energetic 
work is in progress in our valley and the north- 
ern section of our State generally, in prepara- 
tion for the Citrus Fair, which will open 
in this city on January 1 1 th. It will be the first 
north of Sau F'rancisco. From expressions 
given through the different local papers, the 
movement is a popular one. The time is a little 
late to give a fine display, as the best selections 
were plucked before it was known that there 
would be a display. Nevertheless, it will show 
to some extent what our soils and climate can 
produce in the line of tem'-tropical fruits. 

Sacramento. 



G.T. R. 



The Wool Trade of 1885. 



The following is the wool report of George 
Abbott, of the S. F. Wool Exth nge for the year 

1885: 

Early arrivals of spring wool came upon a 
bare market and met with ready sale at rates 
ping place in tfe^O^, 4tMM^*Mh of tfie nearly equal to Jhne raliogin 1884, although 
fruit sent from there was grown in the Penryn 
district, and the latter place is now looming up. 
It is a separate shipping organization and prom- 



ises to soon become a rival. 

Auburn, Colfax, and Dutch Flat are just be- 
ginning the business. The Auburn firm that 
has been engaged in it this year for the first 
time has found it profitable even with the lim- 
ited acreage now tributary to the town, and 
will have a shipping house built for next sea- 
son's operations. Large quantities of fruit will 
be sent in next year from Coloma and George- 
town divide, for which places Auburn is the 
natural and most convenient outlet, 



wools were poorer and F>astern markets lower. 
A steady demand without excitement prevented 
any large accumulation. About the begin- 
ning of August large purchases were made 
which reduced stocks of spring and Oregon 
clips to a very low point. 

Lick of pasturage in the spring and high 
prices in the fall caused growers to forward 
their wools quickly, and stocks in the country 
are now almost exhausted. 

Production shows a decrease, but any further 
decline is hardly probable. Low prices have 
drawn some growers out of the business into 
cattle, and scarcity of pasturage has caused a 



Colfax will in a few years be one of the most heavy loss in some parts of the State, which the 



Jan. 9, 18*6.] 



fACIFie I^URAId f RESS 



27 



large increase in other sections has scarcely 
made good. 

Spring Clip— This clip was poorer than in the 
previous year, being of heavier shrinkage and 
poorer color. The proportion of seed and 
small bur was less, but large burs were found 
in many clips heretofore almost free from 
them. The prospects are favorable for the 
next clip being good, as the rainfall up till now 
has been abundant. Quotations: Choicenorth 
em (Humboldt and Mendocino), 20 to 21; 
good northern (Red Bluff, Marysville, etc.), 
18 to 19; defective northern, 15 to 17; good to 
choice, San Joaquin, 14 to 16; good San Joa- 
quin (12 months' growth), 11 to 13; southern 
coast, 11 to 13. 

Fall Clip— Has been better than in 1884. It 
was freer of seed and averaged better in condi 
tion and growth. An active demand raised 
prices to nearly the level "of spring wools. 
From opening rates an advance of nearly 40 
per cent has been made. Scourers have taken 
an unusually large amount. Quotations: Ohoice 
northern (Humboldt and Mendocino), 18J to 
19; good northern, 16 to 17; San Joaquin, 14 to 
10; heavy San Joaquin and southern, 10 to 11. 

Oregon— Very fine choice Eastern were re- 
ceived, but very little valley. Eistern Oregon 
is furnishing finer and heavier wools. Scourers 
have taken less this year than last. The re- 
ceipts here, although a large amount has been 
forwarded direct from Oregon to the East, show 
only a small deficiency. Quotations: Choice 
valley, 18 to 21 ; choice Eastern, 17 to 18; good 
eastern, 14 to 10. Late sales have been made 
from one to two cents higher. 

Stocks— Are mostly fall wool from the mid- 
dle counties. Supplies of spring California and 
Oregon are smaller than for sevfral years, 
and scarcely sufficient to furnish any basis for 
quotation. 

Freights— During the past year on wools 
costing over 18 cents per pound, two cents 
per pound; costing between 12 and 18 cents 
per pound; one and three-quarter cents per 
pound; under 12 cents, one and one-half cents 
per pound; scoured, three cents per pound. By 
ship, one cent per pound. 

Wool Productions. 

Receipts at San Francisco. BAGS. 
January, fall 1884 1,000 

gSS^'....'.'...:::::::::::::::::::::S 

t 11 327 

June 1 L'Jf * 

July JgJ 

August 3.874 

September 1 2.812 

October IS.™ 

November oao 

December 962 

Total , 9 7,515 

Of which there was spring wool, 58,- POUNDS. 

156 bags, weighing 18,028,360 

Spring wool shipped direct from the 

interior 3,657,700 



The Law 



on Wool Grading 
Francisco. 



in San 



Total spring production 21,686,060 

There was fall wool received, 30,- 

322 bags, weighing 11,804,650 

Fall wool Bhipped direct from the 

interior..... 1.644,210 

Total fleece wool 35,134,920 

Pulled wool shipped from San Fran- 
cisco and interior 1,420.470 



Total production of CaUforn.ia.36,561,390 

Fall wool of 1884, 3,037 bags 1,063,650 

On hand Dec. 31, 1884, about 6,000,000 

Received from Oregon (20 616 bags) . 6,184,800 
Foreign wool received (1,402 bales). 650,000 



Grand total 50,459,840 

Exports. 

Domestic, foreign, pulled and scoured. 
Per rail, inclusive of shipments from POUNDS. 

interior 36,122,580 

Per sail 3, 994,941 

Total shipments 40,067,521 

On hand Dec. 31, 1885, about 2,000,000 

Value of exports $6,500,000. 

Difference between receipts and export* 
arises from consumption of local mills, and 
wool on hand awaiting shipment in the grease 
or scoured. The difference is more marked 
than formerly on account of the increased 
amount of wool scoured. Foreign wool is 
chiefly from Australia in transit to Eistern 
markets. The weights of receipts and exports 
are gross. The usual tare on bags received is 
about three pounds each; on pressed bales ship- 
ped, 14 to 16 pounds each. 

Production of California Wool. 

YEAR. POUNDS 

1870 20,072,660 

1871 22,187.188 

1872 24,255,468 

Lf73 32,158 169 

1874 39 356,781 

1875 43,532,223 



The Supreme Court has rendered a decision 
concerning the law and custom of wool grading 
in San Francisco which will be of interest to 
all wool sellers. In the case the action was 
brought by Meherin plaintiff against Bill de- 
fendant. The complaint charges, and defend- 
ants by their pleading admit, that the plaintiffs 
sold and delivered to defendants a certain lot 
of wool at the rate of 20i cents per pound "sub- 
ject to graders' rejection". It is alleged in the 
complaint that the term "graders' rejection" 
was understood by parties to mean, and is 
generally understood among wool-dealers in 
the city of Sin Francisco, where the transaction 
occurred, to mean, that upon the receipt of the 
wool by the defendants they should place it in 
the hands of persons skilled in grading wool, 
known as wool-graders, for the purpose of ascer- 
taining what portion, if any, of the wool is 
taggy ai'd scabby, and if any portion of it 
should be found to be taggy and scabby, that 
defendants should forwith notify plaintiff*, and 
furnish them with a certificate of the graders 
to that effect, giving the weight and the 
amount of the wool found taggy and scabby, 
which should be deducted from the gross 
amount delivered to the defendants and return- 
ed to plaintiff*, and the balance of such gross 
amount should be paid for forthwith at the rate 
per pound agreed on — plaintiffs to be apprised 
of the result of the result of the grading within 
a reasonable time, in this case ten days, from 
the delivery of the wool to defendants. 

The meaning of the term "graders' rej3ction' 
as alleged by the plaintiffs, is not controverted 
by the defendants, except they allege in their 
answer that it also includes the right of the 
graders to reject any and all wool of a substan- 
tially different character from that purchased. 

Thirty-three of the forty sacks of the wool de- 
livered to defendants were graded and ac- 
cepted by defendants, and by them ship- 
ped Eist; and they also took from one 
or two of the remaining sacks enough 
wool to fill an order they then had. But 
all these remaining sacks the defendants claimed 
to have been rejected by the graders, and that 
the plaintiffs were notified of such fact within 
a reasonable time. But the plaintiffs, upon re- 
ceiving the notice, contended that the wool had 
not been graded in accordance with custom and 
the understanding of the parties, in that the 
bales claimed to have b?en rejected were not 
examined fleece by fleece, and refused to abide 
by the rejection. At the trial in the 
court below, a good deal of testimony 
was given as to the custom in Sin 
Francisco in respect to the mode of gra- 
ting — that on the part of plain' iffs tending to 
show that the custom requires the grading to 
be done fleece by fleece, whereas that on the 
part of the defendants tended to show that by 
the custom prevailing among dealers in wool at 
this place it was sufficient for the graders to rip 
the sack open from one end to the other, and 
through such opening conduct their examina 
tion. Without conflict the evidence shows that 
the latter was the method adopted by the gra- 
ders in this instance. But appellants' counsel 
say that the evidence also shows, wi hout con- 
flict, that when the plaintiffs object ;d to the 
report of the rejections made by the graders 
the defendants at once offered to have the re- 
maining sacks graded fleece by fleece, and 
plaintiff refused. But, notwithstanding such 
refusal, it was not only the right but the doty 
of defendants to have the grading conducted 
fl ece by fleece, for, in view of the verdict upon 
the conflicting evidence, we must take it that 
the custom so required. They failed in that 
duty, although retaining the wool in their pos 
session, and, so far as appears, still retaining it. 
Such beirg the case, we are of opinion that 
they become liable to the plaintiffs for the full 
amount delivered to them at the rate per pound 
agreed on. A part of this amount was paid 
prior to the bringing of the action, and for the 
balance the plaintiffs properly recovered ju(~ 
ment in the court below. 



YEAR. POUNDS. 

1854 175.000 

1855 300,000 

1856 600,000 

1857 1,100,000 

1858 1,428,351 

1859 2,378,250 



1800. 



3,055,325 



1861 3,721,998 

1862 5,990.300 

1863 6.268,480 

1864 7,923,670 

1865 8,949,931 

1866 8,532,047 

1867 10,288,600 

1868 14,232,667 

1869 15,413,970 



1876. 



56,550,970 



1877 53,110,742 

LS78 40.862,091 

1879 46.903,360 

1880 46 074,154 

1881 45,076,639 

1882 40,527,119 

1883 40,84S,690 

1884 37,415,330 



the same parties also pays a tax, and it may 
well be doubted whether the license tax for 
grazing will stand in our courts. The county 
does not own the land, only in the «ense of 
eminent domain, and the sheep and land of the 
Tehama parties have probably been taxed at a 
fair valuation prior to the enforcement of this 
license tax. 



Khe Veterinarian. 



Glanders and Farcy. 



Testing the Lassen County Ordinance 

The Butte Record says : Lissen county re- 
cently passed an ordinance taxing sheep coming 
into that county for grazing purposes five 
cents a head. It appears that parties in Te- 
hama county, owning about 140,000 head of 
sheep, are in the habit of driving their flocks to 
Lassen county to f,raze during the summer. 
This would make the Tehama sheep grazers 
pay about $7000 into the public treasury of 
Lissen county. This they do not like, and we 
see by the Red Bluff News that they have or 
ganizd to test the validity of this five-cent li- 
cense law. Together they own about 9800 
acres of deeded land in Lassen county, and that 
other land grazed over is pubflc land. The 
contestants have organized, with George Champ- 
lin as chairman, and L. L. McCoy as secretary 
Messrs. S. A. Griegs, O. A. Collins, George 
Champlin, E. H. Ward and L. L. McCoy were 
chosen as an executive committee. It has 
been agreed that a test case shall be made by 
the District Attorney of Lassen county bring 
ing suit against J. S. Cone. We incline to the 
opinion that Lassen county will not make the 
license stick, although sheep grazing is a busi 
ness upon which the levying of a license tax is 
"not prohibited by law." The sheep pay a tax 



1885 36,561,390 as personal property, and the land owned by 



The death reported last week of a Tehama 
county farmer from glanders, and the frequent 
notes of suspected cases of the disease here and 
there over the State lead us to give space to a 
full description of the disease and its treatment. 
We quote from the report of Paul Paquin, vet- 
erinarian, to Prof. J. W. Sanborn, Dean of the 
Missouri Agricultural college. 

Definition — A constitutional, fatal disease, 
originating directly in the equine and asinite 
species (horse, mule and ass) and transmissible, 
especially by inoculation, to man, dogs, cats, 
sheep, goats, etc., and not to cattle, nor pigs, 
nor fowls. It is due to an animal poison, which 
gains entrance into the animal system, or, as 
some very able authors claim, is generated 
Within it. The disease is called glanders if the 
seat of the disorder is in the nasal cavities, 
throat, lungs, et?., and farcy when it is in the 
skin, the tissues immediately under it (cellular) 
an 1 the lymphatic vessels and glands (organs 
carrying a white fl iid called lymph). In these 
instances it is known as button farcy. 

The disease may appear in two principal 
forms: the acute or the chronic. But to be 
more precise, it is better to have a separate de- 
scription of the malady for each type, viz: 
Acute glanders, chronic glanders, acute farcy 
and chronic farcy. 

History. 

Glanders has been described by the early 
writers on agriculture and veterinary science 
under the name of "farciia equi," "morbus 
humidis," "morbus farcimosus," etc. It is 
more common in the temperate climates than 
in the hot or very cold ones. 

Contagion. 
This disease is contagious but not infectious, 
e ., it does not transmit itself by the virus 
being carried through the air from a diseased 
animal to a healthy one. However, as it is dis- 
covered that minute orgmized corpuscles or 
cells or bodies, which cannot be detected by the 
naked eye, float in the air, just as minute living 
bodies', perceptible with certain instruments 
only, float in the water, we may justly pre- 
sume, that at a short distance, and under other 
favorable circumstances, cells containing gland- 
ers virus might leave an affected subject and be 
taken into the respiratory organs by a healthy 
one in the act of respiration. It is at least cer- 
tunly possible for the affection to reproduce 
itself by dry farcy or glanders matter rising in 
the form of dust from places where it has been 
deposited, and I have no doubt that a large 
number of the supposed spontaneous cises are 
due to this cause, for under favorable circum 
stances, such virus, when moistened or diluted, 
has caused the disease, as experiments prove. 
The vitality of the poison is preserved weeks, 
months, and even sometimes a year. It may, 
however, be destroyed by boiling water, ex 
p03ure to the weather, the cold, and even the 
light. 

The period of incubation, or time elapsing be- 
tween the exposure to the disease and its at- 
tacks, is variable. By direct inoculation, it 
may be but a few days or a couple of weeks, 
and by an ordinary exposure it may last from 
one to s '.ven weeks, and even two months or 
more. By inoculation with virus from glanders 
we may cause either glanders or farcy, or both, 
and by inoculation with farcy matter we may 
produce either farcy or glanders, or both — a 
conclusive proof that the two forms are identi 
cal. 

Causes. 

To assign to this malady any other cause 
than contagion would be to admit that it can 
originate spontaneously. Is this true? Un- 
fortunately opinions still differ on that ques- 
tion, some able men, claiming that it is pos- 
sible, bring forth strong arguments in favor 
of their belief, while others, claiming the 
contrary, support their views with equally 
powerful demonstrations. In weighing the 
arguments of both opinions, comparing the re- 
sults of experiments and from my personal 
every day experience, I have as yet been una- 
ble to fully satisfy my mind. I am almost in- 
clined to believe that, under certain extraordi- 
nary conditions, the poisonous principles may 
be caused to originate spontaneously within 
the animal economy; yet, I cannot say posi- 
tively, and, under some apparently convincing 
circumstances I have sometimes expressed the 
opinion that "glanders is glanders," and the 
result of contagion, like contagious pleuro 
pneumonia being a specific disease is the result 
of infection or contigion only. 

Symptoms. 
Acute Glanders. — First, there is an increase 
in temperature; the thermometer registering 
from 105 to 109 and there are sensations of cold 
manifested by rigors (shivering); a serious in- 
flammation of the nasal cavities takes place, 
their mucous membranes become of a dark 
copper color with red or dark spots, due to the 



effusion of blood, then they become purple, 
and the red spots or patches, by a gradual but 
rapid process, form "pit like, ragged edged 
ulcers" (Williams), which may extend as far 
as the throat (inside). A discharge takes place 
from the nostrils at the beginning or a very 
few days after, and it is occasionally streaked 
with blood. In some cases there is hemorrhage 
from the same source. The glands under and 
beneath the jaw (the submaxillaries) swell and 
become hard; the lips, the wings of the nose 
and the anterior part of the head also occasion- 
ally swell, and we frequently see cord like 
enlargements of the lymphatic vessels appear 
upon the cheeks. There is often a short cough, 
and if the lungs become affected, as is often the 
case, the respiration becomes shorter and diffi- 
cult. We have, however, noticed cases where 
the lungs were healthy, and still the breathing 
was very difficult and hard; that was due to 
the large quantity of matter in the nasal cavities 
and the chancrowths, extending far into the 
throa*. Acute glanders may appear primarily, 
but it generally follows the chronic form. 

Acute Farcy — It is said to occur sometimes as 
a sequel to exhaustive disease, such as diabetes, 
for instance. 

At the beginning there is fever, like in acute 
glanders; the thermometer runs as high. The 
appetite is diminished and there is swelling of 
the extremities. Sometimes only one leg 
swells up to the body like in lymphangitis (so- 
called water farcy,) and in other cases all the 
limbs are more or less enlarged. This enlarge- 
ment is due to the engorgement of the spongy 
tissues under the skin, etc., a condition caused 
by the inflammation of the lymphatic ducts and 
valves. When the swelling subsides, we notice 
that the lymphatics look and feel like cords, 
and there are occasional buds which generally 
come to a point, break and discharge a thin 
yellowish matter, which forms a yellow scab 
over the ulcer and sticks to the hair surround- 
ing. It occurs sometimes that the first symp- 
toms noticed is a swelling on one limb below 
the back of the knee. It breaks in time, sup- 
purates and forms a ragged, unhealthy looking 
sore. Other swellings soon appear — very fre- 
quently on the same leg and with the same 
results. 

Again, there are cases in which the first 
symptom is a lameness in one leg — generally a 
hind leg — or soreness and swelling of the mus- 
cles of the neck, which may disappear suddenly. 
In rare instances the malady is preceded by 
rheumatic symptoms and stiffness. In fact, this 
affection presents itself in so miny different 
ways that it is apt to mislead the most exper- 
ienced and careful observer. 

Chronic Glanders — This is by far the most 
common form in this State, especially in the 
horse; in the mule, the a^ute form is more fre- 
quently seen. 

The first symptom m\y be simply a slight 
discharge from one or both nostrils, more gen- 
erally from the left only. After a while it be- 
comes thicker, of a peculiar sticky and gluey 
nature, and adheres to the opening of the nos- 
trils, where it forms crusts which seem to con- 
tract them. The mucous membranes of the 
nasal cavities, which, when healthy, present a 
pinkish hue, are paler at first, and soon present 
a dull leaden or tawny (tanned-like) color. The 
submaxillary glauds swell and become hard. 
This swelling sometimes occurs suddenly — from 
night ti morning — and disappears gradually, to 
reappear later as rapidly again. In other cases 
the enlargement is about the size of a walnut or 
an egg; is either single or double, or even some- 
times present globules — like small attached 
glands — and adheres more or less firmly to the 
surrounding tissues. This form of enlarge- 
ment is generally apparent. This is all that 
may be seen in many a case of glanders, and 
therefore it is extremely difficult to pronounce 
a safe diagnosis, particularly if it be an isolated 
one which cannot be traced contvgion, and that 
no other similar case can be traced to it. 

Chronic Farcy. — At the beginning there may 
be a slight fever. Small buds, varying in size 
from a small marble to a walnut, appear on 
various parts of the body and following the 
blood vessels (as the lymphatics naturally do). 
They may be seen principally inside and outside 
the thigh, on the legs, below the hock and knee, 
on the forearm, neck and bead and occasion- 
ally they are in groups. Some come to a point 
and break, allowing a reddish or yellowish thim 
or pus-like matter to escape and stick and dry 
partially on the hair. Sometimes this matter 
looks somewhat like raw linseed oil. We fre- 
quently see symptoms of both glanders and 
farcy at once in the svame animal. Rarely, we 
see a slight running at the nose in farcy. 
Treatment. 
Glanders and farcy as we have seen, are one 
and incurable infection. The most economic 
way to deal with it is to destroy the affected 
animals as soon as discovered. Some claim 
that mild forms of button farcy can and have 
been cured. It is at the least very dangerous 
to try a cure. 

Infected stables if not too valuable should be 
totally destroyed by fire, and in other cases, 
the manure, stalls, manger and floor should be 
taken out and burned, or at least thoroughly 
scalded, and the interior of the building also 
scalded, and then it should be whitewashed 
freely both inside and outside. 

Chloride of lime, carbolic acid diluted, should 
be sprinkled in the infected buildings and 
yards. If such precautions are not taken, 
there is great danger that the disease will re- 
appear on the premises. An infected stable left 
open during the winter months is said to be 
free from glanders virus in the spring. 



28 



PACIFI6 RURAId fRESS. 



[Jan. 9, 1886 



JPatrons of Husbandry. 



Correspondence on Grange principles ami work and re- 
ports of transactions of subordinate Granges are respect- 
fully solicited for this department. 



Tobacco in The Grange. 

IThs f"Uo«ine poem, recently read before San Jose 
Orange, represents a spirit making a visit to a Cringe, 
and telling wbat it sees there.) 

As spirits are not always bound 

Within the clay that wraps them round, 

I, one day, thought I d take my seat, 

Inside the hall where Grangers meet. 

I poised mvself upon the stand 

Ouite near'where "Flora" has command, 

That 1 might, with a clearer view 

Behold thei: forms— both old and new. 

I saw that those assembled here 

Were they who toil from year to year, 

Some were bronzed and some were fair; 

Some to music gave their care; 

For I had scarcely sat me down 

When lo ! the melody of sound, 

Killed the room with accents sweet, 

Hinting that 'twas good to meet, 

And share our better thoughts the While 

We spend the day and care beguile. 

The exercises pleased me much; 

1 said within myself they are such 

As kings and queens might proudly claim, 

They'd not dishonor either name. 

The officers their places fill 

With zeal, with candor, and good will, 

The candidates, with willing feet, 

Are led their kindred friends to greet, 

And all goes merry as a marriage bell; 

But one sad thing 1 have too Ml— 

That noxious weed which many use, 

While talents and their tastes abuse, 

Has crept into the Grange, although, 

The ladies do detest it so; 

Now brothers, would it not be grand, 

When we to build a hall demand, 

Would just conclude to lead the way 

For other Grangers of our day, 

And leave the spittoons in the store, 

The ladies will respect you more, 

For each acknowledges the good 

Of union with the sisterhood; 

But vet we see them work in vain, 

While you these habits will retain; 

Then for example's sake be just, 

Your children to the Grange entrust, 

But help to make and keep it pure; 

You'll ne'er regret it I am sure. 

Our lovely earth with blessings teems, 

Then to choose the best would seem 

The proper course, for all who try 

Their brother man to dignify, 

As man progresses toward perfection, 

His tastes grow finer in selection, 

And mankind yet may know the time, 

When he, with sentiment sublime. 

Shall so control this "mundane sphere," 

Thai uothing poisonous will appear; 

When plants and animals and seeds, 

Which do not yield to human needs 

Will perish; and from thence give birth 

To those which beautify theearth. 

But lest 1 bind you with a spell 

While on these glowing thoughts we dwell, 

I'll kindly bid you all good-night, 

And to my comrades take my flight. 

Mrs. Amanda Knowles. 



elected, as well as the retiring Master, re- 
sponded when called upon for speeches. 

Our retiring Master, Bro. Capt. Peterson, de- 
serves something more than a passing notice. 
Bro. Peterson has not only been a successful 
sea captain and a successful Master of the 
Grange, but he is a man who is bound to suc- 
ceed in whatever he undertakes, and for this 
simple reason: He believes that "whatever is 
worth doing at all is worth doing well," and no 
matter what undertaking he is embarked in, his 
ever waking thought is, What can I do to ad- 
vance this cause? 

One of the most quiet and unassuming of 
men in the daily walks of life, he is yet capable 
when occasion arises of developing an amount 
of force and eloquence rarely excelled. Per- 
haps you will ask, Well, when you have got a 
man like this for Master, why don't you keep 
him Master? My answer is, That it is possible 
for him to be of as much use to the Grange, and 
we know that he will be just as zealous, in a 
subordinate position as he was as Master, and 
as we believe that he is a better Granger and a 
better man for having served us as Master, so 
also we believe that his successor will be a bet- 
ter Granger and a better man for serving us as 
Master. 

Advantage of Changing Officers. 

I think all will admit that the Grangers, as a 
class, are as intelligent as any class of men on 
earth, and it would be doing us a gross injustice 
to infer that we attend Grange simply in hopes 
of getting an otfice. At the same time we 
should be less than human if we were not grati- 
fied to know that our brothers and sisters 
thought us worthy to hold an ollice in the 
Grange, and if Grangers would make the prac- 
tice of changing their officers every year, ad- 
vansing them by degrees, as they proved them- 
selves worthy, not only the members who 
re elected to office would he benefited, 
but each and every member of the 
Grange, knowing that the lightning was sure to 
strike somewhere, and might strike them, 
would be nerved up to a more regular attmd 
ance and a more faithful performance of the 
duties devolving upon them. 

It is very rarely that St. Helena Grange has 
the pleasure of welcoming a visiting Patron, 
but we were very pleasantly reminded by an 
invitation from Bennett Valley Grange to be 
present with them at their installation, that we 
were not the only Patrons of Husbandry in the 
world, but the already well advanced arrange- 
ments for our own installation and the bad 
state of the roads made it impossible for us to 
accept, and we could only express our regrets 
and wish them a very happy New Year. 
St. Helena, Jan. 2d. Granger. 



San/a Clara, Cal. 



Grangers' New Year's 
Helena. 



Day at St 



Editors Press: — New Year's day 1880 will be 
a time long remembered by St. Helena Grange. 
The regular day for the installation of officers 
fell on Saturday, January 2d, but the sisters 
suggested that we have installation and harvest 
feast on New Year's day, and in the afternoon 
the sisters receive their callers in the hall. We 
all agreed that this would be the pleasantest 
way to do, so a committee was appointed to 
make the necessary arrangements. 

On Thursday, Dec. .'51st, the committee and 
many other members of the G range met at the 
hall for the purpose of decorating it and making 
other necessary arrangements. 

Several of the brothers came with their 
wagons full of evergreens, which were Beized by 
eager hands, and by the close of the busy day 
were fashioned into garlands, wreaths and 
mottoes, that reflected the beauty of the fair 
maids and stately matrons whose skill and 
taste, assisted by brotherly strength, had 
fashioned them. They gave to the hall an air 
of elegance and refinement difficult to describe, 
but fully appreciated by all who were fortunate 
enough to be present. 

New \' ear's day dawned bright and pleasant, 
but with a cold noith wind that made the fires 
in the halls very acceptable to the brothers 
and sisters as they came in out of the wintry 
blast. 

Installation. 

By ten o'clock nearly all had assembled and 
as "many hands make light work, ' by eleven 
the tables were set and the Grange was in its 
hall open and ready to install its officers. 

Past Master Pellet acted as installing officer. 
After the installation the Grange, with its 
friends and invited guests, repaired to the lower 
hall, and for an hour, with the zeal of men and 
women lighting for principle, tried to clear 
the tables, but all in vain, and after some en- 
couraging remarks from outside friends, we re- 
tired in good order, resolved to renew the con- 
test at some more auspicious season. 

Responses. 

One of the pleasant features of the day was 
the happy manner in which all the officers 



Grange Elections. 

Magnolia Grange. — Elected Did. 12th : 
W. H. Cunningham, M.; D. Bilderback, 0.; 
V. W. Still, L.; H.White, S.: E. H. Honn, 
A. S.; J. R. Nickerson, C ; J. W. Gautier, T. : 
May F. Bilderback, Sec. ; C. C. Ragsdale, 
G. K.; Mrs. V. W. Still, Pomona; Mrs. D. Bil- 
derback, Ceres; Mrs. \V. H. Cunningham, 
Flora; Mrs. E. H. Honn, L. A. S.; J. R. Nick- 
erson, Trustee; Miss A. E. Perkins, Org. 

National Ranch Grange. — Elected: R. D. 
Perry, M; F. A. Kimball, O; Jno. C. Moore, 
L.; Mrs. R. H. Robinson, C; R. H. Parker, 
S. ; A. A. Robinson, A. S.; Mrs. H. E. Plossom, 
T. ; Mrs. M. D. Grant, Bee.; Mrs. E. Parker, 
Pomona; Mrs. A. M. Field, Ceres; M s. Joseph- 
ine Walker, Flora; Mrs. S. C. Kimball, L. A. 
S.;S. C. Field, G. K. 

Newcastle Grange. — Elected: Wm. Barter, 
M.; J. L. Robertson, 0.; H. E. Parker, L.; G. 
W. Threlkel, T. ; I. R. Martton, S.; R. M. 
Nixon, A. S.; Miss Maggie Greeley, L. A. S.; 
Mrs. Blanchard, C; W. H. Scott, Sec; R. N. 
Scott, (J. K.; Mrs. J. L. Robertaon, Pomona; 
Mrs. W. Bartsr, Ceres; Mrs. Dickinson, Flora. 

Valley Grange. — Elected Dec. 26th: G. P. 
Loucks, M.; Mr. J. V. Thurber, O.; Miss Ella 
E. Ashley, L.; C. N. Wight, S.; D. P. Griffin, 
A. S.; Mrs. S. Ashley, C: D. B. Dudley, T. ; 
Miss Annie Loucks, Sec. ; W . H. Billings, G. K. ; 
Miss Annie Dudley, Pomona; Miss Helena 
(iambs, Flora; Miss Jessie Rowley, Ceres; Mrs. 
S. H. Wight, L. A. S. 

Walnut Creek Grange. — Elected Dec. B6: 
E. A. Seaman, M.; C. Sharp, O.; N. Jones, L.; 
S. F. Johnson, S. ; Rev. H. P. Dunning, C. ; J. 
Larkey, T.; Mrs. L. A. Sceele, Sec; J. Foster, 
G. K.; Mrs. M. K. Larkey, Pomona; Miss Artie 
Stone, Flora, Mrs. J. Hodges, Ceres; Mrs. D. 
E. Seamen, L. A. S. ; Mrs. Eugenia Monroe, 
Org. 

Elk Grove Grange Installation. 

Editors Press: — The following named per- 
sons were to-day installed as officers of Elk 
Grove (Jrange, No. 86, P. of H. : 

Gillis Doty, M.; E. W. Stickney, O.; An- 
thony Opley, L.; W. J. Bider, S.; J. D. Hill, 
A. S.; John Witt, C; F. Stelter, T.; Delos 
Gage, S.; C. A. Schirmer, G. K. ; Mary Mc- 
Connell, Ceres; Mrs. A. Hill, Pomona; Mrs. 
Sophia Stilter, Flora: Mary Chalmers, L. A. S. 
The postoffice address of Master and Secretiry 
is Elk Grove, Sacramento Co., Cal. 

Elk Grove, Jan. 2d. Delos Gage. 



Personal. 

Members of the Order will hear with deep 
regret of the trials and affliction which have 
come to the household of Bro. Wm. Johnson, 
W. M. of the State Grange, as feelingly men- 
tioned in a late letter from Bro. Geo. Rich, of 
Sacramento, as follows: 

Soon after Brother and Sister Johnston's de 
parture to attend the National Grange, their son 
William was tiken sick and was very low at 
one time. Soon after their retnrn their daugh- 
ter was brought near to the verge of the grave. 
Last week Mr. Hight, father of Sister John- 
ston, died, and we have just returned from bis 
burial. 

The sympathy of all will flow out to our be- 
reaved Master and wife, and the hope will be 
entertained that* though sorely afflicted they 
will not be cast down. 

The Executive Committee of the State 
Grange, at its recent quarterly meeting, ac- 
cepted the resignation of Worthy Lecturer 
Daniel Flint, from its membership, and ap- 
pointed Hon. A. L. Chandler, State Senator 
from Yuba county, instead. Brother Chand- 
ler is a pioneer worker in the fanners' eause, and 
is a man of excellent reputation aud ability. Hia 
appointment will, no doubt, prove a popular 
and wise one on the part of the oommittee. 



j9Cg^icultural J^otes. 



Horticultural and Grange Interests. 

Some very important suggestions are brought 
out in the report of the last meeting of the 
Santa Clara Horticultural Society, as reported 
in the Herald of January 4th. We quote the 
following: 

The County Horticultural Society held its 
regular monthly meeting at Grand Army hall, 
on Saturday afternoon, Vice-President I. A. 
Wilcox in the chair. 

J. B. J. Portal, on behalf of the committee 
to which had been referred the matter of hold- 
ing joint meetings with the members of the 
Viticultural Society and Grange, reported in 
favor of the proposition and spoke in recom- 
mendation of a re-organization of the society. 
The speaker would have private business meet- 
ings and the membership limited to actual 
growers of fruit. Producers, he added should 
take an active part in politics, in order that the 
fruit interest might be properly represent id in 
the Legislature. When 25,000 or 30,000 men 
ask for their rights they are likely to get them. 

Capt. Dunn thought that the horticultural 
and viticultural societies should be merged in 
the Grange, which has the most thorough or- 
ganization of all. Horticultural and viticultu- 
ral subjects could be placed in the hands of 
special committees for the direction of work in 
that relation, and special days could be set apart 
for discussing such subjects. The tillers of the 
soil should take an active pait in politics. 

Mr. Wilcox favored the submission of taxa- 
tion of trees and vines to a vote of the people 
and that legislative representatives should be 
kept informed as to what is really wanted by 
the producers. 

Mr. Portal, while favoring united action, 
would preserve the distinctive organizations 
that now exist. At joint meetings representa- 
tives of each society would be heard. H. S. 
Foote advised the society to proceed deliber- 
ately and with caution. 

Mr. Wilcox believed that more could be ac- 
complished through the Grange, which is con- 
stantly receiving accessions of hoiticulturists, 
than in any other way. 

On motion of Mr. Portal the Secretary was 
instructed to inform San Jose Grange that it is 
proposed to hold an open meeting of Grangers 
and fruit growers and invite that body to co-op- 
erate with the horticultural and viticultural 
societies on the occasion. 



Installation at Bennett Valley. 

The following named persons were installed 
into the respective offices of Bannett Valley 
(Jrange. No. 10, on Saturday, January 2, 1886 

J. B. Whitiker, M. ; J. M. Talbo-, O.; T. B 
Ward, L.; J. P. Whitaker, S.; Arthur'Craue, A, 
S.; Mrs. B. Lacque, C; Nelson Carr, T.; Don 
Mills, Sec; Will Crane, G. K.; Miss Nell 
Peterson, Pomona; Mits Rhoda Whitaker, 
Flora; Miss Eva Peterson, Ceres; Mrs. J. B, 
Whitaker, L. A. S. 

The harvest feast was served, and a 
time was enjoyed. 

Grange Items. 



jolly 



Grange Installations. — Among the install- 
ations to take place Saturday, Jan. 9th, we 
notice announcements of the following: Eden 
and Temescal Granges at Haywards, at 10 
a. M.; Elliott Grange, 2 p. m .; Placer ville 
(Jrange, 1 p. M. ; Sacramento (Jrange, 1 p. M. ; 
Santa Rosa Grange, 10 a. m. 



The Pomona Grange of Sonoma county will 
meet in Santa Rosa Grange hall, at 10 a. m., 
Wednesday, January 20, 1886. 

No doubt the new annual word will soon be 
given out to the Grangers. No member should 
receive the new word who has not paid his or 
her dues to dats. 

Tiie question box is a good means of getting 
an interest in your Grange meetings. Did you 
ever try it in your Grange? If ntt, do so at 
once. 

Establishing New Granges in Southern 
California. — Considering the rapid settle 
ment of the southern valleys, and disposition 
shown among new-comers to associate them- 
selves as Patrons of Husbandry, Eden Grange 
has recently expressed iU conviction that the 
Executive Committee of the State Grange 
should at once appoint a representative to visit 
every place whence come inquiries looking to 
the formation of new Granges, call the farmers 
together and effect such organization as may 
further the interests and convenience of the 
various neighborhoods. 



An Eastern Visitor.— Mr. Charles Fowler 
formerly Master of the Westfield (Mass.) 
Grange, who is enjoying a visit to California, 
came into our office recently in company with 
his brother, Joseph M. Fowler. The latter 
came to California across the plains in 184!), 
has been re elected Treasurer of Lodi Grange 
for years, and is well known as one of the solid 
Grangers of San Joaquin county. "Charley" 
runs the old farm at home, and we hope will 
sometime write us what he thinks of California. 



Tulare Grange.— A member of Temescal 
Grange, now farming at Tulare, writes hope- 
fully of the revival of Tulare Grange. A num- 
ber of old members are in favor of renewing the 
meetings, and are joined in their efforts by new 
settlers in the vicinity. We now look with 
confidence for the speedy building up of a good 
and substantial Grange, to the profit of its 
rr embers and great Denefit of the farmers' 
cause in that southern district. 



CALIFORNIA. 

Mendocino. 
The Outlook. — Dispatch from Ukiah, Jan. 
5: The new year opens up encouragingly for 
Mendocino county. Heavy rains have thor- 
oughly soaked the ground, and there is every 
prospect of an abundant harvest being the re- 
sult. Vegetation is plentiful and ttock are in 
excellent condition. The fruit interest is grow- 
ing in importance, our industries are thriving, 
and general business is picking up, and all over 
the county the outlook is good, though consid- 
erable damage has been done by high water. 

Sacramento. 

High Water. — Bee, Jan. 5: The Sacramento 
river has fallenjfrom 23 feet 11 inches to 23 feet 
two inches. There is a sea of water exte'iding 
over from Washington nearly eight miles across 
the.tules, over the entire distance of which a 
row boat may go. The water came in through 
breaks in the levee. During the norther there 
were waves which sent spray across the rail- 
road track. A small boat out then would have 
been swamped, but the waves had no effect on 
the stone-faced embankment. Where the water 
passed under trestles it went through with an 
angry whirl, and is still very deep at such 
places. It hides fences, the wagon road and its 
wooden bridge. 

San Bernardino. 

Riverside Bug Inspectors. — Press: The 
city trustees have passed a stringent ordinance 
on the question of insect pests. Under this or- 
dinance the trustees elected L. M. Holt and 
A. S. White to the positions of Inspectors of 
Fruit Pests, and W. W. Noland, the City 
Marshal, was elected Quarantine Guardian, ex- 
officio. Anyone knowing of any insect pests 
within the city of Riverside, or anyone import- 
ing any fruit or trees or shrubs supposed to be 
infected, are requested to at once report the 
same to one of the inspectors, when prompt and 
vigorous measures will be taken to protect the 
city. 

San Diego. 
San Jacinto Stock Enterprise. — Los An- 
geles Herald: Following is a list of the stock- 
holders of the American Stock Company, the 
amount of their stock, and notice of the work 
already begun: (J. D. Compton, $12,500; Jas. 
Kerr, $12,500; A. M. Hough, $12,500; F. C. 
Howes, $12 500; Alex. Penney, $12,500; M. S. 
McKoon, $6200; Otto Brodtbeck, $6300. The 
purpose of the corporation is to grow, propa- 
gate, buy and sell live stock and to buy lands, 
etc., necessary to carry on the business. 
They have purchased 1200 acres of the timber 
land lying two miles north of Sin Jacinto. A 
house has already been erected upon the land, 
which is to be occupied by Alex. Penney, of 
Los Angeles, who is to have the management 
of the ranch. Fencing has already begun and 
between 100 and 200 acres of the tract will be 
sown to alfalfa this season. The stock will 
consist principally of horses and cattle, and a 
number of fine brood mares has already been 
purchased. More will be added as soon as 
fencing and other improvements are com- 
pleted. 

San Joaquin. 
Wet Lands. — Farmington Cor. Independent: 
With the exception of about ten days' work 
succeeding the first fall rain no winter-sowing 
has been put in. The damp weather alter- 
nating with heavy rains has kept the ground in 
a bad condition. The ground is so full of 
water that no more can penetrate and it runs 
off into the small ravines, or lies in hollows, 
dotting the plains with miniature lakes. By 
the time the ground becomes suitable to plow 
it will be time to summerfallow, consequently 
there will not be the acreage sown that was 
intended. 

Swamp Lands. — Several parties who offered 
to file pre-emption claims to lands in this 
county which were listed to the State as swamp 
and overflowed, and by the State sold to the 



Jan. 9, 1886.] 



fAClFie F^URAb pRESS. 



29 



present owDers or their predeoessors in title, 
have waived the right of appeal from the de- 
cision of the commissioner of the general land 
office and filed affidavits in the Stockton land 
office to open up a contest as to the condition 
of the lands in September, 1850. The letter 
of the commissioner, which was published a 
few weeks ago, contains the following clause, 
under which the proceedings are being com- 
menced: "In any case in which the applicant is 
satisfied with this modification of your action, 
and he will waive the right of appeal and file 
with you an affidavit that the land was not 
swamp or overflowed September 28, 1850, 
within the meaning of the swamp land grant, 
with a statement that he desires to contest the 
claim of the State thereto, you will transmit 
the said affidavit and statement to the U. S 
Surveyor-General at San Francisco, Cal., who 
will be instructed to investigate the matter as 
required by law." 

Sierra. 

Artesian Wells. — Reno Gazette, Dec. 28: 
Artesian wells are so common now in Sierra 
valley as to cease to be a matter of comment. 
Within the past two weeks four have been sunk 
in this vicinity, and all are fine. At Mr. 
Sime's place the water flows about 40 gal- 
lons per minute. A four-inch well one 
mile below Loyalton on the farm of G. W. 
Raine, was sunk 280 feet and flows about 85 
gallons per minute. All the water is cool and 
soft except the hot well at Mr. Simes, and that 
is excellent water. We wish somebody would 
come in and buy a lot of good hams, shoulders, 
bacon and salt pork. There is any amount of 
these articles here of splendid quality, and no 
market at any price. D. B. Keyes is now in 
San Francisco with a lot of horses and writes 
back that he has done better with them than he 
expected. There were no heavy horses in the 
lot, all were good, serviceable animals weighing 
less than 1200. Our horsemen are beginning 
to see the point, and there is a call for a stal- 
lion that fills the bill. We have one pretty 
fine horse here, the Newman colt, for light 
weights, and that is about all. 

Sonoma. 

Editors Press: — Since my last, the weather 
has cleared up, and the old man, Jack Frost, 
has been holding high carnival. But, strange 
to say, though there has been several cold 
nights, fruit trees in blossom are not like nee- 
dles in a haystack, because they are not hard to 
find. Grass is very abundant, and is growing 
fast. Vineyards are undergoing the annual 
clipping. Wine-racking is under full headway. 
Plowing for small grains has been considerably 
retarded by the continuous rains, but just now 
the farmers are making furrows thick and fast. 
A good many acres of grain will be sown in 
Sonoma county for the harvest of 1886. Judg- 
ing from present indications, the present year 
will be a fruitful one for the industrious and 
pains-taking husbandman. The holiday season 
has passed, and aside from the calls of the tax- 
collector there was nothing to specially mar the 
pleasure of the season. The farmers of this 
county have done much complaining about their 
taxes this year, and they have just cause for 
complaint. Taxes are too high. It is time 
there were some reductions, and the best 
way to get the proper relief is to be much 
more careful of the ballot on election day. 
Vote for progressive, thrifty, economic 
intelligent farmers, instead of for cunning, ex- 
travagant, indolent ward or local politicians. 
That is the surest and speediest remedy. The 
New Year has got well under way and it is the 
duty of the thrifty granger to keep pace with 
the progress of the times. He should plow 
deep, sow clean seed, or plant healthy vines and 
trees, as the case may be, knowing full well 
' ' whatsoever a man sow, that shall he also 
reap." Sonoma county farmers are abreast of 
the times, and the returns for 1880 will show it. 
The fruit, vine, live-stock, financial, educa 
tional, social and grange interests all promise 
well. With 109 school districts, with 200 
school teachers, with good roads, plenty of 
churches, with 30,000 intelligent, industrious 
people, whose happy hear' s and willing hands 
are ready to dare and to do, who can foretell 
the success that awaits " Old Sonoma?" Good- 
bye to the past! All hail to the future! Happy 
New Year to the Press, the Editor and the 
readers is the wish of your Occasional, Santa 
Rosa, Jan. Jfth, 1886. 

Russian River Products.— Flag: All first- 
class hotels and restaurants in San Francisco 
display on their breakfast bills of fare this 
legend: "Russian river bacon," or "Russian 
river hams," or "Russian river spare ribs." 
This popularity is easily accounted for when 
one, in the proper season, perambulates either 
side of this valley, and looks upon the many 
large cornfields and patches of pumpkins. Our 
excellent corn and forage crops grow and fatten 
a superior article of pork. 

Sutter. 

Thoroughbred Cattle. — Yuba City Farmer; 
J. H. Kimball and James Plaskett, of Sutter 
county, have purchased from Peacock & Haunson, 
Marysville, about half of their recently importa- 
tion of Aberdeen-Angus cattle. This purchase 
contains among its numbers descendants of 
some of the most noted sires of Scotland. The 
bulls, Jacobus and Gustavus, purchased by Mr. 
Plaskett, and King William, by Mr. Kimball, 
were sired by the great prize-winner, Basuto, 
who has never been beaten for first prize in any 
show ring since his importation to the United 
States. Basuto was sired by the noted prize- 
winner, Editor; whose sire, Judge, carried off 



the first prize, £100, at the great Paris Exhibi- 
tion of 1878, being then brought in competition 
with all the prize winners of Europe. We are 
pleased to Dote among our shrewd and far-see- 
ing farmers, a disposition to improve the grade 
of their stock, and while their neigbors are 
stopping to count first cost, they will be reap- 
ing the reward on their investment. This 
breed, the Aberdeen- Angus is a beef breed, al- 
though some tribes, notably the Princess, are 
great milkers. 

Tulare. 

More Alfalfa. — Register: A very large 
acreage will be sown to alfalfa in this county 
this year. There is a big crop of seed 'this sea- 
son, and many thought that there would be so 
small a demand for it that prices Would rule 
low. Such is not the case, however. The de- 
mand for seed is unusually great, and thousands 
of acres will be planted to that invaluable forage 
plant. If the stock men will come to the front 
now and see to it that there shall be stock 
enough in the county to eat all this alfalfa, 
everything will be lovely. There can be no such 
thing as too much alfalfa, but we may have too 
little stock to eat it, you know. Alfalfa will 
always bear the same relationship to stock rais- 
ing in this county that corn does to cattle in 
East. The proper ratio of the supply to the 
demand needs to be preserved. 

Yolo. 

Large Potatoes. — Editors Press : The 
editor of the Modesto News talks of large 
potatoes. Let him come over to Winters 
and look at the sweet potatoes raised 
by our old pioneer, J. R. Wolfskill, 
and from that day henceforth he will 
keep quiet on the potato question. The 
ground, after digging the potatoes, looks like 
removing stumps. Some of these potatoes are 
now on exhibition at Mr. Kahn's store; the 
largest one tips the scale at 30 pounds. 
It is a common thing for Mr. Wolfskill to raise 
potatoes that weigh 15 to 37A pounds. The 
early rains and warm sun have brought the 
grass forward. The feed is now excellent. 
Stock is doing well. There has been but little 
frost and no ice so far; the season has been all 
that heart could wish. The earth has had a 
good soaking with 18 inches of rain up to date. 
The pruning is well along. The fruit men are 
jubilant over the prospect of a good fruit crop 
the coming season; many trees will be planted. 
The prospect of a reduction in freight gives all 
new hope. Many acres have been planted to 
cereals; the early -sown grain never looked bet- 
ter at this season of the year. Many are be- 
hind with their sowing. The few days of north 
wind have been welcome. The holidays made 
all classes merry, though the past season has 
been a hard one in many parts of the State. 
The dov npouring from the clouds and the or- 
ganizing of the Fruit-Growers' Union have 
done much to remove the cloud that hung over 
the country. — G W. T., Winters. 



Lane Lectures. 

The fourth course of Popular Lectures at 
Cooper Medical College, corner Sacramento and 
Webster streets, S. F., will be delivered during 
the coming winter. As has been announced 
before, these lectures are free. No ticket of 
admission is required. The following is a list 
of the times, place and subjects of lectures. 

Jan. 8, 1886, Professor L. C. Lane, "The 
Medicine of the Prophet;" Jan. 22d, Prof. C. N. 
Eilinwood, "The Blood;" Feb. 5th, Prof. A. 
Barkan, "The Prevention of Blindness;" Feb. 
19th, Prof. J. H. Wythe, "What is an Egg?"; 
March 5th, Doctor John F. Morse, "Something 
About Hospitals;" March 19th, Prof. Chas. H. 
Steele, "Opium;" April 2d, Prof. J. O. Hirsch- 
felder, "Digestion and Indigestion;" April 16th, 
Prof. Henry Gibbons, Jr., "The Foot;" May 
7th, Prof. W. D. Johnston, "Electricity;" May 
21st, Prof. W. D. Johnston, "Electricity." 



Plenty of Government Land. — In reply to 
many inquiries from all over the United States, 
the Inyo Independent says there are thousands 
of acres of fine Government land open for set- 
tlement in Owens valley; plenty of water, a 
good market, a delightful climate, a well 
equipped railroad, and every inducement to 
invite settlers. It is not possible to write long 
letters in reply to all these inquiries, but a 
pamphlet will soon be ready for distribution, 
giving full information on all matters pertain- 
ing to Inyo county, and copies will be sent to 
all inquirers. The Independent is published at 
Independence, Inyo county, Cal. 



Our Seed Offering. — In the lists of seeds 
which we offer on favorable terms to subscrib- 
ers there will be found 107 varieties of flowers 
and 82 varieties of vegetables. Many will find 
this premium offering a convenient way to sup- 
ply themselves with seeds. We have had our 
attention most pleasantly called to bright beds 
of flowers by lady patrons of the Rural. We 
are glad to have a share in the commendable 
work of home adornment. 



Homes for Children Wanted. — We are re- 
quested to say that boys and girls may be had 
— particularly boys — for service at wages, for 
indenture or for legal adoption, by applying 
with recommendations to E. T. Dooley, Supt. 
Boys and Girls' Aid Society, 68 Clementina St., 
San Francisco. 



The U. S. Government and the Debris. 

It will be remembered that the Sacramento 
Board of Trade recently passed resolutions and 
forwarded them to the Secretary of War, ask- 
ing that the Government interpose its power to 
cause the cessation of hydraulic mining, and for 
the reclamation of the Sacramento river from 
its almost ruined condition, caused by the flow 
of mining debris. The following reply is self- 
explanatory, and will be of great interest to our 
readers: 

War Department, Washington City, "1 
December 23, 1885. / 
Joseph Steffens, Esq., President Sacramento 
Board of Trade, etc.— Sir: I have the honor to 
acknowledge the receipt of the petition dated 
the 13th ultimo, and its accompanying papers 
from the Sacramento Board of Trade, asking 
the intervention of the General Government for 
the protection of the navigation of the Sacra- 
mento and San Joaquin rivers, and other waters 
of California from injuries resulting from the 
discharge of hydraulic mining debris into the 
channels. 

In reply, I beg to inform you that the matter 
has been referred to the Chief of Engineers, and 
to invite your attention to the inclosed copy of 
his report on the subject, dated the 8th instant. 
It is not seen how this Department can properly 
take any further action on this petition at the 
present time, it having exercised its full legal 
duty in having informed Congress of the evil 
consequences of the discharge of mining debris 
into these waters. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 
Wm. C. Endicott, Secretary of War. 
Office of the Chief of Engineers, ^ 
United States Army, 
Washington, December 8, 1885. J 

Hon. Wm. G. Endicott, Secretary of War, Sir : 
I have the honor to return herewith the peti- 
tion, with accompanying papers, from the Sac- 
ramento Board of Trade and others, referred 
to this office, asking the intervention of the 
General Government for the protection of the 
navigation of the Sacramento and San Joaquin 
rivers and other waters of California from in- 
jury resulting from the discharge of hydraulic 
mining debris into their channels. 

A provision in Section 2 of the River and 
Harbor Act of June 14, 1880, directed "the Sec 
retary of War to cause to be made such exami- 
nations and surveys as may be necessary to de 
vise a system of works to prevent the further 
injury to the navigable waters of California 
from the debris from the mines, and the esti- 
mates of the cost of such works, and report the 
result of such examinations, surveys and 
estimates of cost of the proposed works made 
in pursuance hereof to Congress at its next 
session." 

This duty was assigned to Lieutenant- 
Colonel G. H. Mendell, Corps of Engineers, who 
submitted two reports (January 10, 1881, and 
February 2, 1882), which were successively 
transmitted to Congress and printed as House 
Executive Documents, No. 76, Forty sixth Con- 
gress, third session, and No. 93, Forty-seventh 
Congress, first session, and also printed in the 
annual reports by this office for the years 1881 
and 1882. 

From these reports, the result of much labor 
and patient study, it is clear that the preserva- 
tion of the river beds in question requires 
effective restraint to be imposed upon mining 
detritus, and that under all circumstances re- 
straint is the first and essential step to any pro- 
ject, whether of alleviation, preservation or im- 
provement; but, as a measure^of alleviation, the 
construction was recommended of restraining 
dams on the Yuba, bear and American rivers at 
certain designated points, for which an esti- 
mate of $511,600 was submitted for the first 
year's operations. 

The succeeding River and Harbor Act (Au- 
gust 2, 1882) appropriated $250,000 "for the 
improvement and protection of the navigable 
channels of the Sacramento and Feather rivers, 
to be expended under the direction of the Sec- 
retary of War." Of this the sum of $40,000 
was immediately allotted to the maintenance of 
the snag-boats and in increasing the depth at 
certain points on the Sacramento; and it being 
presumed that the protection provided for in 
the Act was based upon the above reports, the 
project was submitted to the Secretary of War 
by this office for the application of the re- 
mainder of the appropriation towards the con- 
struction of restraining dams. 

This project was not approved. Owing to 
litigation pending before the United States 
Courts of California to restrain four of the most 
important mining companies from further oper- 
ations under the present system of hydraulic 
mining, the Secretary of War decided to sus- 
pend action looking to the building of these 
dams. 

The last action of Congress on this subject 
was a proviso to the appropriation of $40,000, 
made by the River and Harbor Act of July 5, 
1884, for continuing the improvement of the 
Sacramento and Feather rivers; "that no part 
of said sum, or of the money on hand to the 
credit of this fund, except what may be neces 
sary for snagging and dredging operations, 
shall be used, except as herein provided, until 
the Secretary of War shall have been satisfied 
of the cessation of hydraulic mining on said 
rivers and their tributaries. * * * " 

The discharge of mining debris into these 
waters still continues, <tnd the War Depart- 
ment having exercised its full legal duty in 
having informed Congress of its evil conse- 



sequences, it is not seen what action can pi 
erly be taken on these petitions at this time. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 
John Newton, 
Chief of Engs., Brigadier and Brevet-Major- 
General. 



Tillage and Husbandry. 

The growth, prosperity and wealth of the 
Pacific Coast rests chiefly in agriculture and 
pomology. Although we have a salubrious 
climate and fertile soil, yet it seemed to the 
early settlers in California that a season of six 
months' without rain would be adverse to suc- 
cessful and extensive farming. 

The peculiarity and supposed difficulty of 
climate, with thorough tillage and well-directed 
husbandry, has proved an advantage. During 
this year the results of thorough cultivation 
was marked and noticeable in many portions 
of this State. Our wheat fields were character- 
ized as "spotted;" in other words, a small num- 
ber of our farnieis harvested good crops, while 
those who neglected to put their land in proper 
condition to retain the moisture from the early 
rains, and assist evaporation from the store of 
water in the earth, met with disastrous failure. 
The essence of life to promote growth in vegeta- 
tion and plant food is distributed in every por- 
tion of the soil. From the shoot or tap-root 
minute and delicate feeders are sent out to 
gather and absorb the plant food. The economy 
of "mother earth" is such that her treasures 
can be utilized only by thorough tillage and 
pulverization of the soil. With skilled and 
well-directed husbandry the agricultural pro- 
ducts of the Pacific Coast have changed the 
"current of trade." Our cereals and fruits, 
which will include the "fig of commerce," or- 
ange and raisin, will place us in a position to 
receive tribute from the world. This vast 
domain a few years since was used for grazing 
only. The husbandman has changed the face 
of nature, and with improved agricultural im- 
plements invented by American mechanics, laid 
thejfoundation for an empire that will be densely 
populated by a refined people living in attract- 
ive and luxurious homes. 

If these grand results have been accomplished 
by husbandry and cultivation of the soil, in an 
arid climate, it is a question of much weight to 
know how to adapt our system of cultivation 
to the surroundings, and what implements to 
use. Deep or shallow, wet or dry, plowing 
must be gauged by locality. The plow is yet 
to be invented that has merit suilicient to make 
a furrow and pulverize the soil at the same 
time. It is an indispensable condition to raise 
good crops and fruit in California; the land 
must be pulverized and kept in a mellow com- 
pact mass. The principal implements used for 
tillage by the rancher, pomologist and horticul- 
turist in California are the harrow, cultivator 
and roller. An implement has been invented 
by Mr. F. Nishwitz, named the "Acme Pulver- 
izing Harrow, Clod Crusher and Leveler." It 
is original in its principle of construction, and 
is a clever combination of three implements. 
There is an adjustable leveling bar and clod 
crusher, behind which are a double row of steel 
coulters, converging in opposite directions. 
Thus, the earth is subjected to the action of the 
crusher and leveler, and a cutting, lifting, and 
turning process of double rows of steel coulters. 
It has an immense cutting power, mellowing 
the soil to the depth of four inches, and leaving 
the land in the best condition to hold the 
moisture and grow luxuriant crops. 

This implement is used with great advantage 
in cross plowing and seeding summer fallow, 
and our orchards and vineyards are kept in a 
moist condition during our long, dry season by 
using the "Acme." 

There is a growing demand for the "Acme 
Pulverizing, Harrow, Clod Crusher and Lev- 
eler." 

List of U. S. Patents for Pacific Coast 
Inventors. 

From the official list of U. S. Patents In Dewey & Co.'« 
Scientific Press Patent Aoenct. 262 Market St., S. F 

FOR WEEK ENDING DECEMBER 29, 1885. 

333,287. — Window Hanging— C. Dellenbeck, 
Portland, Ogr. 

333,204. — Apparatus for Steaming Piles— 
John Dolbeer, S. F. 

333,119.— Pipe for Floorings, &c — F. Eph- 
riam, S. F. 

333,211. — Standard for Maps — J. S. Fox, 
Oakland, Cal. 

333,124.— Harvester— C. Grattan, Stockton, 
Cal. 

333,219. — Electric Lamp — A. Harding, Oak< 
land, Cal. 

333,416.— Safety Stop for Fire Arms— J. C. 
Kelton, S. F. 

333.233. — Fare Box— Landgrane & Willis, S. F. 

333.234. — Propulsion of Cars and Vehicles 
— Landgrane, Schetzt 1 & Willis, S. F. 

333.235. — Glass Tube Cutter— S. G. Lawson, 
Portland, Ogr. 

333,238.— Wardrobe and Trunk— C. Lem- 
pert, Jacksonville, Ogr. 

333,336.— Gas Engine— D. S. Regan, S. F. 

333,169. — Paint — J. Stackhouse, Stockton, Cal. 

333,265.— Codling Moth Trap — George W. 
Thissell, Winters, Cal. 

333,491. — Riding Saddle — A. M. Wallace, 
Globe, A. T. 

Notb.— Copies of U. S. and Foreign Patents furnished 
by Dbwbt & Co., in the shortest time possible (by tele- 
graph or otherwise,) at the lowest rates. American 
and Foreign patents obtained, and all patent business for 
Pacific Coast inventors transacted with perfect security 
and in the shortest possible time. 



30 



fAClFie FyjRAlo PRESS. 



[Jan. 9, 1886 




We've Always Been Provided For. 



"Good wife, what a-e you singing for? You know 

we've lost the hay, 
And what we'll do with horse and kye is more than I 

can say; 

While like as not, with storm and rain, we'll lose both 
corn and wheat.'' 

She looked up with a pleasant face, and answered 
low and sweet: 

"There is a Heart, there is a Hand, we feel, but can- 
not see; 

We've always been provided for, and we shall always 
be." 

He turned around with a sudden gloom. She said: 
"Love, Ik; at rest, I 

You cut the grass, worked soon and late, you did 
your very best. 

That was your work; you've naught at all to do with 
wind and rain, 

And do not doubt but you will reap rich fields of gold- 
en grain; 

For there's a Heart, and there's a Hand, we feci, but 
cannot see; 

We've always been provided for, and we shall always 

be." 

"That's like a woman's reasoning— we must, because 
we must, '' 

She softly said: "I reason not; I only work and 
trua; 

The harvest may redeem the day— kef p heart what 
e'er betide; 

When one door shuts, I've always seen another open 
wide 

There is a Heart, there is a Hand, we feel, but can- 
not see; 

We've always been provided for, and we shall always 

be. " 

He kissed the calm and trustful face; gone was his 
restless pain. 

She heard him with a cheerful step go whistling down 
the lane, 

And went about her household tasks full of a glad 
content. 

Singing to time her busy hands as to and fro she- 
went: 

" There is a Heart, there is a Hand, we feel, but can- 
not see; 

We've always been provided for, and we shall always 

be." 

D.iys come and go — 'twas Christmas tide, and the 

great fire burned clear. 
The farmer said: "Dear wife, it's been a good and 

happy year; 

The fruit was gain, the surplus corn has bought the 

hay you know." 
She lifted then a smiling face, and said: "I told you 

sol 

For there's a Heart, and there's a H ind, we feel, but 
cannot see; 

We've always been provided for, and we shall always 

be." 



John Winn's Mistake. 

It would be hard to find a more attractive 
spot than the home of John Winn as I first saw 
it on a lovely October day. As I drove along the 
road I involuntarily stopped to enjoy the 
beauty of the scene. The farm, although it 
was situated on high land, was not broken, but 
sloped gently to the southeast, and was pro- 
tected from the southwest winds by a range of 
hills covered with timber now showing the ex- 
quisite tints of autumn. To the east you 
looked over a broad valley, beyond which the 
haze rested on the line of forest. The farm it- 
self was a picture. One hundred acres of plow 
land, without a break, with clover, corn and 
stubble fields alternating, while surrounding 
the house were orchard, lawn and a well-kept 
garden, and everywhere an air of thrift and 
prosperity. Although this was my first it was 
not my last visit to the Winn farm, for the 
acquaintance begun ripened into friendship, 
and I spent many happy days enjoying the 
hospitality of the family. 

Mr. Winn^was just turned 40; still strong 
and active, able to do a full day's work, but 
one who had not allowed his mind to be dwarfed 
by neglect; fcr, while he had worked hard on 
the farm, he had also kept his brain vigorous. 
He took and read the best papers and periodi- 
cals of the day, had a small but excellent 
library, and was fully abreast the times, 
and able to converse intelligently with edu- 
cated men when thrown in their company. His 
wife was ■ genuine lady. Although a farmer's 
daughter, and having only a common school 
education, she had kept up with her husband in 
reading, and had never allowed the care of the 
house to absorb her time and strength. They 
had begun life empty-handed, and by industry 
and economy, with the blessing of Providence, 
were now out of debt and prosperous. 

It has always seemed to me that no other 
class of men could get as much out of life with 
the same amount of capital invested, or hold 
property by so secure a tenure as the prosper- 
ous farmer. 

Farmers are seldom spendthrifts, for they 



have earned their money slowly and honestly, 
and it is to them the representative of labor, and 
they understand too well the relation of cost 
ami worth to lightly value their possessions. 
Their money is invested in real estate, not 
bonds and stocks, having a fictitious value, and 
which may be swept away by a combination of 
speculators or a corner in the market. 

Then, their income is sure. Grain, vege- 
tables, poultry and fruit vary in market price, 
but not in nutritive quality, and the farmer can 
live largely on the productions of his own land; 
and look calmly on financial revolutions, which 
cause merchants and manufacturers to topple 
and fall like a row of bricks. 
I often congratulated John Winn on the safety 
of his investment, and the certainty of relief 
from toil in his old age, for he was not greedy 
for money for its own sake, and was looking 
forward to the time when his farm would sup- 
port him without constant labor, and he could 
place a tenant in a cottage on the farm and turn 
the hard work over to him, thus relieving his 
wife as well as himself of the toil and care 
which both had so willingly assumed as long as 
it was necessary. Their only child, Charley, 
IS years old, was fitting for college and expect- 
ing to enter the coming fall, but was helping 
his father on the farm for the summer. 

I was spending an aftjrnoon with them in 
May, 1870. The season was unusually early, 
and strawberries were ripe, and I hael been in- 
vited to partake of the first that were gathered. 

After tea we sat out on the east porch in the 
twilight. Mr. Winn in his large arm chair and 
Mrs. Winn, who had finished her work, in her 
easy rocker with her knitting. A robin red- 
breast was pouring out his vesper song, and the 
air was full of music and fragrance. The hour 
favored quiet thought, and for some time not a 
word had been spoken. 

"Friend Winn," said I, "you are a man to 
be envied. You are richer than many men 
living in the city who have $100,000." 

"Oh, no," he replied; "$100,000 is an im- 
mense sum. All I have in the world is not 
worth a tenth of it." 

"I know that," I answered, "but men in the 
city with 1 100, 000 to-day are often penniless 
to-morrow. A panic in the money market 
causes the failure of some of their creditors on 
whom they are depending for cash to meet their 
obligations, and this causes their notes to go to 
protest, and ruin is the result. Or, a manufact- 
urer to day prosperous and happy, to-morrow 
ruined by a strike among his workmen. Or 
a fire sweeps away the accumulations of years. 
A large majority of the men in the city can 
fully realize the truth of the Scripture, which 
says, "Riches take to themselves wings." 

"Now your property is secure and your 
wants are simple, and I cannot conceive of any 
financial disaster that is likely to overtake you. 
Can you think of any?" 

Mr. Winn was interrupted in his reply by the 
entrance of his son Charley with the mail. As 
he looked over the letters he uttered an ex- 
clamation of surprise. 

"What is it?" said Mrs. Winn. 

"Why, I don't understand this! Here is a 
notice from the bank that my note for .*4000 
will be due soon, and I do not owe a dollar." 

"It must be a mistake, and they have di- 
rected the envelope wrongly," said Mrs. Winn. 

"No," he replied, "here is my name on the 
note inside as well as on the envelope." 

After a moment's pause, Mr. Winn said: 

"Oh, I recollect now. It is a note of Col. 
Black's which I endorsed six months ago I 
had forgotten all about it." 

"Then you won't have it to pay?" his wife 
said somewhat anxiously. 

"Why, certainly not. I am only an endor- 
ser," said Mr. Winn. 

"But how did you happen to sign a note for 
so large an amount?" asked his wife, and added, 
"I did not know that you had any business re 
lations with Col. Black, or anything more than 
a speaking acquaintance with him." 

"I have never been intimate with him,' said 
Mr. Winn, "but he is a very pleasant, affable 
man, and has always met me very cordially. 
You remember that two years ago I bought 
some cattle to feed, and was obliged to borrow 
1500 at the bank for ninety days to pay for 
them. Mr. Smalley was to indorse for me, 
and was to meet me at the bank at 9 o'clock, 
the hour at which the bank opens, and sign the 
note. I waited till nearly 10 o'clock, and he 
did not come, and as I had quite a long journey 
to make, I became impatient. Col. Black had 
come in, and noticing my uneasiness, asked the 
cause, and when I told him, said: 

" 'Don't let that trouble you for a moment. I 
shall deem it a pleasure to put my name to 
your note, that is,' he added, laughing, 'if the 
bank thinks me sufficient security.' 

"Oh, certainly,' said the banker, with a smile, 
'we consider Mr. Winn's note perfectly good 
without any endorser, but we must adhere to 
our rules of business, one of which is always to 
require security.' " 

"But, John," interrupted his wife, "this is 
Colonel Black endorsing for you, and I thought 
you were going to tell us why and when you 
signed this .*4000 note. " 

"That is just what I am coming to," said 
Mr. Winn. "About six months ago, Col. 
Black came along when I was out on the farm, 
and stopped for a chat. He was in a very 
pleasant mood, and I suspect now that he flat- 
tered me for I remember that he was loud 
in his praise of my farm, stock and man- 
agement. Just before leaving, he told me 
that he had concluded a bargain for a valuable 
piece of property, and that to secure it he must 



have $4000 down, and that he wished me to 
endorse his note for that amount. I objected 
on account of the large sum, but he assured me 
that he was worth $7'>,000 cash above all liabili- 
ties, and that it was simply a formality, and 
that there was no possibility of me being called 
on to pay it. In fact, he made me feel so easy 
about it that I had forgotten the matter until 
this notice recalled it." 

I excused myself, and went home with a 
heavy heart, for I had heard rumors lately that 
Colonel Black was speculating heavily and that 
there was doubt of his solvency, and I was glad 
to get away without any questions being 
asked . 

A few days later I received a note from Mr. 
Winn, asking me to come and see him. I was 
soon there, and found the family in sore trouble. 
My worst fears were realized. Colonel Black 
had made an assignment, and it was rumored 
that he would not pay twenty cents on the elol- 
lar. Mr. Winn had been to see the bank of- 
ficials, and as they had perfect confidence both 
in his integrity and ability to meet the obliga- 
tion, they had agreed to give him a little time 
to consider and see what was best to be done. 

Mr. Winn was much dejected; he seemed to 
have grown ten years older since I was at his 
house, and he was not in a condition of mind to 
see things in their true light; in fact, he seemed 
to have lost all courage. Both Mrs. Winn and 
Charley were cheerful, and were doing all they 
could to comfort him. 

The first thing Mr. Winn said to me was, 
"A farm is not so safe a piece of property as 
you thought, is it!" 

"Y'es, I still think it the safest and best of all 
property to invest in," I answered. 

"Well, here is a chance, for mine must be 
sold," said Mr. Winn. 

Before I could reply Charley spoke. 

"Father, this farm will not be sold while 
you live, if I have anything to say about it." 

"But what is to become of your college edu- 
cation ?" asked his father. 

"That need not tromble you," he replied, "I 
only know this, that the path of duty uow ruus 
in another direction, auel that whatever my 
future education — or want of it — may be, I will 
never set foot in college till you are out of 
difficulty." 

"Bat, by that tine— if it ever comes— you will 
be too old to go to college," said his father. 

"So be it," answereel Charley, "but I can be 
an intelligent, useful man without a collegiate 
education. I have a good foundation laid, and 
I shall read and study a little every day, and 
in time I shall get something of an education." 

"I shall be perfectly happy again," said Mrs. 
Winn, "if I can see father cheerful and recon 
ciled. It is a very small thing to lose money to 
what it is to lose courage and faith. Father 
has made a mistake, but I do not blame him 
for it. The fault is in the system which has 
become so common, of making one man respon- 
sible for the debts of another." 

"Thank God, dear wife, that you do not 
blame me for it, but really I had never given 
the matter a serious thought. I knew it was 
always customary at sales of personal property 
and when money is loaned at bank to r quire 
an endorser, but I always looked upon it as a 
legal formality, although I ought to have 
known better. It is plain enough to me now 
what it means to endorse another man's paper. 
It means simply this, that you assume all the 
risk of his business, with no voice in its man- 
agement, no chance for a share of its profits; 
but if, through mismanagement, rascality or 
any other cause, he makes a failure, you are 
held for the last dollar." 

"In addition to that," I added, "it gives to 
reckless men money and credit which they 
could not otherwise obtain, and often enables 
them to extend their business so as to enroll 
many in financial ruin. \'ou are not the only 
family, probably, that will suffer from this 
failure." 

Mr. Winn did not wait to be sued, or at 
tempt in any way to avoid the payment of the 
debt, but mortgaged his farm and borrowed the 
money and paid the debt in full. Col. Black's 
failure proved more disastrous than was at first 
supposed, and it was several years before the 
business was finally settled up and the dividend 
declared, and then the creditors received 10 
per cent on the principal of their claims, with 
no interest; but even this small amount was a 
help to Mr. Winn, who counted every dollar 
laid by as bringing him a little nearer deliver- 
ance from the hateful tyrant of debt. It re- 
quired all the Christian grace John Winn pos- 
sessed to keep from hating Col. Black, for the 
fact that he and his family dressed well and 
that they still maintained an expensive style of 
living, made it certain that he had acted dis- 
honestly, and had perjured himself in making 
an assignment. 

Ten years have passed since the night Mr. 
Winn received the notice from the bank, and 
again I am sitting on the east porch. Mr. Winn 
looks old and broken, for the ten years past 
have been full of anxiety and hard labor, but 
to-night he is cheerful and almost gay, for I 
have been invited to celebrate with them the 
joyous day of deliverance from debt. A brisk 
step approaches and I look up and see — as I did 
ten years ago — Charley coming with the mail. 

The ten years of farm work have not injured 
him, for he is strong and stalwart, and a glance 
tells us that he is intelligent. With a happy 
face and a hearty grasp of the hand he greets 
me, and then hands his father a large business 
envelope, which Mr. Winn breaks open with a 
trembling hand. 

"Thank God! that I have lived to see this 



day," he said, as he held up the cancelled 
mortgage. Turning to me. he said: 

"Do you remember that night that you were 
here when I had just learned the news of Col. 
Black's assignment ? No one who has not gone 
through a similar experience can tell what I 
sutfered. My faith in God and man was stag- 
gered for the moment, and if it had not been 
for the courage and patience of my wife and 
Charley I should never have rallied." 

Taking the old family Bible from the stand, 
and turning to the •_*:; i psalm, Mr. Winn read 
with deep feeling those precious words which 
have brought balm and comfort to so many 
troubled souls: "The Lord is my shepherd, I 
shall not want," and then, as we knelt, he 
thanked God for his merciful dealings, his sus- 
taining grace in the past, and for the joy and 
blessings of this hour. 

As we arose from our knees, Mr. Winn said: 
"I have a favor to ask of you, which I trust you 
will grant. I want you to write the story of 
John Winn's mistake and publish it as a warn- 
ing to others never to endorse. " And at his re- 
quest I have done so. — Waldo F. Brown. 



A Simple Burial. 

[From a private letter.) 
* * * I stayed with her until the last of 
September, when she went to the High Coun- 
tries. Her sufferings had been so terrible that 
we could only be glad when she escaped from 
the body; we loved the brave, good soul so 
well that we rejoiced for her when her transla- 
tion came. 

She had always a great horror of having her 
body shut up in a box and left to putrefy, and 
made earnest injur ctions to so dispose of her 
remains that they should as soon as possible 
return to earth and to the reperformance of 
uses in the general economy of nature. She 
desired a lattice coltin, which was procured. 
Kvergreen boughs were interwoven so as to 
entirely conceal the interior. The body was 
wrapped in a winding sheet and covered with 
evergreens. 

She would have no funeral, no goiDg to the 
church, no sermon, "no fuss nor expense," she 
said, but in the simplest way possible let dust 
be given to dust. So the cotfin was placed 
under the trees in the yard, Pha-be Gary's 
sweet song was sung, "Oue Sweetly Solemn 
Thought," a few good words were said by a 
neighbor, there was a word of prayer and then 
we went to the cemetery, where another Bong 
was sung and we returned home feeling not that 
we had left her there, but rather that she came 
with us. * * * * 

I think she was satisfied with what was done. 
I would wish for myself no coffin of any sort. 
I would have the old-fashioned winding-sheet, 
and would be so laid into the arms of Mother 
F.arth that she might as soon as possible purify 
my mortal part and send it forth in some form 
of organic life. I would not have even a bit of 
board to hinder her beneficent work. This, in 
case cremation were not possible. A. G. 



Overworked Women. 

The Sanitary Mayaziw has the following 
sensible remarks concerning the very prevalent 
tendency among American women to overwork 
themselves in their desire 1 3 keep their homes 
in irreproachable order : 

Nothing is more thoroughly mistaken than 
the idea that a woman fulfills her duty by do- 
ing an amount of work that is far beyond her 
strength. She not only does not fulfill her 
dut) , but she most signally fails in it, and the 
failure is truly deplorable. There can be no 
sadder sight than that of a broken-down, over- 
worked wife and mother — a woman who is tired 
all her life through. If the work of the house- 
hold cannot be accomplished by order, system 
and moderate work, without the necessity of 
wearing, heart broken toil, without making life 
a treadmill of labor, then, for the sake of 
humanity, let the work go. Better to live in 
the midst of disorder than that order should be 
purchased at so high a price — the cost of 
health, strength, happiness, and all that makes 
existence endurable. 

The woman who spends her life in unneces- 
sary labor is by this very labor unfitted for the 
higher duties of home. She should be the 
haven of rest to which both children and hus- 
band turn for peace and refreshment She 
should be the careful, intelligent adviser and 
guide of the one, and the tender confidant and 
helpmeet of the other. How is it possible for 
a woman exhausted in body, and, as a natural 
consequence, in mind also, to perform either of 
these offices ? It is not possible. The constant 
strain is too great. Nature gives way beneath 
it. She loses health and spirit and hopefulness, 
and more than all, her youth, the last thing 
that a woman should allow to slip from her ; 
for, no matter how old she is in years, she 
should be young in heart and feeling, for the 
youth of age is sometimes more attractive than 
youth itself. 

To the overworked woman this green old age 
is out of the question. Her disposition is often 
ruined, her temper soured, her very nature 
changed by the burden which, too heavy to 
heavp too carry, is only dragged along. Even 
her affections are blunted, and she becomei 



Jan. 9, 1886.] 



pACIFie RURAb fRESS. 



si 



merely a machine — a woman without the time 
to be womanly, a mother without the time to 
train and guide her children, a wife without the 
time to sympathize with and cheer her husband, 
a woman so overworked during the day that 
when night comes her sole thought and most 
intense longing are for the rest and sleep that 
will probably not come, and even if they should 
that she is tired to enjoy. Better by far let 
everything go unfinished, and live as best she 
can, than entail on herself and family the curse 
of overwork. 



Chaff. 

"Go like hot cakes" — Ginger snaps. 

The fact that the poet is born not made, re- 
lieves our educational system from a serious re- 
sponsibility. 

When Hamlet heard that a factory in Michi- 
gan turns out 2400 washboards every day, he 
exclaimed, "Ay, where's the rub?" 

A jolly tourist from Milwaukee says they 
raise in Pasadena oranges and the price of 
land. Well! Isn't that better than raising 
nothing but beer? — Santa Barbara Independent. 

If the young gentleman who is paying atten- 
tions to an H-street belle will in the future not 
sit between the lamp and the window, the 
shadow pictures will not attract such assem- 
blages as nightly gather in front of the residence; 
neither will he furnish food for comment for 
passengers in the street cars. 

"What do you think of Mr. Thompson, 
ma?" "He seems to be very nice, but I would 
not encourage him if I were you. "Why, 
mamma?" "He has red hair, and redheaded 
men are always deceitful." "But papa has red 
hair." "Well, not quite red, child. It's red 
enough, though." 

"My husband is so poetic," said one lady to 
another in a street car the other day. "Have 
you ever tried rubbin' his joints with hartshorn 
liniment, mum?" interrupted a beefy-looking 
woman with a market basket at her feet, who 
was sitting at her elbow and heard the remark. 
"That'll straighten him out as quick as any- 
thing I know of, if he hain't got it too bad." 



Oilinu a Crank. — The palatial steamer 
Mary Powell was on her daily trip up the 
Hudson. A number of passengers had gathered 
around the open door of the engine room, look- 
ing with interest at the movements of the 
ponderous machinery. Among the passengers 
was Sam Foster, a New York gentleman, who 
is a practical joker. He is a young man of 
means and was elegantly dres: ed. He is, more- 
over, a very good amateur ventriloquist. 

"Now, boys," said Foster, "let us have some 
fun with the engineer." 

A creaking, squeaking noise was heard 
among the machinery. The engineer was 
somewhat startled, and he lubricated various 
and sundry parts of the machinery with great 
industry and an oil can. The latter contained 
half a pint of oil. 

Foster nudged one of his boon companions 
in the ribs, and pretty soon the machinery 
squeaked again. Once more the engineer 
calmed down a suspected piston by annointing 
it with his alleviator. The squeaking still con- 
tinued, and Foster pointed out the place that 
needed oiling. Once more the engineer took 
his alleviator, and removing the cork, poured 
the contents down the back of the festive 
Foster, and over his $40 suit of clothes. 

"There," said the engineer, "I don't think 
that crank will squeak again in a hurry." — 
Texas Si/lings. 



Too Harrowino. — We have received, with 
a request to publish, an original poem entitled 
"The Old Bachelor's Christmas Dinner' Here 
is the first verse: 

"He sits in his cabin all alone, 

And gnaws on a bit of 'jerke;' 
It's gritty and tough, and hard as a stone, 

And he sighs for chicken or turkey. 
He thinks of the cooking of his mamma, 

Before life grew bitter and murky, 
When every Christmas his good papa 
Provided the family with turkey." 
There, that must do. We like to aid budding 
genius to unfold, but out of respect for the 
feelings of our readers, we cannot publish the 
other 13 verses. They are too harrowing — 
Lompoc Record. 

[We trust the poem was not suggested by 
the sight of our Christmas illustration. — Eds. 
Press.] 

How to Teaoii Children. — Accustom a 
child as soon as it can speak to narrate its little 
experiences; its chapter of accidents; its griefs, 
fears and hopes; to communicate what it has 
noticed in the world without, and what it feels 
struggling in the world within. Anxious to have 
something to narrate, it will be induced to give 
attention to objects around it, and what is pass 
ing in the sphere of its instruction, and to ob- 
serve and note events will become one of its 
finest pleasures. This is the groundwork of a 
thoughtful character. 



A December Day.— The excellent verses in 
our last issue, bearing this title, were, by some 
oversight, printed without the author's name. 
They were written by Mrs. L. H. Shuey, of 
Brentwood, to whose pen our readers are great- 
ly indebted for contributions to the Home Cir- 
cle. 



"YOUJYG EOLKS' QoLUjVIN. 

Aunt Nellie's Fairy Tale. 

[Written for Rural Press by Alice Denison.] 

They were all seated around the blazing fire. 
The rain was pattering against the pane and 
the fog-horn's mournful note resounded through 
the stillness "just perzackly like a giant who'd 
stubbed ^his toe," Ned remarked. He was six, 
and his toes and nose were the great perplexi- 
ties of his life, the first being continually stub- 
bed, and the last bruised and bleeding through 
its forcible contact with the hard pavements. 

"Oh, Aunt Nellie, do tell us a story about a 
giant," said Clara, "it's just the night for it, 
and I've finished all my examples." 

"Do ! do I" clamored the other children, and 
so Auntie Nell, taking baby Mildred upon her 
lap, while Clara and Ned drew their little 
chairs closer to her side, told this quaint story 
that I am about to tell to all the little children 
who read the Rural. 

Once upon a time, many years ago, in a 
land called Norway (you will find it on your 
maps), there was a great and wealthy city with 
massive walls and iron gates, that no one could 
enter without the permission of the ruler, who 
was a giant, and it was a very desirable city in 
every way to live in. Flowers of all kinds grew 
in the richest profusion, and all sorts of fruit 
bent down the branches of the trees. The rarest 
birds filled the air with their sweet music; 
golden butterflies lazily rested upon snowy 
lilies and crimson roses, content to be swung 
to sleep upon their perfumed petals, without 
making the effort the bold lovers, the humming 
birds and bees, did to find their hearts. 

I think, take it altogether, the climate must 
have been something like our own California 
with its perpetual sunshine: very different from 
the rest of cold, bleak Norway, with its short 
summers, and long, hard winters. Well, of 
course the people of Norway were very anxious 
to enter this enchanted city, and they besought 
their god Thor to break down the walls ; but 
another god protected the city, and he did not 
wish to get into a quarrel with him, so he went 
to the dwarfs instead for counsel. 

They told him to go to the city and tell the 
giant ruler that he would perform any feat the 
giant suggested, and if successful would claim 
the city an a reward. 

So Thor went to the city and told the giant 
what he desired to do. The giant very good- 
naturedly bade him come in; and he came in, 
and walked through the streets of gold to the 
giant king's palace, and then the king said to 
him: 

"Well, Thor, you look pretty powerful. 
What can you do best?" 

"I have a fine appetite. I will eat with you 
or any man here," said Thor. 

So the king directed that several tons of 
meat should be brought and placed in a large 
wooden trough, and he directed a weak, thin 
looking slave to eat with the god and see which 
could eat the longest. Thor began to eat and 
did veryjwell, but before he had eaten half the 
meat he had to stop; the slave had not only 
devoured the meat but the trough! 

"Well," said the king, "what else can you 
do?" 

"Why," said Thor, "I can run." And he 
could run faster than the fastest water. 

The king called out a pale, earnest eyed, sad- 
looking boy to race with Thor and Thor felt 
quite disgusted that he should have such a 
weak opponent, and he said to the king: 

" Have you no swifter of foot than he?" 

" Try him," the giant said. And so Thor and 
the slave started, but he had never seen any 
one so swift; before Thor had gone a few steps 
the slave was at the goal. He naturally felt 
very much disheartened and disappointed, and 
the giant roared with laughter and said : 

" A pretty god you are. What else can you 
do? Can you lift? Are you strong ? 

Now Thor could lift whole mountains and 
throw them into the ocean, so he said he could 
lift anything. 

"Humph," said the giant, "you can't lift that 
black cat, old and weak as she is." 

So Thor went up to the cat that was lying on 
the table and did his best to lift her. He 
tugged and strained, till the perspiration stood 
out upon his forehead and finally did succeed in 
lifting one leg, but that was all he could do, so 
at last he had to give it up. 

"Well," said the giant, "you're a baby god 
— couldn't lift a cat! Now there's my old 
nurse, poor old soul, she's half blind, las no 
teeth, and can't walk very well; wrestle with 
her, and if you succeed in throwing her, I will 
abdicate and you shall reign as king." 

So Thor, rather shamefacedly, for he did not 
like a conflict with a woman, began the tussle, 
but it was over in a twinkling, and the poor, 
crestfallen god found himself upon the floor — 
defeated by a woman. 

The giant, with true politeness, accompanied 
his guest beyond the gates of the city, and 
then he said: 

"Well, Thor, can you give any explanation 
of your defeat?" 

"No," said Thor, humbly. 

"Then I will tell you. You are out of the 
city now and I never intend to permit you to 
enter again, so I have no objection to your 
knowing the secret. You were under a spell; 



the man with whom you ate was wild fire. 
Nothing in the world can devour so much or so 
rapidly. The man with whom you ran a race 
was thought; the world has yet to learn of 
aught more swift. The cat you sought to lift 
was the enchanted serpent that girdles the 
world, and we were all awfully frightened 
when you lifted one leg. No one else has ever 
done so much and we were afraid that we 
should all be hurled into space. The woman 
with whom you wrestled was old age and no 
mortal can conquer her." 

Aunt Nellie's t story was ended, but before she 
carried baby Mildred, who was fast asleep, to 
her bed, she promised Clara and Ned to tell 
them at some future time what became of 
Thor and the giant. If she does I think I can 
promise my small readers to tell them the 
story as well as I can remember it, although, 
no doubt, Clara or Ned would perform the task 
much better. 



Arthur's Christmas Present. 

[Written for Rural Press by Mrs. Rancher.] 

Nine-year old Arthur wished to make papa a 
Christmas present, and, after grave delibera- 
tion, decided on a Jack-in-the-box as a suitable 
and acceptable gift. 

The little fellows, Clare and Bertie, were 
shown the prize, and cautioned most earnestly 
not to tell, and this they faithfully promised. 

But as soon as we were home, while papa 
was helping us to alight, Bertie cried out: 

"Oh, papa, Aitie didn't buy you any sing for 
Chistmas 1" 

But papa did not seem to hear, and I hurried 
them to the house, where Arthur lectured those 
two little boys most severely. They promised 
again, but as papa came into the house the ir- 
pressible Bertie saluted him with: 

"Papa, did May tell 'oo what Artie brought 
'oo for a Chistmas pesent ?" 

After that the older children tried to keep 
the little boys in another room, but Clare sud- 
denly burst into the dining-room, exclaiming: 

"Now, May, I want to tell papa about 
somen ag else. Papa, I want to tell you about 
somefing else !" 

"It's of no use, Arthur," I said, trying to 
keep my own face straight, for I saw that Ar- 
thur and May were greatly distressed; "you 
had better not wait for Christmas, but give 
papa his present to-night." 

"I think so, too, he replied, with a sigh of 
relief; and the way he rushed to his hiding 
place and brought out his Jack-in-the-box con- 
vinced me that the little fellows were not the 
only ones who found it hard to keep a secret 
from papa. 

A little boy from Michigan, on his first 
visit to the seaside, seeing a steamer approach 
the coast, called out excitedly : "Oh, mamma, 
just come and eee! There's a big locomotive 
taking a bath!" 



jDoMESTie €[eOJMOMY. 



Household Hints. 

[Written for Rur»l Press by Ada E. Taylor.] 

A clam shell is more convenient for scraping 
kettles and frying-pans than a knife. It does 
the work in less time. 

An uncorked phial of oil of pennyroyal left 
on the ledge of the window or on a table at the 
head of the bed will drive away mosquitoes. 

To clean decanters, rinse the bottles and put 
a piece of lighted coarse brown paper into each, 
stop close, and when the smoke disappears wash 
the bottle clean. This will remove all stains, 
but if any spots should remain the process 
should be repeated. 

To Preserve Strawberries Whole. — Take equal 
weights of the largest strawberries procurable, 
and fine white loaf sugar; lay the fruit in deep 
dishes and sprinkle half the sugar over them 
in fine powder; give the dish a gentle shake, 
that the sugar may touch the under part of the 
fruit. On the next day make a syrup of the re- 
mainder of the sugar and the juice drawn from 
the strawberries, and boil it until it jellies; then 
carefully put in the strawberries and let them 
simmer nearly an hour; next, put them with 
care into jars or bottles, and till up with the 
syrup, of which there will be more than re- 
quired, but on the next day the jars will hold 
nearly or quite the whole. Cover the jars or 
bottles with brandy papers. 

A Cheap Pudding. — Take three cups of finely 
chopped good cooking apples, one cup of white 
sugar, one-half grated nutmeg, one tablespoon- 
ful of butter cut in small pieces; stir all to- 
gether and let stand one hour. Then take a 
deep pudding dish and put in a layer of the 
chopped apples, then a layer of bread 
crumbs, and so on till all the apples are used; 
then pour the juice over the whole that has 
been drawn from the apples, and bake one hour. 
A rich puff paste may be put over the top if 
preferred; to be eaten with lemon sauce. 

Lemon Sauce. — One small cup of white sugar, 
one tablespoonful of flour, one teaspoonful of 



butter. Mix sugar and flour thoroughly 
pour over it two cups of boiling water; 
put in the butter, add the lemon just before 
using. 

Orange Custard. — Take four good-sized or- 
anges, peel, seed and cut into small pieces; add 
a cup of sugar and let it stand in the dish it is 
to be served in. Into one quart of boiling milk 
stir two tablespoonfuls of cornstarch mixed 
with a little cold milk and the beaten yolks of 
three eggs; remove from the stove and let cool; 
flavor with lemon. Beat the whites of three 
eggs to a stiff froth, add one- half cup of white 
sugar and a little of the juice poured off of the 
oranges. Mix the custard lightly with the 
oranges and pile the whites on top. This is 
delicious eaten cold or it may be placed in a 
pudding dish and baked for 15 minutes and 
eaten with whipped cream. 

An egg beaten light in dried apple pies is 
quite an improvement. 

Mock Coffee. — Take sound sweet potatoes, 
cut into small bits about the size of a pea (first 
peel them), place in a hot oven and brown like 
coffee; care should be taken not to burn them. 
When cold grind in a coffee mill and proceed 
the same as when making real coffee. When 
drank with sugar and cream very little differ- 
ence can be told. 

Plum Pudding. — One pound of beef kidney 
grease, one pound of dry raisins, one pound 
and three ounces of fresh bread crumbs, 
one tablespoonful of flour, twelve ounces of 
brown sugar, nine ounces of citron and orange- 
peel mixed, a little salt, half a nutmeg grated, 
one pinch of pulverized ginger, and a little 
lemon-peel chopped fine; about ten eggs, about 
four tablespoonfuls of good brandy or rum, and 
one tablespoonful of sweet cream. This is 
sufficient for two good sized puddings. After 
having washed the raisins in lukewarm water, 
place them in a basin or wooden bowl, with 
the peel already cut into square pieces, and 
steep in a little brandy. Now trim the beef- 
kidney fat and chop it very fine, with one 
spoonful of flour; mix it well with the crumbs 
of bread, brown sugar and eggs; then add the 
raisins, the peel, the rest of the brandy, salt, 
nutmeg, ginger, and last of all, after it is well 
mixed, add the cream. Spread all this on a 
large napkin, well buttered, fold up the 
corners of the napkin and tie to the level of 
the pudding, so as to make it round; then let it 
boil six hours, constant boiling. Take it out 
and let it drain in a sieve; remove the napkin 
carefully, so as not to disturb the pudding. 
Sprinkle with a little rum sauce. You may 
apply a match to the pudding when it is on the 
table or when entering the dining-room. Serve 
a little rum sauce separate. This pudding may 
be cooked in a mold. Have the mold well 
buttered, and a buttered napkin tied over the 
top. 

Chocolate Cake. — One cup sugar, one-half 
cup butter, beat to a cream; two cups flour, 
three teaspoonsful yeast powder sifted to- 
gether; mix all to a stiff batter with sweet 
milk, add the yolks of four eggs beaten in a lit- 
tle milk; flavor to taste; bake in jelly tins. 
When cold spread between each cake the fol- 
lowing: One cup of grated chocolate, one-half 
cup of white sugar mixed together; beat the 
whites of three eggs to a stiff froth, add sugar 
and chocolate. For the top of the cake, beat the 
white of one egg, add three tablespoonfuls of 
white sugar and a little vanilla. 

Nigger-Head. —Three cups of flour, three 
eggs, one cup of raisins, two cups currants, one- 
half cup of butter, one cup of sweet cream, 
three teaspoons baking powder, one teaspoon 
oficinnamon, one of cloves, one of allspice, one- 
half cup of sugar, one-half cup of molasses; 
steam three hours; eat with brandy sauce or 
beaten cream. 

Tuolumne county. 



Oranoe Cake. — A scant half cupful of but- 
ter, two cupfuls of flour, half a cupful of water, 
the yolks of five eggs and the whites of four; 
one teaspoonful of cream of tartar, half a tea- 
spoonful of soda, the grated rind of one orange 
and the juice of one and a half. Beat the but- 
ter to a cream, add the sugar gradually, then 
the orange, the eggs well beaten, the water, and 
lastly the flour, in which the soda and cream of 
tartar have been put, well sifted. Bake in 
sheets in a moderate oven for twenty five min- 
utes. When cool, cover with this frosting: 
The white of one egg beaten very stiff, the 
grated rind of one orange, the juice of one and 
a half, and one and a half cupfuls of powdered 
sugar. 

Corn Biscuit. — Scald two cups of cornmeal 
in one pint of sweet milk. Then stir together 
three-quarters of a cup of butter, two cups of 
sugar and a little salt, and add to it. Then add 
three eggs well beaten, a little flour and half a 
cud of hop yeast. Let it rise the second time; 
then roll out, and let rise a third time. Bake 
and send to the table hot. This amount makes 
about twenty five biscuits. 



Soup and EOOS . — Bouillon with croutons and 
poached eggs is a nourishing soup. Put crou- 
tons in the soup tureen and on them well 
poached eggs, one for each person, and then 
turn the hoto ullion over them and serve, 



32 



pACIFie RURAlo fRESS. 



[Jan. 9, 1886 




A. T. DEWEY. 

Published by DEWEY & CO. 

Office, S5S Market St., N. E.eor. Front Sl.,S. F. 
IT Take the Elevator, No. It Front St. "B» 

Address all literary and business correspondence and 
1) afta for this paper in (be name of the firm. 

Our Subscription Rates. 

Our Subscription Kates are three dollars 
1 1 advance If continued subscriptions are not prepaid in 
advance, for any reason, fifty cents extra will be charged 
for each year or fraction of a year. tST No new names 
placed on the list without cash in advance. Agents wanted. 



Advertising Rates. 

/ Week. 1 Month. 3 Montht. I Tear. 
Per Line (agate).... * .25 $ .80 $2.20 
Half inch (1 square). 1.50 4.00 10.00 

One inch 2.00 5.00 1 4.00 

Large advertisements at favorable rates. Special or read 
Ing notices, legal advertisements, notices appearing in extra 
ordinary type, or in particular parts of the paper, at special 
rates. Knur insertions are rated in a month. 



Receipts of Eggs in San Francisco. 

According to the statistics gathered by the 
Produce Exchange of this city, the supplies of 
eggs furnished by California producers are de- 
creasing. Whether the account) hive been cor- 
rectly kept or not, we cannot now determine. 
We cannot at this moment determine the ag- 
w. b. ewer. ; gregate amount of western eggs brought in by 
rail, but will give it another tims, as this is a 
factor which seriously affect* the local product. 
We give herewith the egg recipts in this city 
for the last three years as reported by the 
Produce Exchange: 

Dozen. Dozen. 

January .297,2401 July 167,!)(i{» 

February 445,578 August 92,180 

March 487,595 September 75,450 

April ' . 388,820 October 64,687 

May 338,210; November 131,652 

June 200,800 December 88,100 

Total receipts, 1885 2,778,281 

1884 2 9S0.254 

1S83 3,178,307 



$ 5.00 
24.00 
45.00 



Our latest forms go to press Wednesday evening. 
Regis 'ored at 8. F. Post O flice as second-class mail matter 

SCIENTIFIC PRESS PATENT AGENCY. 
DEWEY * CO., Patent Solicitors. 

A.T. DEWEY W. B.EWER. O. H. STRONG. 



SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, January 9, 1886. 
TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



EDITORIALS.— Wheat; A Distinguished Burly, 25. 
The Week; Receipts of F.gg8 in San Francisco; Poultry 
Interest of the l : nited States; The Northern Citrus 
Fair, 42. Sacramento and the Fruit I'hion; Overland 
Freights on Mohair; Gad. Sheridan on the Indian 
Problem; A Fine Establishment in Stockton, 33. 

ILLUSTRATIONS. -<>n the Way to the Morning 
Bath, 25. The Old and the New— The Growth ol a 
Stockton Industry, 33. Fashion Plates for January, 
38 

CORRESPONDENCE. -Fait Riverside Enterprise; 
Rura! Rambles No. 1. 26. 

HORTICULTURE. -••Benefits of Local Organiza- 
tions;" The Sierra Foothill R?gion; Citrus Fruit Exhi 
bition. 26- 

SHEEP AND WOOL. The Wool Trade of 1SS5, j 
26. The Law on Wool Grading in San Francisco; 
Testing the Lassen County Ordinance, 27. 

THE VETERINARIAN.— Glanders and Farcv, 27 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY.- Tobacco In the 
Grange; Grangers' New Year's Day at St. Helena; Hor- 
ticultural and Grange Interest; Instal'ation at Bennett 
Valley; Personal; Elk Grove Grange Installation; 
Orange Elections; Orange Items; Tulare Orange; Es- 
tablishing New Granges In Southern California; An 
Eastern Visitor; Orange Installations, 28. 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES —From the various 
counties of California, 28-9. 

THE HOME CIRCLE. -We've Alwavs Been Pro- 
vided For; John Winn's Mistake; A Simple Burial; 
Overworked Women. 30. Chaff, 31. 

YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN. -Aunt Nellie's Fairy 
Tale; Arthur's Christmas Present, 31. 



Eggs From Abroad. 

Notwithstanding the immense production of 
eggs in this country, as shown in an article else- 
where in this week's Rcral, we are still pay- 
ing out quite a respectable amount of money 
for foreign eggs. It is estimated that an aver- 
age of 10,000 dozen of imported eggs are laid 
down daily in New York City and sold at an 
average price of 16 cents per dozen. The latest 
received report from the U. S. Bureau of Statis- 
tics gives the following interesting information: 
- Eggs ImportBd Into the United States. 

Dozen. Value. 

For 12 months ending 

June 30, 1885 10,098,450 $2,476,672 

For 12 months ending 

June 30, 1884 16,487,204 $2,677,360 

Egus Exported From the United States. 

Dozen. Value. 

For 12 months ending 

June 30, 1885 240,768 $51,832 

For 12 months ending 

June, 30, 1884 295,484 $62,759 

At another time we will give some data to 
show what some foreign countries are doing io 
fgg production, and by contrast the fact that 
great as is the poultry interest of the United 
States it is not as great as it should be. 



States and sections, and not without a manifest 
reason. If, for the purposes of this compari- 
son, we suppose all the eggs reported to 
have been produced by the barnyard fowl alone, 
we should have the average production of eggs 
to each fowl ranging from 3 doz3n a year up- 
wards to 4, 5| 6 and 7 dozen. It will be 
observed that in New England, with its system 
of mixed farming and its great number of 
commercial and manufacturing towns, affording 
local market) setting a high price on the pro- 
duct, and thus miking it worth while to feed 
hens expensively with a view to increasing the 
yield of eggs, the number of dozjn per year 
rises to a maximum, whereas in some States 
poultry seems to be kept munly for the sake of 
the flesh. Thus we have: 

Yield of fowl. Dozen. 

Connecticut 7. 1 

Maine 75 

Massachusetts 7.2 

New Hampshire 6.9 

Rhode Island 6.4 

Vermont 5.9 

Compare with these rigures the average yield of 
eggs per fowl, in the following S rates: 

Yield per fowl. Dozen. 

New York 5.0 

Pennsylvania 5.2 

Ohio 4.9 

Illinois 3 6 

Indiana 5.0 

Iowa 4.3 

Kentucky 4.4 

Tennessee 4.7 

North Carolina 3.6 

Alabama 3.2 

South Carolina 3 1 

Louisiana 3 



Business Announcements. 

Agricultural Implements— Baker A: Hamilton. 

New Music —Oliver Ditson & Co., Boston. 

Stoi-kton Combine! Harvester and Agricultural Works. 

Cream Separator -G. G. Wickson & Co. 

Wire Rope— J. A. Roeblings Sons Co. 

Olive Trees -B. -11 Conservatory, Sacramento. 

Tulare Lands— Pacific Coast Land Bureau. 

Bath Brick -Paul R'eger & Co. 

Idtnlc Dint— I. R and S. Romford, Oakland. 

Poultry— E C. Clapp, South Pasadena, Cal. 

Dividend No ice— Hibernia Savings & Loan Society. 

Prune Trees B. Schulte, San Jos', Cal. 

Fruit Trees— J. T. Bogue, Martinez, Cal. 

churns-MclierinaiJ & Allen, Rockford, III. 

tS~ See Advertising Columns. 



The Week. 

The chief topic of conversation this week is 
the touch of winter which has formed slight ice- 
flakes here and there, stiffened the surface of 
the moist soil and put a stop to ambitious 
tomato vines in all places outside of the ther- 
mal belts. Ic our garden the heliotropes have 
not suffered yet, though they were killed to the 
ground a few yeats ago. It is the coldest snap 
of the season, but not very cold at that. The 
wind has a* times reached quite a respectable 
velocity, the swiftest reported at Sacramento 
being 36 miles an hour, with an average of 23 
miles an hour for 24 hours. The drying effects 



Poultry Interest of the United States. 

The event of the annual exhibition of the 
California Poultry Association makes it timely 
to take a broad view of the poultry product as 
one of the great intjrests of the United States, 
and cite statistics which will perhaps lead to a 
beltir recognition of its import ince. The 
United States census of 1880, as projected by 
General Walker, took a much wider view of 
the industrial interests of the country than any 
former census, and one of the new lines taken up 
was, fortunately, that of poultry products. 
Wt shall draw from the agricultural volume of 
the census of 1880, recently issued, informa 
tion which, wc think, will be found of much 
interest in this connection. Probably few per- 
sons appreciate the importance of the contribu 
tion to the annual production of wealth by the 
common barn-yard fowl. The ttitistics of poul- 
try and eggs were gathered, for the first time, 
by the census of 1880. This is a subject to 
which the limitations of a popular statistical 
enumeration apply with special strictness; yet 
there is no reason to doubt that the figures ap- 
proach the facts of the case for the country as 
a whole, and exhibit with great accuracy the 
relative importance of this interest in the 
several sections and States. 

The number of barn-yard fowl reported in 
the census, exclusive of spring hatching, was 
102,272,135; of other fowl, 23,235,187; the 
number of dozen of eggs, 456,910,910. At 12 
cents a dozen, ceitiinly a moderate estimate, 



of the wind are welcome in the main, both to 
those who are anxious to get tools and animals the annual value of the eeg product to the 
upon soft lands and to those who desire to drive I farmer would reach nearly $55,000,000; while 
the dampness from their doorways and malaria we may suppose 150,000,000 to 180,000,000 
from their surroundings. pounds of meat sold annually out of the stock 

Next week will be a good one for the agri- of fowls reported, 
cultural sight seers. During the whole week The geographical distribution of the poultry 
the poultry fair will be open in this city, and j industry is very wide. There are 27 States 



the citrus fair at Sacramento. The following 
week will be full of horticultural interest, as 
the Fruit Union will meet on Wednesday, Jan- 
uary 20th, and the following day the conven 
tion summoned by the Horticultural Society to 
discuss insect pests will assemble. It is well 
to keep the winter months well occupied with 
farmers' assemblages. 



which report more than 1,000,000 of barnyard 
fowls each; 17 which report more than 2,000,- 
000 each; 13 which report more than 3,000,000 
each; 7 which report more than 5,000,000 each, 
viz., Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Missouri, New 
York, Ohio and Pennsylvania. 

The proportion between the number of fowl 
and the egg crop varies greatly as between 



Poultry and Eggs by States and Territories. 



STATf S 
AND 

Territo's. 



Poultry on hand June 
1, 1880, exclusive 
of spring hatching. 

Barn yard. Other. 



No. 

2 099,733 
' 20,844 

1,826 856 
1,425,991 
121,327 
796,703 
278,262 
268,698 
6,482 
439,220 
2,266,446 
65 397 
9 910,806 
5.756,643 
7,550,508 

3 651.256 
3,577,023 
1,113.342 

944,993 
1,060 800 
914,374 
3,859,581 
2,098,824 
1,935, 775 
6,810.068 
58,244 
1,648,044 
36,710 
486,127 
1,188,492 
40 769 
6,448,880 
2 071,616 
Ohio 8,780,846 



Alabama. . 
Arizona.. 
Arkansas. 
California 
Colorado . . 

Conn 

Dakota. . . 
Delaware. . 
Dis'tof Col. 
Florida .... 
Georgia . 

Idaho 

Illinois. . . . 
Indiana. . . 

Iowa 

K n,sas .... 
Kentucky . 
Louisiana. . 

Maine 

Maryland. . 

Mass 

Michigan. 
Minnesota . 
Mississippi. 
Missouri . . 
Montana . . 
Nebraska . 
Nevada . . 
N. Hamp. 
N. Jersey. . 
N. Mexico. 
New York 
N. Carolina 



( Iregon . 



435 392 



Penn 6,620,016 



R. Island . . 
S. Carolina 
Tennessee . 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont.. 
Virginia. . . 
Washingt'u 
W. Virgi'a 
Wisconsin . 
Wyoming. . 



245,070 
1,107,954 
3,482,267 
3 127,770 

214.783 

517.992 
1,987.010 

137 581 
1,321.886 
3 501,353 
10,431 



No. 

916,966 
1,706 
881,706 
184,176 
22.477 
4.'. 934 
24,229 
96,207 
500 
104 SOO 
1,176,137 
20,624 
I, (i 15, 165 
1,091 3li8 
989,206 
746 226 
2,399.042 
377,966 
53 748 
396 925 

48 594 
227 433 
160 .">61 
901,958 

2,090 085 
2 160 
191,048 
6 925 
20,683 
285.073 
8 530 
406,400 
897,840 
1,159.081 
55 503 
740.787 
24,689 
309 675 
1,922,454 
1,168,097 
7,883 

49 836 
660,147 

0,548 
285,315 
294 373 
736 



The U. S 102,272,135 23,235,187 



F.ggs pro- 
rlncf d in 
1879. 



Dozen. 
6,761,646 
72 534 
6,610,050 
5,771,323 
520,820 
5,900,06] 
1,012,613 
1,427,087 
30,836 
1,024 106 
7,126,058 
268.731 
35,978,297 
28,823 819 
32,253 933 
17,432 280 
15,812.205 
3.392,240 
7,059,876 
4,984,770 
6 57 1 ,553 
20 762,171 
8,234,161 
0,364,410 
28,352,032 
208,794 
7,166,090 
120,471 
3,347,211 
6 080.142 
238,858 
31,958,739 
7,455,132 
43 092,291 
1,654.738 
34,377,889 
1,564,934 
3 416 846 
10,347.482 
11,486,566 
826,237 
3,050,131 
8,950,629 
501,448 
6,741,893 
15,826,025 
30,74o 

466,010,910 



Lecture on the Boo. — The program of free 
popular lectures at the Cooper Medical College, 
in this city, includes one by Dr. J. H. Wythe 
on "What is the Kgg?" to be delivered on the 
evening of February 19th. Although Dr. 
W r ythe's view of the egg will take a wide 
range, no doubt there will be much compar- 
ative physiology which will be of direct inter- 
est to those who are engaged in the production 
and reproduction of fowls. 



Not Gasoline. — In our New Zealand corre- 
spondent's prescription for sorrel killing in the 
last Rural, mention was made of "gasoline." 
That was the printer's idea of gas lime, which 
was the material the writer mentioned. 



The Northern Citrus Fair. 

The Northern Citrus Fair will be opened in 
Sicramento on Monday evening, Jan. 11. 
Arrangements for the exhibition are being per- 
fected, and wide interest is being manifested. 
There is every reason to expect that the event 
will be notable, and should draw visitors from 
long distances. The literary features have been 
well attended to, as may be seen from the fol- 
lowing announcement of speakers: Senator J. 
A. Filcher, of the Auburn Herald, will deliver 
the opening address on behalf of the President 
of the Association, on the night of the 1 1th. In 
addition, there will be short addresses on the 
resources of their respective districts from Gen- 
eral N. P. Chipman, of Red Bluff, representing 
the upper belt of northern California; from 
Judge C. F. Lott, of Oroville, representing the 
middle belt, and and from Hon. Grove L. John- 
son, representing the lower belt. Colonel John 
P. Irish has consented to deliver the principal 
address of the fair, which will be given on 
Thursday or Friday of that week. 

The entries for exhibition cover the northern 
district quite thoroughly, except that some lo. 
calities find the fair too late as their best fruit 
has ripened and been disposed of. The south- 
ern counties have also shown a disposition to 
participate, as the President, Mr. Gallatin, has 
received a letter from L. M. Holt, of Riverside, 
asking the privilege of exhibiting his citrus 
fruits and competing for premiums. It was de- 
cided that Mr. Holt could exhibit his fruits, if 
he so desired, but could not compete for pre. 
miums, as his section is not embraced in the 
boundaries of the fair district. It was evi. 
dently not expected that the south would take 
part in the display. 1 1 would be well another 
year to arrange for such competition, as the 
southern fairs always have premiums open to 
the whole State. 

At a meeting of the executive committee, 
held January 2d, the following list of premiums 
was prepared. There is no charge for entries: 
County exhibits — For the best exhibit of cit- 
rus fruit and other semi-tropic productions — 
Special first diploma; second best exhibit, di- 
ploma: third best exhibit, diploma. 

Individual vxhibits — For the best exhibit of 
oranges grown in Northern California by one 
person — A Garland cooking range, with furni- 
ture and fixtures complete, presented by L. L. 
Lewis & Company, Sacramento; value, $200. 

Second best exhibit of oranges — An elegant 
French-plate mirror, 40 by 60 inches, with solid 
walnut frame; presented by Sullivan & Ravekes, 
Sacramento; value, $150. 
Third best exhibit of oranges (cash) $30. 
For the largest and best cluster of oranges, 
$20; second largest and best cluster, $15; third 
largest and best cluster, $10. 

For the twelve largest and best oranges 
grown bv one person, $15; for the second best 
twelve, $10. 

For the largest and finest orange, $10; for 
the second largest and best orange, $5. 

For the largest and best exhibit of lemons 
grown by one person, an elegant silver pitcher, 
tray and goblets, presented by the society 
— value, $50; for the second best exhibit of 
lemons grown by one person, $20; for the third 
best exhibit of lemons grown by one person, 
$15. 

For the largest and best cluster of lemons, 
$15; for the second best cluster of lemons, $10; 
for the third best cluster of lemons, $5. 

Best exhibit of olives grown by one person, 
$15; second best exhibit of olives grown by one 
person, $10; third best exhibit of olives grown 
by one person, $5. 

Best exhibit of olive oil made from olives 
grown in Northern California by one person, 
$15; second best, $10. 

Best exhibit of limes grown in Northern Cal- 
ifornia by one person, $15; second best exhibit 
of limes by one person, $10; third best exhibit 
by one person, $5. 

Best exhibit of nuts erown in Northern Cali- 
fornia by one person, $15; Becond beat exhibit, 
$10; third best, $5. 

These awards will add interest to the occa- 
sion. Upon the whole the affair seems to us 
well planned to do good to the portion of the 
State chiefly interested, and it should receive 
popular support and interest. 

Grass Seeds. — Mr. R. G. Sneath informs us 
that since he wrote (in the Rural) about rye and 
orchard grasses, he has had half a dozen letters 
asking where seed can be had and what it costs. 
He imports from Australia and New Zealand 
his own seed — and no more than he needs for 
his own use. Anyone who wishes half a ton or 
more can import it through the New Zealand 
Agency, as advertised in the Rural two weeks 
ago. If they want smaller amounts, probably 
any of the San Francisco seedsmen, advertising 
in the Rural, can furnish it, and could give 
prices on application. 



Jan. 9, 1886.] 



JpACIFie f^URAb PRESS. 



Sacramento and the Fruit Union. 

The fruit growers and fruit-shippers of Sac- 
ramento have been holding frequent meetings 
of late to compare views concerning the plan 
and methods of operation proposed by the 
trustees of the Fruit Union. The ideas ex- 
pressed at these meetings are different and 
somewhat at variance with the policy and 
methods as embodied in the by laws which 
have been drafted by the trustees of the Union, 
and the design of the Sacramento meetings 
seems to be to concentrate the views into defin- 
ite form and arrange for their presentation 
with full force at the meeting of stockholders 
which will be held in this city on Wednesday, 
January 20th. It is impossible to foresee how 
the proposed changes in the plan and methods 
oan be made to assimilate with the plan pro- 
posed. They would amount to a somewhat 
radical change. The force which they carry 
can, of course, be seen at the stockholders' 
meeting. The Record- Union, of January 5th, 
contains a sketch of the last meetiag in Sacra- 
mento which describes the new ideas of oper- 
ation and we give them so that all interested 
in the movement may be advised of the pro- 
positions which will be brought forward. The 
Record Union says: 

Dr. Hughson was called to the chair, and E. 
Greer made secretary. After the object of the 
meeting had been stated and the by-laws dis- 
cussed, R. D. Stephens said he thought all 



buying and shipping, did not at any time give 
prices satisfactory to the growers, then the lat- 
ter could at once ship their own fruit at the 
same rate per car as the shippers. The exist- 
ence of this fact, it is contended, will cause the 
shippers to pay as high prices as possible for all 
fruit for which market can be found at the 
East, and prevent the necessity of maintaining 
expensive machinery on the part of the Union, 
which would be required in buying and hand- 
ling fruit as formerly intended. Under these 
changes no ''Manager" would be required, as 
provided originally in the by-laws, and this 
causes many changes and much reduction in 
length of the by-laws. 

The Sacramento shippers and growers pro- 
pose to continue their meetings for discussion. 
Another will be held on Friday of this week. 
The changes described above were set for final 
discussion at that meeting. It was also, upon 
motion, requested that the fruit-growers of 
Yolo, Placer and other surrounding counties be 
present and participate at said meeting. 



Overland Freights on Mohair. 

In our report of the goat-breeders' meeting 
held in Sacramento during the State Fair, it was 
stated that Julius Weyand, secretary of the 
society, was instructed to confer with the rail- 
way managers concerning the reduction of 
freight rates on mohair. The goat men justly 
complained of the great discrimination made 
against their product as compared with wool. 
The result of the effort of Mr. Weyand is con- 



tP.MILLEB.Wj 



Gen. Sheridan on the Indian Problem. 

In his annual report for 1885, Gen. Sheridan 
recommended that each Indian family be given 
and located upon the 320 acres of land, provided 
for them by law; and that when such settlements 
have actually been made, the Government con- 
demn the rest of each reservation, buy it in at 
$1.25 per acre, and invest the proceeds in U.S. 
bonds, to be held in trust by the Interior Dept., 
and that interest thereon be paid the Indians 
annually for their support. He has now put 
forth a statement, calculated to show more 
clearly how this method of dealing would bene- 
fit both the red men and the people at large. 

The reservations in Dakota and Montana 
aggregate over 54,000,000 acres, while the popu- 
lation numbers less than 45,000. The surplus 
area of nearly 81,000 square miles should yield 
an annual income of over $21,500,000 — a sum 
slightly exceeding the appropriations for the 
year ending June 30, 1884, for carrying out all 
treaty stipulations with the tribes included 
within these limits, and for their support and 
improvement. 

In Wyoming and Idaho the reservations em- 
brace nearly 5,000,000 acres and 6000 persons. 
This would leave a surplus area of 7200 square 
miles — about the size of New Jersey— which 
should return an income of $235,000; that is 
$100,000 beyond the current appropriation. 

Similar estimates promise $370,000 per an 




THE OLD AND THE NEW— THE GROWTH OF A STOCKTON INDUSTRY. 



growers should join the Union and assist at the 
next meeting of stockholders, to make such 
changes in the plan of organization and man- 
agement as would be acceptable and in the in- 
terests of all. But any changes contemplated 
should be considered beforehand, and he there- 
fore offered a eubstitute for Section 10 of the 
by-laws. The section referred to was the one 
which purported to give each stockholder the 
right to ship to whoever he pleased, hat left 
the power in the hands of the manager to refuse 
this light, under the exercise of "advisory 
supervision." This is the by-law which is pro- 
posed to„take the place of Section 10: 

Any stockholder of the Union shall have the right 
to ship fruit grown by himself, and may purchase 
fruit of any or all stockholders thereof, and ship the 
same in carload lots by the trains chartered by the 
Union, to any point of destination and to such con- 
signee as desired: provided, a satisfactory guarantee 
is first given to the Union for prompt payment of 
all costs for transportation, upon demand. 

Another change in the by-laws is one which 
will provide for the entrance of fruit shippers 
into the Union. It is worded as follows: Per- 
sons or firm engaged in fruit shipping may be- 
come members without being growers of fruit, 
by subscribing for 300 shares of stock each, and 
paying the regular assessments prescribed in 
these by-laws for payment by all other stock- 
holders. 

Concerning other changes in the by laws and 
ends which they are aimed to secure, are de 
scribed by the Record- Union as follows : 

It is the intention by these changes, if finally 
adopted, to simplify the Union, and take from 
it the vast and expensive machinery contem- 
plated in the scheme of its purchasing fruit and 
handling it as a regular shipper. By the pro- 
posed change all shippers who become stock- 
holders would be allowed to ship at the reduced 
price granted to the Union by the railroads, 
and if they and the new shippers, who would 
be thereby induced to come into the field of 



tained in the following letter, of which he sends 
us a copy for publication: 

Southern Pacific Co., Pacific system, Office 
Gen. Freight Agt., S. P., Dec. 29, 1885— Mr. 
Weyand, Secretary Goat Breeders' Associa- 
tion, Little Stony, Cal. — Dear Sir: Your let- 
ter of November 22d was duly received and re- 
ferred to the Trans-Continental Association, 
which met here recently, when it was decided to 
reduce the rate on mohair, making it when com- 
pressed 19 lbs per cubic foot, to Niw York 
city, Boston or Chicago $2 per 100 lb ; , and to 
St. Louis or New Orleans $1.90 per 100 lbs. 
These rates will take effect Jan. 1, 1880. 

Yours truly, Richard Gray. 



Co-operation with Hired Help. — Mr. Ab- 
bot Kinney of San Gabriel, L03 Angeles, has a 
practical reform in operation on his ranch 
which it will be in'eresting to watch. He has 
dismissed all his Chinese hands and put on 
white labor. In addition to their wages he 
proposes to distribute among his men a certain 
proportion of the net income of the ranch, be- 
lieving that, aside from humane considerations, 
it will increase the loyalty and effioiency of the 
men to feel that they are sharers to some ex- 
tent in the profits of the enterprise, and that 
they will do everything in their power to pre- 
vent waste and loss, and to increase production. 
No doubt many of our farmers feel that their 
hands are getting their full share, and some- 
times more, in the wages which are paid them, 
but if better work and better net receipts can 
be had by improving the efforts of the men, 
certainly that is a business proposition which 
is worth watching and considering. 



The contract for the erection of the cannery 
building at Napa has been let. 



num in Oregon and Washington Territories, 
and about $240,000 in Utah and Colorado — sums 
largely exceeding the present disbursements 
while in New Mexico and Arizona the surplus 
lands should bring in nearly $640,000 — or more 
than double the corresponding appropriations 
for the current year. 

From the Indian Territory proper, with its 
31,500,000 acres of reservations, and population 
of 80,000, the annual income should not be far 
from $1,300,000. The facts that both the area of 
the various reservations and the number of 
Indians occupying them are known but approx- 
imately; and that the appropriations are not 
always made specifically, for each tribe, but 
rather collectively, for those within certain 
tsrritorial limits, have rendered exact estimates 
impossible; but in round numbers it may be 
said that the Indian reservations of the United 
States contain 200,000 square miles, with a 
population of 260,000. About 26,000 square 
miles would locate each family upon a half sec- 
tion of land, leaving a surplus which, accord- 
ing to the plan proposed, would produce an- 
nually $4,480,000. This amount exceeds by 
about $650,000 the entire sums appropriated 
for the payment of Indian annuities, and for 
their subsistence and civilization. 

In conclusion, Gen. Sheridan says: " The 
policy advocated in my report would be most 
advantageously applied gradually, the general 
government of the Indians being continued ac- 
cording to the methods now in vogue, or such 
improvement of them as time and experience 
may suggest. The ultimate development of 
the suggested policy would, as the Indians ad- 
vance in civilization and intelligence, result in 
the return to them of the principal derived 
from the sale of their lands, which, until such 



measures were authorized by an Act of Con- 
gress, would be to hold in trust for their bene- 
fit and the income applied to their support." 

A Fine Establishment in Stockton. 

We present a fine illustration of the carriage 
factory of Wm. P. Miller, of Stockton, Cal. 
Where this building stands Mr. Miller 
made his first wagon 35 years ago without roof 
or shelter other than an oak tree under which 
his work bench was placed. For the hubs of 
this wagon an old ship's rudder stock was pro- 
cured in San Francisco, and the spokes and fel- 
loes were sawed out of heavy plank with a 
common handsaw. 

In those early days when the mines were the 
chief point of interest, and the camps were filled 
with expectant miners after the yellow dust, 
the supplies were forwarded from the principal 
towns at head of navigation by teams. The 
large amount of freighting from Stockton 
created a demand for heavy wagons of which 
Mr. Miller built some of the largest and best. 
As the mines and freighting partially failed and 
tne completion of the overland railroad caused 
the demand for freight wagons to decrease, Mr. 
Miller turned his attention to light carriage 
work until now the lighter and finer grades of 
carriages of all the various and popular styles 
are made which have a reputation for durability 
and finish that is not excelled. 

His business from its first year has had a steady 
growth, and shops have been enlarged in pro- 
portion to the needs of increasing business. 
Two years ago the latest improvements were 
made, as shown in our illustration. The build- 
ing is of brick, and has a frontage on California 
street of 150 ft. For the purpose of preventing 
its destruction by fire, this building is divided 
into three equal sections by brick wall 13 inches 
in thickness, and all the openings are closed 
with tire-proof doors. The north section is 
50x52 ft. with basement where is kept the coal, 
iron and steel in complete order. On first floor 
is the blacksmith shop, well lighted and com- 
modious, which contains six forges and the 
latest improved machinery for doing this class 
of work. Ou the second floor the partly com- 
pleted woodwork is laid to dry and ready for 
use when required. In the basement of the 
middle section are stored springs, axles and 
heavy hardware. In this basement also are 
placed two gas engines, one of seven and one of 
fifteen horse power. These engines give all the 
power required in the works. On the first floor 
of this section is some of the finest wood- 
working machinery on the coast, having been 
selected in the markets of the East, after care- 
ful and exhaustive examination and inquiry. 
The business office is also on this floor. The 
second floor is devoted to the trimming and 
leather work. Here is placed a mammoth sew- 
ing machine that weighs 800 pounds, and 
is used for stitching the leather on dash- 
frames, fenders, etc. The third floor is used 
for the storage of wheels and wheel material, 
where they are thoroughly seasoned before be- 
ing used. The south section is 50x75 feet, the 
basement of this section has all the heavy hard- 
wood lumber in it. This and the basement 
under middle section have concrete floors, and 
here are placed two furnaces, from which hot 
air is conducted to every portion of the works 
where it is needed. On first floor of south sec- 
tion is the room for keeping the lighter and 
finer grades of carriage hardware and trim- 
mings used in the factory and for sale. The 
remainder of this floor is the repository for fin- 
ished vehicles on exhibition. The second floor 
is occupied by the painting department, divided 
into three rooms. Extra precautions have been 
taken here to insure light and ventilation, and 
the exclusion of dust. In rear of middle sec- 
tion is the elevator operated by the engine. 
Covered platforms extend from second and 
third floors, and are used as landings for the 
elevator and as drying floors for the painters. 
In the yard in the rear is a brick furnace for 
heating heavy wagon tires. This complete es- 
tablishment is a model for convenience and or- 
derly arrangement, and will compare favorably 
with the best carriage factories in the East. 
Mr. Miller has shown a commendable regard 
for the health and safety of his employees, and 
has built up his reputation for close personal 
attention to his business. His pride is in the 
reputation of his work, and he does not intend 
that it shall be impaired by inferior workman- 
ship or material. Mr, Miller also has wood 
buildings on the opposite side of California 
street, where he stores lumber and carriages. 



34 



f ACIFI6 f^URAb PRESS. 



[Jan. 9, 1886 



As a proprietor 
always felt that 
I was shooting 
and my game, 
respond to the 



California Fruit-Growers in Council. 

Fifth Annual Convention, Under the Au- 
spices of the State Board of 
Horticulture. 

[OFFICIAL REPORT «V AUTHORITY. 1* COSTIXUBD. 

Afternoon Session. 
The chairman announced the program of the 
hour : "How the fruit growers are to dispose 
of their fruits without coining into competition 
with each other as to prices for the same quality 
and kinds of fruit." 

Address of H. P. Livermore on Fruit 
Shipping. 

Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen, Fruit- 
Growers of Southern California :— I esteem 
myself fortunate in having the privilege of 
speaking to you on a subject which I con- 
ceive of such very great importance that it 
needs a great deal of talking about, and I may 
say that, in so speaking to you, I shall give 
you ( not an address, but a business talk. I 
speak to you as a business man who, something 
like ten years ago, became interested in the 
fruit-growing proposition in vineyards and or- 
chards situated in Sacramento county, where 
for the last six years, until ihis present year, I 
have had not only large proprietorship, but per- 
sonal management. In those six years 1 have 
had to ship to Eastern markets fruit and grapes 
of various kinds to the different houses. 
Now, in all that period of six years, I 
have never been able, as a proprietor of 
such interest and as a manager of such 
business, to predicate one single element of 
certainty, season by season, for that interest. 

of such property, I have 
I was in the dark, that 
at random, that I might 
or that I might have to 
drafts for deficits. This 
year particularly has such been the case; and 
when the realizing sense came upon me that no 
contract can be made for the placing of Cali- 
fornia fruits in the Kistern markets, that we 
had to gather them at random, that we had to 
take our.chances, that we had to run the gaunt- 
let of competition with all California producers 
who were similarily situated — I said to myself 
this is a condition of things that can not but be 
disastrous. It means nothing less than confis- 
cation of this property interest if it continues. 
Naturally, holding that view, and being, as I 
say, a man of business experience, accustomed 
to the solution of business problems, I turned 
about to see what there was in the situation 
that would afford any protection in the 
future, or what there might be in the 
situation that would threaten a permanent 
continuation of such things, reaching, in ad- 
vance, the conclnsiou that if such was contin- 
uously to be the condition of the fruit interest of 
California I wanted to gracefully withdraw 
from it and pocket my loss. 

I have had extensive familiarity, for all these 
years, with the Northern fruit interests, de- 
rived from personal inspection of the produce 
of that section. I then considered it was nec- 
essary and proper for me to know something of 
your Southern interests. I came South, and 
passed nearly two months quietly going about 
your various communities, feeling the pulse of 
the situation; and it did not take me long to 
find out that the condition of things which 
was exercising us existed quite as seriously 
here as there. It did not take me long 
to find out that you had the same 
problem to solve, that I, as an owner of 
such property, had, namely: that the property 
which I thought last year was worth one hun- 
dred cents on a dollar, might be of doubtful 
availability this year, and under the present 
condition of things. 

Let us not go into particulars; let us not pub- 
lish unnecessarily this conditiou of things, but 
let us take counsel together whether it must 
not be admitted among ourselves that our prop- 
erty interests, our values in such property, are 
seriously tnreatened by the present condition 
of the fruit trade, and would be, in a great 
measure, overturned by the continuance thereof. 
Such was my conviction. I returned to San 
Francisco with my mind pretty thoroughly 
made up that the situation was as bad as I had 
anticipated, and probably was beyond present 
remedy. I say present, for even then I could 
not bring myself, as a business man, to think 
that men of sagacity, of good judgment and of 
experience, such as I thought the fruit-growers 
of California were, would long tolerate such a 
condition of things. 

Shortly thereafter there came an announce- 
ment of a convention of the "Fruit Growers of 
California," and I naturally attended that con- 
vention with no very definite idea of what 
would come out of it, but with the conviction 
that the thing to do was for the fruit-growers 
to get together, and that the convention was a 
means of so doing. Being there, I found vari- 
ous suggestions, and, in connection with others, 
who, like mysslf, were earnestly moving and 
endeavoring to remedy existing evils, I was 
placed upon a committee to take in hand this 
proposition and suggest a remedy. That 
committee was composed of gentlemen who are 
doubtless familiar to you all, but I will, for the 
purpose of a full understanding, give you their 
names: William H. Aiken of Santa Cruz, R. 



-"This Convention was held in Los Angeles. Nov. 17th 

to 21st. The official stenographic report, by A. K. Whitton, 
will appear in our columns, and will fcheu he issued In neat 
pamphlet form at 25c per copy. We have the leports of 1881, 
1332 and 1884-the first for 10c. the others at 25c eaoh. Ad- 
dross this office. 



J. Trumbull of San Francisco, Abbott Kinney 
of Los Angeles coun'.y, A. Bloch of Santa 
Clara county, Horatio P. Livermore of San 
Francisco, F. C. De Long of Marin county, M. 
Estee of Napa county. That committee was in- 
structed to inquire into the whole subject, and 
to propose a method for redressing the evils 
that oppress us. They held serious delibera- 
tions; at first without being in complete unison, 
latterly reaching an understanding to justify a 
report in the convention. 

Resolved, That it is the opinion ot the majority of 
your committee that the fruit-growers should organ 
ize a corporation confiding the management of their 
fruit for Eastern shipment to a duly qualified board 
of directors of the said corporation for the protec- 
tion of their mutual interest and the disposal of their 
produce. 

Resolved, That the capital stock of said corpora 
tion shall be $250,000, represented by 250,000 shares 
of $1 each, and that the fruit-growers shall have the 
privilege of subscriptions at the rate ot one share of 
stock for each acre of bearing orchard and vineyard 
of shipping grapes, the same to be an operative cap- 
ital fund for mutual protection purposes. 

That report was taken in hand by the con- 
vention; it was deliberate upon, discussed in 
all aspects, through one entire day, and then, 
after further discussion on the second day, was 
finally unanimously adopted, and the same com- 
mittee were directed to take charge of the busi- 
ness of working up the details of co-operative 
union or corporation, and generally putting it 
into effective motion. I did not know at the 
time when that committee was appointed, how 
much was in store for the members of it in the 
way of solid work, but in the six weeks that en 
sued from the date of the first convention to the 
holding of the second, I had a realizing sense 
of it. We, however, did what we could, in the 
crude condition of things. I say crude, because 
an interest so vast and widespread as the Cali- 
fornia fruitgrowers' interest is necessarily 
crude until it is organized. We did 
what we could, however, and, returning 
to the convention, we reported a plan ; 
that plan was objectionable in many re- 
spects to various of the localities of northern 
California, because they had then conceived 
local ideas from local preferences. Lot us not 
say prejudices, but preferences, and prefer- 
ences, perhaps, well founded in many instances. 
However, after long discussion and some modi- 
fications, all the interests were harmonized, 
and a general agreement was reached, and it 
gave birth to the 

California Fruit Union, 
A corporation which I now represent, and to 
which I now call your attention. I may say 
before going further, that in the incorporation 
of this Fruit Union, the capital was considered 
by the committee as advisable to be restricted 
to the acreage of orchard now existing in the 
State — at first the bearing orchard; afterwards 
they opened it to all orchards, without distinc- 
tion. It was the opinion of the committee, 
from the best information procurable, that 100,- 
000 acres would cover the entire area, and it is 
still their opinion. For that reason they rec- 
ommend a capital of 100,000 shares, or |1C0,- 
000. It was held by the committee that that 
was sufficient. It was held by the committee 
that in all probability not that entire amount 
could or would be subscribed; but, that as a 
maximum ainount, it was sufficient to start 
with, or rather to place as a maximum limit. 
The convention thought otherwise, and in the 
desire to give the complete latitude, and to 
provide for the future increase of acreage, they, 
by resolution, increased the capital stock to the 
amount of *250,000 or 250,000 shares. Of 
course, the committee were perfectly willing to 
accept that amendment, inasmuch as it 
involves nothing as to the amouDt of 
stock that should be issued, that beiug 
limited by the acreage, and it is still 
the opinion of the committee that the capital, 
which is now spoken of as $250,000, will practi- 
cally, under the operation of this scheme, fall 
considerably within §100,000. Now the whole 
theory and motive power of this scheme has 
always been, and is to-day, "co-operation;'' we 
make a corporation because the law defines that 
we must, but the idea is co-operation, a "co- 
operative union" of the fruit-growers, which 
they themselves Bhall olficer and shall control, 
and for their sole benefit and profit. Be there 
little or much profit, it is for the fruit growers, 
and in that sense we feel that we are justified 
in laying a very considerable stress. 

Perhaps, in order to give you a clear under- 
Standing, 1 had better read to you the article3 
of incorporation and by-laws. [Mr. Livermore 
read the articles of incorporation, also the by- 
laws as adopted Wednesday, November 11th, 
1885, and as published in the Rural Press in 
the issue of November 14th.] 

The by laws provide for nine trustees, but it 
is competent for the stockholders, when they 
finally adopt by-laws, to increase the trustees 
to 1 1, and it probably will be done to satisfy 
any territory requiring additional representa- 
tion, and to create a local Board wherever nec- 
essary. 

You will notice that the stockholder is in all 
cases associated with, and identified with, pro- 
ducing acres. Our original plan of estimating 
acreage for representation was to restrict it to 
orchard and to shipping grapes, but as we got 
into the subject we found that small fruits were 
very likely to call for a standing in connection 
with out transportation, particularly if the now 
probable feasibility of the cold storage car were 



ably would, be devoted to vegetable culture for 
E istern shipment wouW be very large; and for 
the additional reason that the vegetable ship- 
ments are a matter of great help to us in early 
shipments, it was included, so that, as the cor- 
poration now stands, the privilege of being 
stockholders was given to the cultivators of 
small fruits and of vegetables for Eastern ship- 
ment. I have thus read what constituted the 
articles of incorporation and the by laws of the 
California Fruit Union, as considered in the 
committee's report to that convention. There 
were, however, two or three points, not placed 
in the by laws, which they gave to the conven- 
tion in the form of recommendations, that have 
not yet been incorporated into the by laws, 
and may or may not be, according to the ideas 
of the majority of the stockholders. I will 
read from the report those recommendations, 
so that you may then have the whole thing as 
it is likely to stand. [Rsads recommendations 
of committee.] 

Now I will call your attention to the fact 
that, first, this is a Union restricted to produc- 
ers; second, that the ownership in it is propor- 
tioned by acres to the interest in the fruit pro 
duced; third, that the ownership of stock is 
treated as a merely nominal matter; that it is 
not desired to make it a profit-paying stack — to 
make it a stock that could or would bs sought 
for as a profitable investment, but simply giv- 
ing to it an interest barely compensating the 
capital invested, and letting the bulk of the 
profit go to the parties who produce the fruit in 
the proportion that they shall furnish such 
fruit. Now, I think this corporation, put into 
effective practice, is "boiled-down CO opera- 
tion," if I know what it means. The business 
is done by the producers themselves, in their 
own behalf, and the profit divided among 
themselves. The theory in the management 
of the practical business details, when we come 
to them, will be that the Union, in handling 
its business, shall receive from the parties who 
deal with it, or who ship fruit, the aame rates 
of commission that are now received by commis- 
sion merchants, or that are paid by producers 
in the various channels where they now dispose 
of their produce, and that the Union will then 
proceed to handle those goods on the most eco- 
nomical basis possible, and whatever surplus is 
left after paying necessary expenses will come 
back to the stockholders, or to fruit producers, 
which is the other name for stockholders, 
in proportion to their shipments, less the 
six per cent interest on the stock and the 
two per cent reserve. Now for a clear un- 
derstanding of the question of fruit ship- 
ments. It is perhaps proper that I should 
read to you what they have been dur- 
ing 1885 to October 1st. In the reportsthat have 
been compiled the committee have embDdied 
the entire shipments of all fruits; but I will not 
weary you with the details, suffice it to say that 
the shipment of green deciduous fruits, classi- 
fied distinctly from the citrus fruits, have 
been, for the year 1885 up to October 1st, 1025 
carloads, almost exclusively from the North; 
only 86 carloads have gone from Los Angeles. 
I can now make a similar report on the citrus 
fruits. These reports have been made in 
pounds, I have reduced them to carloads: Sin 
Francisco shipped 1 car, Los Angeles 1119 cars, 
Sacramento 1 car; there have been minor 
quantities shipped from Marysville, Stockton 
and Oakland, but those are immaterial. The 
grand total of the shipment of oranges is 1 1 2 1 
cars. These have been distributed to the fol- 
lowing points: Denver, 72 cars; Pueblo, 7 
cars; Omaha, 02 cars; Lincoln, Neb., 28 cars; 
other points in Nebraska, 2 cars: Atchison, 26 
cars; Leavenworth, 11 cars; Topeka and other 
cities in Kansas, 15 cars; Council Bluffs, 6 cars; 
Das Moines, 3 cars; Davenport, Dubuque and 
other points in Iowa, 51 cars; Kansas City, 120 
cars; St. Joseph, 58 cars; St. LouiB, 68 cars; 
other cities of Missouri, 2 cars; San Antonio, 
Texas, 12 cars; (iilveston and Houston, 9 cars; 
Austin, Dallas and other points in Texas, 12 
cars; New Orleans, 5 cars; Louisville, 3 cars; 
Cincinnati, 28 cars; Cleveland, Toledo and 
other cities in Ohio, 59 cars; Chicago, 246 cars; 
Peoria, Rock Island and other cities in Illinois, 
15 cars; Detroit, 9 cars; other cities in Michi 
gan, 3 cars; Indianapolis, 19 cars; Terre Haute, 
Evansville and other cities in Indiana, 15 cars; 
Milwaukee, 25 cars; St. Paul and Minneapolis, 
115 cars; New York, 2 cars; Boston, 1 car; 
Philadelphia 1 car, other Atlantic cities 1 
car. Now, I consider that table to be instruct- 
ive to the shippers of citrus fruits, as it indi- 
cates that, except at second hands, through 
Chicago, the great Atlantic seaboard, with its 
vast consuming population, has not even been 
broached. It indicates that Chicago is what 1 
have heard a fruit-grower very aptly term it, 
"the dumping point for the fruit of California," 
and it frequently is that, in a financial sense. 
Now, too much fruit goes in that direction, and 
vastly too little to the markets of the Eastern 
seaboard. Well, perhaps that has been inev- 
itable under the existing condition of things; 
perhaps it has not been possible to reach the 
Eastern seaboard; we feel, with reference to 
the deciduous fruits of the North, which here- 
tofore have been shipped only by passenger 
trains, that it really is so, and that, until we 
get special fruit trains and the consequent re- 
ductions of freights which only can come by 
special fruit trains, those far Eastern markets 
cannot be reached. Still it is evident, from the 
foregoing statement, as it is also evident from 
the statement of green fruit shipments, that 



demonstrated, and the vegetable transportation j the Eastern markets have not been developed 
would enter very largely into the question, and at all in proportion to the development of our 
that the acreage that could, should and prob- ' capacity to produce fruit, and that if we are 



to go on and produce fruit with the new acre- 
age which stands behind us, coming along to 
contest the markets with us, to crowd us down 
into a condiiion of absolute loss, we have a 
great deal to do to develop not only the markets 
tnat are partially occupied, but the markets 
that are comparatively unoccupied. Now I 
think the great necessity of united action in an 
endeavor to reach and develop those markets, 
cannot be denied, and that it needs imme- 
diate organization of all in interest. It 
does not do for one locality to say, as 
did our neighbors on the Central Pacific in 
Placer county, "We have exceptional facili- 
ties; we have choice mountain fruit. It is of 
high repute in the East, where it has the pref- 
erence. We are at a very favorable shipping 
point, and we can get along. We make up our 
local co-operative organizations and we are get 
ting along nicely." That is what they did say, 
and one town made a co operative organization, 
and another followed, and before the shipping 
season was over they had five eo-operative or- 
ganizations, and the competition between those 
local shipping organizations was just as marked, 
and jutt as capable of paying Irish dividends, 
as if it had been individuals, and the result is, 
those gentlemen have candidly said, We must 
take shelter under the wings of the general 
State organization, and they have done it. 
Now, there are considerations peculiar to every 
locality, and yet it seems to me, that conceding 
every claim that any locality may make, it will 
fare better in a general State Union, in the 
great congregation, with such a corporation as 
we have proposed, than if it were standing by 
itself, each locality by itself. I can see very 
clearly that, in some Bense, there haa been too 
much of the stay-at-home principle among all 
the fruit-growers of this State, and, not to be 
misunderstood, I will explain to you what I 
mean by that. I do not think the bulk of the 
fruit-growers of California know what has been 
done and what is being done all over the State, 
in the way of multiplying means of producing 
fruit. I do not think the fruit men to-day 
know what stands behind them in the way of 
certain competition from the produce of other 
and new localities. I don't think they appre- 
ciate what we have got to handle, so as 
to shape our markets. Now, to day's market 
may be satisfactory to a shipper in one locality, 
and next year's market may be an entirely dif- 
ferent thing, because his neighbor, who has 
heretofore been a non producer, may wheel 
into line as a producer, and push along to the 
front and divide the market. It looks to me as 
if you have got to consider and provide against 
that very thing. The special matter that is to 
be considered here, at this meeting, is the desir- 
ability of a corporation like this, in connection 
with the interests of this locality, and I ask 
your a tention to a number of points that bare 
upon that matter. I suppose that everybody in 
Southern California, interested in citrus fruits, 
has heard of the place called Florida, and 
that there is a production of frait there of 
the same class as produced by yon here, and 
perhaps, in a measure, with identical inter- 
ests. Those producers of fruits are far 
nearer to a market than we are of the far West, 
and far less burdened with difficulties of getting 
to a market, it is true that, in a great degree, 
they do not come to market at the same time 
that your producers do, but they are an element 
of compe ition with you, in certain seasons, and 
a class of difficulties that assail your interests 
are nearly identical with the difficulties that 
they have had, although their difficulties are 
in a very much less degree. Now I have here 
a circular which sets forth a prospectus of what 
is called the Florida Fruit Exchange. It is an 
organization that is gotten up by the citrus 
fruit producers in Florida, to protsct them- 
selves from the difficulties that are al- 
most identical with those you have here. 
[Reading from a prospectus.] Then fol- 
lows the plan of the exchange which 
shows that it is proposed to handle all 
the fruits from the State under one general 
business organization, having its headquarters 
at Jacksonville, Florida, having a board of 
directors, nine in number, and having the 
business details intrusted to one general man- 
ager, also located at Jacksonville. Now, that 
is a brief outline of what arrangement the fruit- 
producers and shippers of Florida have been 
oompelled to adopt under the condition of 
things that is not certainly as serious as that 
which exists here. I may remark that they 
have no such difficulty with their freights, and 
tbey have really far better facilities of market- 
ing than you Southern California producers, 
and I do not think it admita of any argument 
that what has been necessary in their case is 
equally necessary with you. Perhaps I have 
wasted your time unnecessarily in elaborating 
that point, because it will be readily admitted 
by all of you that the necessity exists for some 
form of union or organization that will 
straighten these questions and redress your 
grievances. Now, I will take one step further 
in that same direction, as illustrating the prac- 
tical operation of such an organization as that 
just formed in Florida. I have here the in- 
structions that are given by the Florida Fruit 
Exchange for the regulation of shipments, 
showing somewhat more of the details of their 
proposed operation. There is much of it that 
you will think is mere detail, but I do think 
that some of the facts that are enlarged upon, 
as to the necessity of care and selection and 
uniformity of packing and scrupulous pains- 
taking for the good repute of fruit, ought to 
come home to us in Cahfornia. I hold that one 
(Continued on Page 36.) 



Jan. 9, 1886.] 



f ACIFI6 f^URAlo fRESS. 



CALIFORNIA WIRE WORKS, 

No. 329 STREET, SAX FRANCISCO, CAL., 

REGULARLY LICENSED MANUFACTURERS OF 




"WIRE. 



WIRE. 




Trade Mark 



$^*ASK YOUR STOREKEEPER FOR 
Bright, Galvanized, Telegraph, Baling, 

Annealed, Tinned, Telephone, Furniture, 

Coppered, Lacquered, Fence, Spring. 

WIRE NETTING, WIRE ROPE, WIRE CLOTH, WIRE GUARDS, WIRE STAPLES 

GOPHER TRAPS, BIRD CAGES, RAT TRAPS, SQUIRREL CAGES. 

WROUGHT IRON RAILINGS, FENCES. CRESTINGS, GATES of Fancy Designs, and WIRE GOODS of all kinds. 



TULARE LANDS 

AT AUCTION. 

The Pacific Coast Land Bureau, 

Easton & Eldridge, Auctioneers, 

Will offer at Auction a large quantity of low- 
priced lands in the Artesian Belt, at their 
Salesrooms, 22 Montgomery street, San Fran- 
cisco, on 

TUESDAY, JANUARY 12th, 

At 12 o'clock M. 



TERMS— One half cash; balance at 8 per 
cent per annum. 

<2TFor further particulars, Catalogues and 
Maps, apply or address 

PACIFIC COAST LAND BUREAU, 

AND 

WALTER TURNBULL, 
22 Montgomery Street, San Francisco. 

GREGORY'S 

Spraying Pump. 




The above represents the onlv Pump which has been 
adopted by the State Horticultural Soeietj'. It is of 
California manufacture and entirely different intern- 
ally from a light Eastern Pump which resembles it very 
closely externally. The GREGORY Pump is the only 
one which will stand the corrosive action of the alkalies 
in the various insecticide mixtures. 

H. P. GREGORY & CO., 
2 and 4 California St., San Francisco. 



COMMERCIAL HOTEL, 

A. St J. HAHN, Prop'rs, 
Nob. 273, 276 , 277 and 279 Main Street, Stockton, Cal. 
Bates, $1.85 to $2 Per Day. 
Stage offices for Collegeville and Oakdale, Roberts and 
Union Islands, and Lane's Mineral Springs stages. The 
most desirable location in the city. Refurnished and refit 
ted in the best stvle for the accommodation nf the public 
Free coach from all trains and steamboats to the hotel. 

Splendid- Lat.st sty'e chromo cards, name, 10c. Pre 
mium with 3 packs. F. H. PARDEE, New Haven, Ct. 



PURE SWEET CREAM. MORE CREAM. BETTER BUTTER. 



GREATEST 



DAIRY 



IMPROVEMENT 



Of the Aee. 




DAIRYMEN 



Lose Money 



EVERY DAY 



m SETTING MILK 



De Laval CREAM SEPARATOR. 

1000 in Successful operation in the United States. Over 25 on the Pacific Coast, 

And all giving unbounded satisfaction. Our customers write: "Decided increase in yield of butter;" "Butter 
brings over the highest market quotations;" "Separator pays for itself over and over again;" "Great saving of 
labor;" "Needed m every dairy of twenty cons;" "If we had to go back to setting milk we would give up dairying," 
etc. Come and visit several Separators in operation near this city, or send for information where they are used in 
your vicinity. Don't neglect to send for descriptive circulars at onco of this anil other Latent Improved Dairy Ap- 
pliances for which we are headquarter*. 

G. G. WfCKSON & CO., REMOVED to 38 California St., San Francisco. 



ESTABLISHED 1852. 



WILLIAM P. MILLER 



Stocltton, Cal., 




Carriage Manufacturer. 

Make to order and always have on hand a good assortment to select from. Make the Cele- 
brated DEXTER SPRING BUGGY, Several Styles of CARTS. Also sell : 

HARNESS, WHIPS, ROBES, 

And CARRIAGE MATERIALS, WHEELS, Etc. 

/tySend for Catalogue and Prices.'SS 



FRESNO LAND 

At $10.00 per Acre. 

For a short t'me only new settlers can now obtain the 
choice of selection from the finest land in Fresno County 
for Fruit Raising or General Farming purposes. 

WATER ON THE LAND. 

Examine this land and convince yourself that it is the 
finest in the county. Just think of it, a farm of 20 acres 
for $200, with the prospect of a railroad passing through 
the land. Any of the following parties will direct you to 
the land; Louis Einstein & Co , Fresno City; A. Bariear, 
Selma, Fresno county; P. D. Jones, Wildflower, Fresno 
county; William Peaks, Kingsburg, Fresno county. 

For terms and full particulars address or t-ll on 
H. MATTHEWS, 
61 1 Clay St.. San Francisco. 

Or JAMES COTTLE, care of Louis Einstein & Co., 
Fresno City, Cal. 



SUPERVISORS AND ROAD OVERSEERS 

Please notice that 

The "Boss" Road Grader 

Is the best in use in the United States. Was victorious 
in 33 trials in 1884. Took first premium in 68 Fairs, in 
every instance, except three, where an award was given. 
Send for terms and circulars to 

D. W. MCLEOD, Ag't for Pacific Coast, 

Riverside, Cal. 



Send name and address 
for Sample Package 
of Rieger's powdered 
Bath Brick, for cleaning 
knives, forks, kitchen 
ware, tables, etc. For 
sale by Grocers, 5 and 
10 cents per package. 

P. Rieger & Co. 
5 1 1 Front Street, S. F 

BADGES FOR ALL SOCIETIES, 

Police, firemen, etc., presentation prizes or 
charms, in gold, silver, or metal, sold at society 
prices hy the agents of the Universal Badge 
Manufacturing Co., NATHAN JOSEPH & CO., 
641 Clay St. Workmen and K. of P. badges in 
gold, $1 each, sent C. 0. D. Trade supplied. 



tdlicatiopal. 



WASHINGTON COLLEGE. 



For Ladies and Gentlemen. 



Full Course of Instruction in Classics, 
Science, Literature, Vocal and Instru- 
mental Music and Business. 

BUSINESS COURSE^Book-keeping, Banking, Ship- 
ping, Wholesale and Retail, Commission, Railroading, 
and Telegraphy. 

Full Set of Offices and Desks for Actual 
Business Transactions. 

Two Large Buildings; one for boys and one for girls. 
In the country, 33 miles from San Francisco and 14 miles 
from San Jose, on San Jose branch of the C. P. R. R. 

Location healthy and free from vices and temptations 
of city life. Faculty enthusiastic. 

All ages admitted and instructed in manners and 
morals, Primary, Preparatory, Academic and Business 
Departments. 

Regular hours of study of evenings, under the direc 
supervision of teachers, preventing running out of even- 
ings and promoting the formation of good habits. 
Terms reasonable. For further information, address 
I. H. McCOLLOUGH, President, 

Irving, Alameda Co., Cal. 

LITTON SPRINGS COLLEGE 

Sonoma County, Cal. 

This institution has the advantages of country location 
and of entire exemption from the temptations incident 
to cities and towns. The climate is fine and the build- 
ings are large and commodious. There are 800 acres of 
land, a dairy of 20 cows, and an orchard and vineyard, to 
which boys have access at all recesses. The drainage is 
perfect, and in the 15J years of its history the school has 
not lost a boy by death— the best testimony to the ex- 
cellence of sanitary conditions and to the care taken of 
boys' health. In the great universities of the East, the 
highest honors that have been gained by Californian 
students have been won by members of this school. 

JOHN GAMBLE, B. A.. Principal. 



Sacramento 




The Practical Business 
Training School of the Pa- 
cific Coast. Students in- 
structed in Actual Business 
Practice. Graduates assisted 
in obtaining employment. 
Cheapest board in the State. 
Send for Business College 
Journal. E. C. ATK1N- 



f *^S!f/SSlP SON, Principal. 
y — sffl t&/& tW\ n t ere xt Made 



SACRAMENTO, CAL. 



Easy, the shortest and most 
practical method, by mail, 
50 cents. 




jfll BUSINESS 
COLLEGE, 

24 Post St. S. F. 

Send for Circular. 



KNABC 

PIANOFORTES. 

UNEQUALLED IN 

Tone Touch Workmanship and Durability. 

Wll.I.I.nf K\ABE -t CO. 

Nos. 204 and 206 West Baltimore Street, Baltimore. 
No. 112 Fifth Avenue, New York. 



EDENIC DIET. 



} What it is 

r a - 

1 the change 



pages. Si-nd 25 cents to I. B. & SAKA 
391, Oakland, Alameda Co., Cal. 



Reasons for 
adopt : ng it. How to make 
Recipes, 32 
UMKORD, Box 



36 



fACIFie F\MJ 



RAId p>RESS. 



[Jan. 9, 1886 



Fruit Growers in Council. 

(Continued from Page 34.) 

of the first duties that should devolve upon the 
Frait Union in California ought to be to incul- 
cate the idea that each and every producer, of 
whatever veriety of fruit, should work to raise 
the standard of repute of California fruit, 
either deciduous, citrus, or whatever it may 
be. Our reputation in the Eastern markets de- 
pends upon united action in that respect; more 
depends upon that than you think, and fruit- 
producers and the handlers of produce gener- 
ally are not sufficiently alive to it. 

Railroad Rates. 
The fast transportation heretofore of green 
fruits has been limited to passenger trains, 
with a charge of $0 a car, subject to all the 
vicissitudes of the overland passenger and ex 
press trains, which was held not to be the best 
class of transportation, even were the rates 
thereon very much reduced. In seeking a so- 
lution of that question, the committee thought 
the best policy was to go immediately to head- 
quarters, and seek an interview with President 
Leland Stanford, of the Southern Pacific Com- 
pany, because all the elements of transpor- 
tation from this locality are controlled by Mr. 
Stanford's corporations. We sent him an in- 
vitation to meet us. lie responded by meeting 
us in our offices, and he answered all questions 
we put to him, and volunteered a great many 
suggestions. The one controlling idea, in all 
ne said, and he went out of his way to elabor- 
ate that, was that fruit men could not expect 
any better results from their interest as long as 
they handled it in the unbusinesslike way that 
they were doing. He said: "Gentlemen, or- 
ganize your business, make a business basis, so 
that the transportation companies can make, 
some calculations and predicate something on 
it, and we then can give you what you need." 
He said further, "As to any increased facilities 
or decreased rates on passenger trains, that is 
out of ihe question. Our passenger trains are 
already overloaded, so that we seek rather to 
increase the rates and decrease the burden of 
business. The only way out of the difficulty 
is a special fruit train, and, when you come to 
consider a special fruit train, we need to have 
an organized body with whom we can negotiate 
that will assure us a load for those trains. 
You may think it is an easy matter for 
us to put on these trains, and say 
'here are your cars, load them up,' but 
the result, if we should do that, would be we 
would have twice the load we could carry one 
day and nothing the next day, so that it is en- 
tirely out of the question. However, 1 will 
promise you that if you organize your interests, 
and if you present yourself to us in such a shape 
that you can specifically contract for a freight 
train of 15 cars per day, or every other day, as 
the case may be, you shall have that train for 
8300 per car — on a fast schedule time. It shall 
be a train with all the improved appliances for 
the safe transportation of fruit, the cars shall 
not be fitted with the ordinary freight plat- 
form, but they shall have the Miller plat- 
form, to take the shock off the stoppages, 
and the train shall be run on a fast schedule 
time, not stopping at way stations except 
for coal and water. By that means, being in 
motion all the time, it will keep up a cir- 
culation of air that will be far better for the 
fruit, and you may be sure that the delivery of 
the fruit will be better than it can possibly be 
by the present system of passenger trains. 
And, further, in response to a specific inquiry, 
he said he would give us the same special fa- 
cility of the slow freight train, with a specific 
time table, which might be nearly as fast as the 
special fruit train at times, and at other times 
not so fast, at $200 a car, and that, having con 
tracted for them, the trains were in our control. 
We could load them as we pleased, and that, in 
order to avoid my features of monopoly that 
might be alleged against them, if anybody else 
wanted a train they could have it, too, the idea 
being that a "special fruit train" is a matter 
that would have to be arranged by contract. 
Further than that he said: "We believe in the 
fruit interest of California as the great interest 
of the State, if properly organized ana devel- 
oped. We believe that it can be developed so 
as to overshadow every other every other in- 
terest of the State, and to be proportionately 
freight producing for us, and, in that view, we 
want to do everything we can to encourage it; 
we cannot encourage it as it is, because there 
is nothing specific that we can encourage; but, 
when organized and put on a business like 
basis, you will find that you can have anything 
that business like reason calls for. If $300 a 
car, on fast time, does not enable you to dis- 
pose of your fruits, does not enable you to fill 
the Eastern markets and to feed these 50,000,- 
000 that want your fruit, we shall know what 
to do." Now, it seems to me, therefore, that 
the transportation question is solved, just 
as soon as we can get together in a co- 
operative organization. Now we have 
nothing further to urge in that connection, we 
think that it might safely be left to the com- 
mon sense of the fruit producers of California, 
whether they will avail themselves of such fa- 
cilities and advantages or not, for the only 
thing that they are called upon to do to secure 
them is to 

Unite in an Organization, 
Which practically costa them so little. Still 
further, there may be said to be other consider - 
ons connected with the transportation ques- 
tion that may be counted on to materially in- 



crease the direct advantages in special fruit 
train transportation. Thus, when damage is 
met that is not the fault of the shipper, and 
does not come by the act of God or the stress 
of elements, it is very apparent that, in hand- 
ling all such matters, we can get a great deal 
better satisfaction and more considerate treat- 
ment, as an organization, than we can get as 
individuals. I think it is apparent, too, that 
the stronger organization we have, the better 
fruit producers will fare. This may truly be 
said as to the power cf united organization. 
Something has been said here as to the need of 
legislation for protection against insect pests. 
Now, suppose any one locality wants legisla- 
tion, goes to the legislature and asks it, or goes 
to congress. You will go home feeling that 
you have been insulted all the time by the way 
you have been treated; but if a demand comes 
from the united fruit-growers of California— 
not less than 10,000 in number, as they prob- 
ably are now— if it is put into proper, legiti- 
mate shape, with the suggestion that there is 
an organization behind it, my impression is 
that you will get a very speedy and favorable 
response. I think that in all questions of leg- 
islation, of dealing with transportation compan- 
ies, of local good government, of taxes, 
of assessment of your property, the time 
has come to say that the fruit pro- 
ducers of California are going to organ- 
ize to protect themselves, and that they know 
what power lies in a united organization, and 
that they mean, within the bounds of reason, 
to avail themselves of that power, and to exer- 
cise it; I say that is a perfectly legitimate thing 
to do, I say that the individual fruit growei 
would be neglectful of his interests if he did 
not so do. There is a whole mass of questions 
lying behind those I have mentioned which 
would suggest themselves to any intelligent 
thinker, and which would receive a favorable 
answer at the bands of a united organized 
power far better than by individual action. 
The question discussed this forenoon, of cheap 
and uniform packing can be easily solved when 
all act together. Nobody need be hurt, but 
equal rights to all can be secured in a very lit- 
tle time under an organization. 

Now, much has been said here as to local dis- 
tinctions that procure, as to the different sea- 
sons in your particular locality for fruit ship- 
ment, as to the necessity, in short, of a local 
organization to adequately represent your inter- 
ests. I am not surprised at it, but I candidly 
think that the propositions are not based upon 
solid reason; you commence to ship your oranges, 
as I understand it, in January and you ship till 
May. If you have a local organization you 
have got to take care of that organization, you 
have got to take care of its officers for the 
whole year to secure their services for those 
four months. In the first place, as I under- 
stand it, all propositions that have been ad- 
vanced for a local organization necessarily call 
for a very much larger capital than you would 
need to contribute to a general State organiza- 
tion; inasmuch as you have got to create dupli- 
cate facilities and carry duplicate capital; you 
have got to carry substantially for the entire 
year the officers and the official machinery for 
the business of four months of the year that 
might just as well serve you for four months, 
and serve the rest of the State for the other 
months. My business experience divides this 
proposition into this shape. Suppose the or 
ganization enlists the confidence of the whole 
State, and suppose it goes immediately to work: 
the first thing to engage it would be the hand- 
ling of the citrus fruits, and in a couple of 
months, I understand, your shipments will be 
sufficient to load special trains, and the con- 
templated arrangement would give you the ad- 
vantages of the Southern or Northern route as 
you might prefer, and, if you have an insuffi- 
ciency of fruit you can, by joining with the de- 
ciduous fiuit shipments of Northern California 
make up your quota of the special trains. 
Later in the Beason, when the weather is warm, 
you, for obvious reasons would prefer the 
cooler route, and probably would avail your- 
selves of the Northern route, and, later still, 
when the bulk of your crop is shipped, and you 
could no*, yourselves make up a train, you 
would be very glad to join in making up a train 
with the deciduous fruits of the North, so I 
think you would decidedly profit in that regard. 
The organization, the officers, and the business 
machinery of the Union, after handling your 
business for those months could then immedi- 
ately proceed to attend to other profitable busi- 
ness, in other sections. From the months of 
May to October, and sometimes into November, 
they could be working on the deciduous fruit 
shipments of the North, and earning profits, so 
that the persons necessary to conduct your 
business, as a local distinct shipping business in 
its proper season would really be no burden to 
you in those months, but would do other busi- 
ness than yours and earn supporting profits. 
There would be two months in the year, per- 
haps, when there would be neither business 
from the South or the North, and, in my judg- 
ment, that would be far less time than is desir- 
able, and could be usefully used in the study 
and development of the Kistern markets. 

Now whatever you may say, however you 
may view the fruit marketing proposition, it 
eventually comes down to the consumer ; you 
can't get your money for fruit unless somebody 
takes it to you. After you organize your busi- 
ness so that you can make up the special trains 
to get the fruit to the consumer on these re- 
duced rates of freight, which we all concede 
will be reasonable and justify good expectation 
for the future, the question is, Where is the con- 



sumer ? It looks to me that a very consider- 
able amount of work has got to be done in the 
Fast, to make the consumption adequate to 
the supply of California fruit, for my judgment 
is that the fruit production in California is nat- 
urally increasing more largely than the con- 
sumption in the Fast, that is, if left to work it- 
self out. Now we have got to set to work in 
the Fast, and we have got to put men there to 
work out the details of the business throughout 
the year as we ship. Now you start your cars 
when you think they are in good order, and 
you trust Providence that they may get through 
in good order and find profitable sale. Some of 
you have had occasion to notice when you get 
your account sales that they are reported to 
have come in other than in good order, and to 
feel as you would like to know of your own 
knowledge whether that was really the case or 
not. Well, that may have been an unfounded 
feeling, and nevertheless a proper organization 
with its reliable Eastern agents should be made 
to see to all those things in the East, and to 
enable you to know for a certainty that the 
management of the cars and the train* will be 
such that they can be inspected, in proper 
form, before arriving at the destination and 
being unloaded, and to know what the condition 
of the fruit is, and to report accordingly, and, 
in the meantime, all who are employed 
in the corporation, as such Eastern agents, can 
be working up those Eastern markets. Now, 
in the course of the work that I have done in 
connection with the California Fruit Union, as 
secretary, I have been receiving a great many 
letters — you would be astonished to see how 
many, bearing upon the proposition of the de- 
velopment of the Eastern markets from men 
here and Eaet, who hear of this fruit producers' 
movement, and who are familiar with the East- 
ern markets. They all agree that nothing less 
than a fully equipped and continuously work- 
ing organization can do justice to the subject 
of marketing California fruit. You may locally 
be able to solve the question of transportation 
for a portion of the year, but if you do you will 
do it under far greater difficulties than you can 
under the management of a general State 
Union, and you will do it in comparative dis 
regard of the development of Eastern market;. 

I think I have already alluded to the rela- 
tion of your shipping for certain mouths to 
northern shipments, but I may repeat that your 
earliett summer shipments, in the judgment of 
those of your largest producers wi h whom I 
have conversed, would stand far better as tak- 
ing part in the shipments of the "special fruit 
trains" by the Northern rout?, with the early 
northern fruits than they can by themselves on 
your southern route, and that is so important 
a consideration that it should not be lost sight 
of. 8 

I have already suggested the comparison be- 
tween the effective work to be accomplished by 
the general organization with that of the local 
organization. I will recur to that topic to say 
that the work of the general organization, will 
be continuously for eight months in the year, in 
shipping, and for the other four months in the 
development of markets, working up 
statistical information and doing vari- 
ous other things that are of great 
importance to your interests, although you may 
consider them secondary to the actual shipping. 
Now, I do not think they are secondary; I 
think that if nothing else could be accom- 
plished by such an organization as is proposed 
than the statistical districting of this State as 
to its products, knowing who the producer is, 
where he is, and what he produces, when it is 
coming into bearing, and when he will be ready 
to ship, and generally all such information 
that that alone would this year or the next year 
be cheap to any and all producers at the cost of 
the subscription to this Union; and back of all 
that is the information as to the Eastern mar- 
kets, and the two together would be far more 
than equivalent to anything you would have to 
pay for it. I would point out again that the 
whole idea and theory of this Union is that 
each fruit-grower contribu es a dollar an acre 
for a certain class of benefits, be they more or 
less, and that such contribution is represented 
by the profit-paying stock. But, taking the 
worst view, and supposing that the money 
were given away, I do not think that any of 
you should hesitate one moment if you were 
approached by a competent, reliable man, who 
should offer to you just these advantages, for a 
fee of one dollar an acre, to be absolutely paid 
out by you. I think you would consider it 
cheap. 

Now, I have heard inquiry as to responsi 
bility on the subscription of stock. The re- 
sponsibility is solely this : Our law provided 
that the liability in subscribing to and taking 
stock in a corporation shall not exceed the pro- 
portion of the amount of the capital stock that 
is subscribed in the corporation. A party 
taking §10 in stock may lose his Btock and $10 
more in it as the utmost. If there be any 
bugbear in that it is very slight in propor- 
tion to the interest and benefits involved. 
There is another feature of your situation here 
that I do not think is sufficiently presented as 
to your local interests. You probably all know 
that you have a large acreage in other than cit- 
rus fruits in these southern counties; that, in 
the next two or three years, you will be large 
producers of peaches, apricots and pears, and 
some other varieties. The tendency, as I see 
here from year to year, is to increase your area 
of deciduous fruits. Now, it may be said that 
there is a large portion of those that are planted 
with reference to drying, but the fact still re- 
mains that it is very desirable to have the op- 



portunity to ship them as green fruits, and it 
is held by those conversant with the subject 
that all those fruits may go East and find 
a ready market under proper conditions. 
Here, as over the rest of the State, we 
have not yet began to appreciate what 
may be done in the shipment of apples, 
or to establish any proper system of shipment. 
Perhaps, in some cases, under "the advantages 
of the cold storage car that is now being offered 
to shippers at the moderate rate of a quarter of 
a cent a pound, we may reach many markets 
we do not now dream of with perishable fruits, 
so that it is not a proper view of the case to 
restrict your ideas and conclusions solely to 
citrus fruits. I hear much, locally, as to the 
various districts here, with reference to the 
supposed preference in the quality of produc- 
tion of each location. My idea in reference to 
that is that the whole thing comes down to one 
common fact, and that is the Eastern market. 
It is not what you say, or do, or think, here. 
It is the Eastern market, the consuming ele- 
ment, that controls. Now the man that pro- 
duces, in any given locality, a better fruit than 
his neighbor will get the benefit of it; his brand 
gives it a value, and it consequently stands by 
itself and sells upon its merit, and be gets the 
benefit of it. It may be well said that it is de- 
sirable for every producer of California fruit, as 
you saw so strongly stated in the Florida ship- 
ping directions, by every means in his power to 
raise the standard of California fruits as a 
class, so that they may go forth with the very 
highest possible reputation. I do not think it 
answers for any one community to say we can 
take care of ourselves. If a man produces the 
very best of a product and his neighbor is send- 
ing to market an article just a little less excel- 
lent in character, it is sure to have an effect 
upon the price of the first, unless there is some 
regulation, some influence that equalizes the 
tendencies of competition. I have seen, in the 
six weeks that I spent going around in your 
various localities here, a number of instances 
among my friends, where they found out, after 
the evil was too late to remedy, that their 
neighbors had been doing them very serious 
damage in competing with them without being 
aware of it, without intending to do it, a thing 
that could not happen under proper organiza- 
tion. Nor do I thinu the fact that any region 
is better in quality of its produce than another 
justifies it in expecting to stand as well by 
itself, and distinct, as it can stand in a union 
such as is proposed. I think, of course, that 
such benefits may be secured by a local union: 
but, as I before said, at very much greater cost 
than a State Union. As to the status of Cali- 
fornia citrus fruits in the Eastern markets, it is 
evident that there needs be much work done 
upon them, and I think the stronger organiza- 
tion we have to do that work the better. It is 
an undeniable commercial fact that, although 
we did carry away many good prizes at the 
New Orleans exposition, the bulk of Eastern 
consumers give preference to the Florida or- 
anges, if both it and the California 
are in the market at the same time. 
Very fortunately for us they are not 
competing throughout the season, although 
they do compete to some extent? Now, 1 think 
work can usefully be done in doing away with 
that prejudice and upbuilding the general repu- 
tation in the East among the consumers of 
California oranges as such, and I think the 
work that should be so done would bear profit- 
able fruit in the organization sales, and in all 
that relates to California fruit. We must work 
for the highest possible reputation that can be 
achieved; we must woik here with the produc- 
ers to induce them to make tbeir product such 
as would entitle it to that repute, and to pack 
it in a way that would do justice to itself, and 
to send it to market in a way that it would 
arrive in such a condition that it will secure for 
it the first place as California fruit, and that is 
the work for a general organization. No local 
organization can do it, for the moment you 
submit it to a local organization yon act upon 
this idea. "Our market will take care of itself, 
and the rest of the State can take care of itself" 
— that is what it would come to. I have heard 
a good deal as to the best methods and neces- 
sary expenditures for freeing our trees of the 
insect pests, and I am impelled to ask of what 
value may they be, or the usefulness of any 
such expenditures made in that direction, if we 
do not settle the other proposition of what we 
can do with the fruit when we raise it, and, 
while that subject is very important, yet the 
market question is of paramount importance, 
and should be dealt with accordingly. 

Among the necessary and profitable results 
of such an organization as suggested, might be 
mentioned the development of the business 
in dry fruit. That is a business that 
may be largely developed under proper 
handling; for if you go on with your 
dried fruit shipments, without some efforts to 
prepare markets in advance, you will find you 
have overstocked the markets to such an extent 
that you will get little or nothing for them. 
Auother advantage that you would find to grow 
out of this organization would be the prompt 
handling of the question of reclamations. lam 
aware that certain classes of losses have been 
thrown entirely upon the shipper that, under 
proper regulations, could not have been thrown 
upon him, and I believe that, with a distinctive 
organization, with proper management, you will 
get benefits in that way. 

{To be Continued.) 

A project is on foot to establish a fruit can- 
nery in Martinez. 



Jan. 9, 1886.] 



fACIFie RURAId press. 



Trees! Trees!! 




WE CAN SUPPLY 



Fruit, 
Ornamental, 

and Shade 
TREES 

At Wholesale and Retail. 

Our Prices for Fruit Trees are as 
Low as the Lowest! 

While our Prices for Ornamental 
and Shade Trees are Lower 
than ever offered 
before. 

NURSERYMEN as well as GROWERS 

Will find it to their advantage to send for our 
Catalogue. We are not surrounded by Insect- 
riden orchards. 

WE WARRANT OUR STOCK FREE FROM 
ALL INSECT PESTS, AND SU- 
PERIOR TO ANY IN 
THE STATE. 

"He Adriatic' 

FIG! 

Do not be duped on the subject of this valu- 
able Fig. Our Mr. Milco was the man that 
named it, and the first to present it to the 
notice of fruit-growers in its ripe and dried 
condition. 

We grow and propagate the trees on a lavge 
scale, and are ready to fill all orders with the 
genuine article. Parties claiming to be intro- 
ducing this Fig, all got their first supply from 
us. 

Every Tree Sold by us Warranted Genuine! 

While we claim that our WHITE ADRI- 
ATIC FIG is the best Fig to plant for profit, 
we would not advise planters to plant but a few 
to start in with, to find out how the tree will 
do with them. This rule, however, applies 
only to localities where other Fig trees have 
not been a success. 

We shall be glad to answer any question on 
the subject, and we do not know of any person 
that is more competent to tell the growers what 
the Fig is than our Mr. Milco, who has intro 
duced the Fig, which is grown very extensively 
in his Dalmatian home on the Adriatic. 

NURSERY: 

ATWATER, MERCED CO.. CAL. 

Depot for the Sale of Trees and Principal 
Office of the 

Bnbach ProduciDg and M'f'g Co., 

STOCKTON, CAL. 



For Lease and for Sale, 

40,000 ACRES 

Of good land in Fresno, near the County 
Seat. Some of this land is already irri- 
gated, and all can be easily irrigated. It 
is adapted not only to Grain, but also to 
Alfalfa, Fruit and Vines. 

1000 ACRES 

Of the above land for sale at the low price 
of $20 tier acre. 

Apply to 

E. B. PERRIN, 
402 Kearny St., San Francisco. 



Mexican Colonization Co. 

(LIMITED.) 

506 Battery Street, San Francisco, Cal 



Lapds tor ?a!e apt) Jo Let, tuurejounty 



43TSend for Circulars and Testimonials givino full 
information. 

Cheap Lands, 
Fine Climate, 

Plenty of Water, 

Easy Terms, 

Regular Seasons. 

No Import or Export Duties, 

and No Taxes for 10 years. 



The ARTESIAN "FRUIT BELT COLONY," 

In the celebrated Paige & Morton Tract, two miles west 
of Tulare City, is now offered for sale in subdivisions of 
TWENTY ACRES and upwards. One-third cash, balance 
annual installments. Water rights go with each lot. 
j Land rich, black alluvial soil, equal to girden mould. 
Ready for immediate occupation and planting. Also 
lands improved with orchards, vineyards, and slfalfa 
in the same tract. Purchasers supplied with young trees 
and vines erown on the place at one-half ordinary prices. 
Also choice alfalfa lands, from $7.00 per acre upwards, in 
Artesian Belt. 

For maps and full particulars apply to PACIFIC 
COAST LAND BUREAU. 22 Montgomery Street, 
San Francisco, and WALTER TURNBULL, Tulare City, 
Tulare Countv, Cal. 



RARE BARGAIN 

FOR 

IMPROVED FARM IN FRESNO 
COUNTY. 

160 acres No. 1 Level Land, 120 acres wet, 7 acres 
Orchard, 17 of Alfalfa; plenty of wood and water. Near 
good school. Price, $3200, part on time. 
Also several other fine tracts, improved or unimproved. 
E. M. MORGAN, Real Estate Agent, 
Kingsburg, Fresno Co., Cal. 



In 12 Best Californian Counties. 



For descriptive price list of desirable Ranches, Farms, 
Vineyards and Californian Real Estate generally, apply 
to 

HENRY MEYRICK, Real Estate Exchange and Mart, 
Santa Cruz, Cal. 



ELSIRTOH.E. 

THE LAKE COLONY, 

Twenty miles south of Riverside, Southern California, 
has 400 residents, ninety improved farms, two townsites, 
two schools, pottery, mines of coal, fire-clay, gypsum, 
etc., etc. Fine hunting and scenery on lake and mount- 
ains. Healthful climate. Best of fruit and farm lands 
$25 to §60 per acre. Send for maps and circulars to 
GRAHAM & COLLIER, 

Pasadena, or Elslnore, Cal. 



$500 to $50,000. 

BARGAINS in ORCHARDS and VINEYARDS, STOCK 
and Grain Ranches in every County in the State. Send 
Stamp for Catalogue. We can find quick sale for your 
farm, large or small, if it is cheap and you will send us 
full description. If you want to buy, tell us what you 
want, and we can suit you. 

GAMAN & CO.. 
5i Kearny St., San Francisco. 



SAN LUI S OBISPO COUNTY! 

Stock. H.ancla for Sale. 

One Mile from the Town of San Luis Obispo, called the 

FILLMORE RANCH. 

THE BUST WATERED 2500 ACRES IN THE STATE; fenced; 2 houses thereon: 130 head of Stock go with 
the property. Free range on adjacent Government Lands of about 3000 acre", accessible only through this ranch. 

The above-mentioned 2500 acres of titled land, together with five to six thousand cords of wood worth 84.00 per 
cord, to be sold for 815.00 per acre, Stock, Wood, and Ranch privilege included. Terms, part cash — nalance credit, 
2, 3, 4, 5, and years. 

Apply to G. W. FRINK, PACIFIC COAST LAND BUREAU, 

22 Montgomery Street, Sa Francisco. 
Or J. M. FILLMORE, San Luis Obispo, Cal. 



SAN DIEGO COUNTY! 

Celebrated El Cajon Valley Lands. 6617 Acres. 

Belonging to J. H. BENEDICT, Esq. 

The San Diego River traverses the land. Large lake and springs. All well watered. Grow to perfection 
Alfalfa, Fruit, Vines and Grain. This property is offered as a whole, at a GREAT BARGAIN, part cash; now occu- 
pied by Mr. Ben. Hill. The climate, soil, and location cannot be excelled in the State. Must be examined to be 
appreciated. 

G. W. FRINK, 
General Manager Pacific Coast Land Bureau, 

22 MONTGOMERY ST., SAN FRANCISCO. 
R. J. PENNELL, Fifth St., San Diego. J. H. BENEDICT, Florence Hotel, San Diego. 



Commission jvierchapts. 



WM. T. COLEMAN & CO., 

Shipping and Commission 

MERCHANTS, 

San Francisco and New York. 

Receive consignments of Produce for sale in San Fran- 
cisco, New York, Boston, Philadelphia, England, Aus- 
tralia, etc. Mike advances on approved consignments. 
Fill orders for staple goods in New York and other mar- 
kets. Effect fire and marine insurance in best offices. 
Charter vessels and engage freights for all trades. Agents 
for line clipper ships from Philadelphia, China, etc. All 
business has faithful and watchful attention. 



SAN DIEGO COUNTY! 

131 Octjon Ranclio! 

16,500 ACRES, 

Situated 13 miles from San Diego, surrounded by high hills, protected from winds and fogs — the most equable 
climate in the world — rich soil and lovely surroundings. Will be offered as a whole or in subdivisions, from 10 
acres upward, at prices according to desirability, from $10 to §75 per acre, part cash, balance on time. The wonder- 
ful Raisins and Olives grown in this valley command the admiration of every one. Water from 6 to 12 feet. NO 
IRRIGATION, and Fruit and Raisins cured by solar heat. Inquire 

G. W. FRIJTK, General Manager Pacific Coast Land Bureau, 

Principal Office, 22 MONTGOMERY ST., SAN FRANCISCO 
R. J. PENNELL, Fifth Street, San Diego, Branch Office, or 

DR. JOSEPH JARVIS Riverside, Cal. 




DIPHTHERIA 



HORSE POWERS, WINDMILLS, TANKS 
and all kinds of Pumping Machinery built to order. 
Awarded Diploma for Windmills at Me- 
chanics' Fair, 1885. 

F. W. KROGH & CO., 

51 Beale St.. 8an Francisco. 



FARMERS BUILDING BARNS, OUTHOUSES 

or Frame additions, will save money by using Bell's 
Carpentry Madk East. It gives plain rules how to work 
without a carpenter. HOWARD CHALLEN, Publisher, 
744 Broadway, New York. 



PORTER BROS. & CO., 

Commission Merchants, 

404 and 406 Davis St , S. F. 
laTSpecial attention paid to shipping. 



PKTTSR MBYBR. LOUIS MBYBR. 

MEYER BROS. & CO., 

Importers and 

Wholesale Grocers 

And Dealers in 

*r TOBACCO AN D CIGARS. "» 
4!2 FROMT STREET, 

front St. Block, bet. Clay & Washington, San Franoisco 
/MTSpeoial attention given to country traders. 
P. O. Box 1940. 

MOORE, FERGUSON & CO., 

COMMISSION MERCHANTS. 

WOOL, GRAIN, FLOUR, 

ETC., ETC. 
Members of the San Francisco Produce Exchange 

310 Calilornia St., San Francisco. 
tS" Liberal advances made on consignments. 



Geo. Moerow. [Established 1854.] Geo. P. Morrow. 

GEORGE MORROW & CO., 

HAY and GRAIN 

COMMISSION MERCHANTS, 

39 Clay Street and 28 Commercial Street, 

San Francisco, Cal. 
£%■ SHIPPING ORDERS A SPECIALTY."^ 



Grangers' Business Association, 



SHIPPING AND 

108 Davis Street, 



HOUSE, 
San Francisco 



Consignments of GRAIN, WOOL, DAIRY PRODUCE, 
Dried Fruit, Live Stock, etc., solicited, and liberal ad- 
vances made on the same. 

Careful and prompt attention paid to orders for the 
purchasing of Grain and Wool Sacks, Wagons, Agricult- 
ural Implements, Provisions, Merchandise, and supplies 
of all kinds. 

Warehouse and Wharf: 

a.t "THE GRANGERS'," Contra Costa Co. 

Grain received on storage, for shipment, for sale on 
oonsignment. Insurance effected and liberal advances 
made at lowest rates. Farmers may rely on their grain 
being closely and carefully weighed, and on having their 
other interests faithfully attended to. 



AND OTHER 



Throat X>ise£isso!S 

Are cured without fail by the use of 

MACBETH S SPECIFIC. 

Every family should keep a bottle on hand, so as to 
avert fatal consequences trom a supposed simple sore 
throat. 

Abundance of testimonials in circulars. Add re 39 
PROF. SMITH, Proprietor, 

1808 Laguna St., S. F. 

USE THE 30SS ZINC AND LEATHER INTERFERING 
Boots and Collar Pads. They are the best. 



daltoFbros., 

Commission Merchants 

AND DBALBRS IN 

CALIFORNIA AND OREGON PRODUCE, 

GREEN AND DRIED FRUITS, 

Grain, Wool, Hides, Beans, and Potatoes. 

308 and 310 DAVIS ST., 
P. 0. Box 1930. SAN FRANCISCO. 

tW CONSIGNMENTS SOLICITED. "St 



American Exchange Hotel, 

SANSOME STREET, 

Opposite Wells, Fargo & Co.'s Express, one door from 
Bank of California, SAN FRANCISCO. 

This Hotel is in the very center of the business portion 
of the city. The traveling public will find this to he the 
most convenient as well as the most comfortable and 
respectable Family Hotel in the city. 

Board and Room, $1.00, $1.25 and $1.50 

Per Day, According to Room. 
£3THot and Cold Baths Free. None but most obliging 
white labor employed. Free Coach to and from 
the Hotel. 

MONTGOMERY BROS , Proprietors. 



e. h. tucker, 
Land Broker, 

MAIN STREET, 
Selma, Fresno Co., - California. 



38 



P ACIFI6 F^URAlo p RESS. 



[Jan. 9, 1886 



January Fashions. 

It not infrequently happens that in the inter- 
season the most attractive designs are pub- 
lished, which fact is reasonably attributed to 
various causes, among which the survival of the 
fittest may be counted the principal, for these 
later favorites usually suggest, if they do not 
really embody, the best points of their prede- 
cessors. This month's fashions are rich and 
novel iu style, and the lady who is belated in 
making up her winter garments, or who has 
reasons for a new wardrobe, will be de- 
lighted with them. 

Ladies' Outdoor C03tum9. 

Fig. 1 consists of a ladies' walking skirt and 
basque. This costume is distinguished for its 
simplicity and stylish effect. It is here shown 
developed in boucle suiting of coarse weave, and 
about the bottom of its four gored skirt are 



of five buttons added at the back of the wrists 
providing the only trimming. 

The costume illustrates the severe style of 
tailor finish, and will be much admired for 
heavy cloths of the rough, smooth or fancy 
varieties. Plush striped woolens may be used 
for the skirt, with plain goods to match for the 
basque and draperies; and with such skirts 
trimming is never desirable. Velvet, velveteen, 
corduroy, etc., will frequently be used for the 
entire costume, and will also be combined with 
some handsome woolen goods. Of course, the 
skirt may be trimmed with plaitings, rutfiings, 
bauds of fur, fiat bands, braids, etc., but the 
draperies will be plainly finished. The basque 
may be trimmed with flat garnitures, if consid- 
ered becoming. All varieties of dress goo Is 
will be fashionably made up in this way, boucle, 

\frise and plain and rough goods, as well as 

I heavy silks and repped t 'xtures, being espe- 

{ cially handsome for the mode. 

The felt hat has its brim covered with a 

1 puffing of velvet. It is stylishly trimmed with 



eyelets, as desired. Above the skirt they are 
closed with button-holes and buttons, and the 
skirt closing is made with buttons and button- 
holes in a fly. This mode of construction ad 
justs the fronts and back closely to the figure 
and leaves the front skirts to fall loosely in 
Mother Hubbard fashion; thus rendering the 
garment neglige in appearance, yet comfortably 
close-fitting. Ties of ribbon are inserted in the 
lower part of the under-arm darts and are 
bowed prettily in front, appearing to hold the 
fullness in place. The wrapper is of uniform 
depth at the bottom, and hangs gracefully. A 
narrow knife-plaiting of Surah trims the lower 
edge, and falling over the plaiting is a deep 
flounce of lace that is turned down over its 
seaming. The coat sleeves fit prettily, and are 
fancifully shaped at the waists and trimmed 
with frills of lace. The collar is of the high 
standing style, and a bow of ribbon is fastened 
at the throat, a ruff of lace being worn in the 
neck. Eider down flannels and cloths, striped 
and plain flannels, Turkish cloths, serges, cash- 



The Grape Cure. 

Editors Pkkss:— In the Ritual of the 18th. 
I was very glad to see the extracts from "The 
Grape as a Food and Medicine," by Dr. Irving 
C. Ross, of Washington, D. C. I know that 
the ancients practiced the cure, and believed in 
the alterative power of the grape, and many 
years ago was much interested in the sketches 
the N. Y. Tribune gave of the grape cure es- 
tablishments of Germany, where dried grapes 
were used, when fresh grapes were not obtain- 
able, for consumption, dysentery, scrofula, tor- 
pid liver, and all diseases arising from an im- 
poverished state of the blood. I hope all your 
readers in this land of healthy grapes, will care- 
fully read the article so pertinent to this coas'», 
where people are so commonly said to be suf- 
fering from malaria, and to need tonics. 

Grapes are often eaten before fully ripe, or 
when so cold from the air as to chill the 





LADIES' WRAPPER 



LADIES' OUTDOOR COSTUME. 



seven rows of narrow velvet ribbon. This is 
the only garniture, the draperies being full and 
deep, 80 that decoration is not a necessity. The 
front drapery falls in a deep oval almost to the 
skirt at the center, and is draped very high on 
the hips by deep plait3 turning forward at the 
belt, the plaits lifting the drapery in handsome, 
drooping folds. The back-drapery is full aud 
falls in oval outline quite low upon the skirt at 
the center. It is draped to fall in a short 
hournoux at the center, and at the sides it is 
raised high by a group of overlapping plaits ar- 
ranged beneath a deep loop; these plaits, to 
gether with tickings to the skirt, complete the 
houjfant effect. 

The basque is in habit style, being notched 
below the closing, arched high at the sides, 
and presenting a deeper, square outline at the 
back. The center seam ceases about at the 
waist line and the edges below are hemmed, 
and for nearly the depth of the hems the side 
backs form narrow coat-plaits upon the back. 
The fitting is handsome, and is the result of 
double bust darts, under-arm gores and the side- 
back gore3 and center seam mentioned. But- 
tons and buttonholes make the closing, and the 
edge finish is severely plain. The standing 
collar is fashionably high, and its edge, like all 
the edges of the basque, are bound with velvet 
.ibbon. The coat sleeves fit beautifully, a row 



a full scarf draped loosely about the crown, 
and a bird and ostrich plumage arranged at the 
right side of the back. 

Ladies' Wrapper. 

Fig. 2 shows a ladies' wrapper. It is a grace- 
ful and dressy-looking wrapper, and one that 
will do good service as a tea-gown. It is here 
shown made of pale-blue Surah, and trimmed 
with a knife plaiting of the Surah, frills of Kur- 
sheedt's Standard oriental lace and satin ribbon. 
The back is in princess style, with three grace- 
fully curved seams which terminate below the 
waist-line in extra widths; that at the center 
seam being disposed in a double box-plait, while 
at the sid.' back seam a backward turning plait 
is formed. 

The body is in basque style in front, with 
double bust darts fitting it snugly to the figure; 
and upon the fronts, at about yoke depth below 
the neck, are adjusted the fronts proper, which 
are shirred and finished with a self heading at 
the top as far back as the arms-eyes, beneath 
which they extend to meet the side-backs and 
are smoothly adjusted by long under-arm darts. 
The fronts extend only to the underarm 
darts, in which they are sewed ; and 
they may be closed beneath the skirt 
portions with buttons and button- holes, 
hooks and loops, or cords laced through eyes or 



meres, wool sateens, plain and brocaded silks, 
satin mcreeilleux, etc., are all suited to these 
wrappers, and so are all varieties of soft, pretty 
dress goods. 

Our Agents. 

Ouk Fkikkds can do much in aid of our taper and the 
came of practical knowledge and science, by assisting 
Agents in their labors of canvassing, by lending tbeir in. 
fluence and encouraging favors. We intend to Bend none 
but nortliy men. 

Jarkd C Hoao— California. 

J. J. Bartrll— Amador and Calaveras Co's. 

r. a Horn— Nevada (state). 

G. W. Inoalls— Ariz ma. 

K. L. Rich ards— San Diego Co. 

K. U. HUSTOH— Idaho an I Montana. 

Qro. McDowell— Santa Clara and Santa Cruz Co's. 

Htuu Elias — Nevada Co. 

J . Winklrr, Alameda Co. 

M. L. Dbsnys, Yuha and Nevada Co's. 

J. B. I'atcii, Nevada and Utah. 

L. D. Clark, Tehama and Shasta Co's. 



The Wonderful Le Conte Pear. — Beautiful 
as an orange tree in its shiny green and loaded with 
first class fruit. Send for circulars and testimonials. 
C W. Dearborn, Oakland, Cal. 



Novelties just received at Muller's optical 
depot, 135 Montgomery St., near Bush. x 

Ayek's Hair Vigor, for dressing the hair and pro- 
moting its growth; an indispensable toilet article. 



stomach. Dijestion resents them, and the con- 
clusion is, that they are not healthy. It would 
be interesting to learn the varieties best for 
therapeutic qualities, but a "uval station," 
where rest, quiet, and the rules of hygiene were 
observed, would be necessary to cure chronic 
ailments, and build up a depleted system. 

Grapes have more curative powers than half 
the nostrums apothecaries are obliged to offer 
the medicine-devouring public, and I hope their 
simple, inexpensive, nutritive qualities will 
drive quacks and the too free use of quinine 
from the field. Mks. W. D. Ashley. 

Stockton. 

Complimentary Samples. 

Persons receiving this paper marked are re- 
quested to examine its contents, terms of sub- 
scription, and give it their own patronage, and, 
as far as practicable, aid in circulating the jour- 
nal, and making its value more widely known 
to others, and e^fliftding its influence in the 
cause it faithful'Jtfferves. Subscription rate, 
$3 a year. Extrsj*»pies mailed for 10 cents, if 
ordered soon ei 0t$ h. If already a subscriber 
please show thejpyper to others. 

NOTICE, l'aflfcs wishing local agencies to represent 
our Nurseries for tfcs sale of our stock, will please address 
J. Lose & Sox, BK 9, North Temescal, Oakland, Cal. 



Jan. 9, 1886.] 



fACIFie f^URAb PRESS, 



39 



bapk$ and banking. 



GRANGERS' BANK 

OF CALIFORNIA, 

SAN FRANCISCO. GAL. 

Authorized Capital, - - $1,000,000 

In 10,000 Shares of $100 each. 

Capita! Paid up in Gold Coin, $645,360. 

Reserved Fund and raid up Stock, $21,178. 
OFFICERS: 

A. D. LOGAN President 

I. C. STEELE Vice-President 

ALBERT MONTPELLIER Cashier and Manager 

PRANK MoMULLEN Secretary 

DIRECTORS: 

A. P. LOGAN, President Colusa Countj 

H J LEWELLING Napa Countj 

J. H. GARDINER Rio Vista, Ca) 

T. E TYNAN Stanislaus Countj 

URIAH WOOD Santa Clara Count} 

J. C. MERYFIELD Solano Countj 

H. M. LARUE Yolo Countj 

I. C. STEELE San Mateo Countj 

THOMAS McCONNELL Sacramento Countj 

C. J. CRESSEY Merced Countj 

SENECA EWER Napa Countj 

CURRENT ACCOUNTS are opened and conducted in the 

usua 1 way, bank books balanced up, and statements ol 

accounts rendered every month. 
LOANS ON WHEAT and country produce a speoialty. 
COLLECTIONS throughout the Country are made 

promptly and proceeds remitted as directed. 
GOLD and SILVER deposits received. 
CERTIFICATES of DEPOSIT issued payable on demand. 
BILLS OF EXCHANGE of the Atlantic States bought 

and sold. ALBERT MONTPELLIER, 

Cashier and Manager. 

San Franolsco, Jan. 16, 1882. 



UNION SAVINGS BANK 

OAKLAND, CAL. 

CAPITAL $200,000 

RESERVED FUND $100,000 

ASSETS $1,931,000 

BOARD OF DIRECTORS : 
A. C. Henry, J. Wet Martin, G. J. Ainsworth, 
J. C. Ainsworth, S. Huff, R. S. Farrelly, 

R. W. Kirkham, Samuel Woods, D. Henshaw Ward, 

Hiram Tubbs, H. A. Palmer. 

Wrbt Martin, Pres. H. A. PalmkR, V.Pres. & Treas'r. 

INTEREST allowed upon all deposits remaining 
three calendar months, beginning from the first of the 
month succeeding the date of deposit. 

Remittances from the country may be made by Express 
or Check upon Banks in San Francisco, and book will 
be returned. 

LOANS made only upon Mortgage of Real 
Estate and Bonds at current rates. 



STOCKTON 

SAVINGS and LOAN SOCIETY, 

(Incorporated August, 1867.) 
STOCKTON, . . CALIFORNIA. 

Paid up Capital, $500,000. 

Surplus, $152,634 

L. U. SHIPPEE, President. 
F. M. WEST, Cashier. S. S. LITTLEHALE, Ass't Cashier 

BOARD OF DIRECTORS: 



L. U. Shipprb, 
R B. Lank, 

Chas. Haas, 
A. W. Simpson, 
J. H. O'Brien, 
Wm. Inolis, 



R. Gnekow, 
Otis Prrrin, 
H. T. Dorranob, 
F. Arnold, 
M. L. Hewitt, 
Chas. Grupk, 
John Ducker. 



THE FARMER'S REMEDY FOR 
RHEUMATISM. 

A Liniment guaranteed to immediately remove RHEU- 
MATIC pain. It has been used for years and has never 
yet failed. 

For CHILBLAINS it will at once stop the irritatioD. 
No house should be without a bottle. 

Put up in 50c, $1.00 and $2.00 bottles; sent on receipt 
of price by 

THE FARMER'S REMEDY CO, 
64 and 66 Broadway and 19 New Street 
New York. 




The Lightest, Handiest, Simplest 
and Most Durable 

Machine of the kind made. We will guarantee it to 
Exterminate either Gophers or Squir-els, and it is a' so 
useful for killing and driving Insects from your trees and 
vines, by using in the straw a l ittle sulphur or tobacco. 

Prick, $8.00. AuENM'S WANTED in every County in 
the State. COUN1Y HIGH IS FOR SALE. 
it»"Send for Circulars. 

BODEN & SHAW, 

Patentees and Manufacturers, 

San Jose, Cal. 

Our New Squirrel & Gopher Exterminator. 

Farmers heretofore have paiu prices for these Extermi- 
nators to cover agents' commissions, etc. We have con- 
cluded to put the price down to agents' prices and give 
the Farmers the btnefit. Send direct to ihe Manufac- 
turers and get then). We will send you our Patent Ex- 
terminator C. O. D. by Express, or by Freight, on receipt 
of the price, $3.00. Weight about 6 lbs. These Extermi- 
nators we guarantee to give satisfaction. No Agents 
Wanted. Address: F. E. BROWNE, No. 44 S 
Spring Street, Los Angeles, Cal. 

T>TT XT »^ Instant relief. Final cure in 10 days, and 
-H-^-EiOa never tetums. No purge, no salve, no 
suppository. Sufferers will learn of a siinp:e remedy Free, 
by »ddr»8«ing C. J. MASON, 78 Nassau street.New Yoik. 



THIS INVENTION 

SUPPLIES 

The Need of the Age. 



PATENTED JUNE 10, 1884 



Simple, Practical and Serviceable. 

TWO MEN AND ONE HORSE 

Will Bore 300 Holes 
IN 10 HOURS. 




BORES HOLES 

36 Inches deep and 
24 inches diameter. 

The LIGHTNING TREE PLANTER. 

The TREE PL ANTEK represented on this page is a late invention, which was thoroughly cried last 
year, and proved to be the Simplest, Bent, and Chea pest mode of digging holes either for Trees, Vines, or 
Posts. It will bore a hole of any given dimensions desired in an incredibly short space of time, and the work is all 
done by a horse, and a hole 3 feet deep and 2 feet in diameter can be dug in two minutes. One of these machines is 
used by the S. P. C. R. R. Co. PRICE, $150. 

Among our Many Testimonials we Offer the Following One : 

San Jose, Cal., June 2, 18S4. 
Dear Sirs : -In regard to the Boring Machine I bought of you, I woul i say that I am very much pleased with it. 
It is \cry easy on the horse and is easily managed. I have bored manv thousand holes at the rata of over 200 per 
day. The holes were 2 feet deep and 2 feet in diameter, and were much better holes than could be made by hand. 

SAMUEL MILL1KIN. 
We have the Finest and Most Complete Line of 

BUGGIES, CARRIAGES and WAGONS on the Coast 

AGENTS FOR THE 

Celebrated HOLLOW IRON AXLE WAGON, McCORMICK MOW EPS. FEAFIFSec 
TWINE BINDERS, JOHN DODD'S HOLLINGSWORTH RAKES, Etc. 

We have HE TVI €~~*~X7~ f 1 to our new store, 481, 433, 425 and 427 Market St., where we 
have the Finest Repository on the Coast. asfSend for Catalogue. Address 

TRUMAN, ISHAM & HOOKER, 421 Market St., San Francisco. 



TESTIMONIAL. 

Watsonville, Aug. 22, 1SS5. 
JV. McLean— Dear Sir: I ri reply to 
your inquiry as to how I like the Cultiva- 
tor bought of you last winter, must say, 
that after a thorough test, I do not hesi- 
tate to pronounce it the most efficient im- 
plement it has ever been my good fortune 
to use. It is r eat, light and handy ligh 
enough to cultivate corn with, which itdoe 3 
perfectly, and strong enough to be 
i-cnt down to the beams. Wishing 
yon continued success with your 
many labor-saving machines, 1 re- 
main, yours respectfully, 

A. P. ROACHE. 



CO 

m 



McLeans 



cultivatob. 

Pj,te nted and manufactured 

N."' McLEAN, 
Watsonville, 
Cal. 



o 

30 



o 
o 




Anthem Books. Cantatas. 

FOH 188G. 

Ditson & Co. offer to Choirs Anthem, Chorus and (Quar- 
tet Books unequalled in qua'ity and variety. Send for 
lists. Of the following Anthem Books, the first three 
may be called the easiest, but none are too difficult for 
ordinary choirs. 

per doz. 

Perkins' Easy Anthems SI 00, or $9 00 

American Anthem Hook 1 25, or 12 00 

Dressler's Sacred Selections 1 50, or 13 50 

Emerson's Book of Antheins 1 25, or 12 00 

Anthem Harp. Perkins 1 25, or 12 00 

Gem Gleaner. Chadwick 1 00, or !) 00 

Laos Deo. Henshaw 1 00, or 9 00 

Santoral. Talmer & Trowbridge 1 00, or 9 00 

Vox Laudis. Leslie 1 00, or 9 00 

Not a poor book in the list. Choir caders who have 
used one run no risk in ordering any of the others. 

New Cantatas for Choirs and Societies. 

l'ER 1)0/.. 

Christoforus. Legend. Rheiohciger SI 00, or SO 00 

Fall of Jerusalem. Parkhurst 1 00, or 9 00 

Holy City. Gaul 1 (10, or 9 00 

91st Psalm. Ballard 60, or 5 40 

Out of the Depths. Darling 32, or 2 >-8 

Rehecca. Hodges 6i, or 6 00 

Ruth and BoaE. Andrews 65, or 6 00 

Herbert and Elsa. 'I haver 75, or 6 72 

Heroes of "J6. Trowbridge 1 00, or 9 00 

Specimen copies of any of these books mailed, post free, 
for the retail price. 

OLIVER DITSON & CO., Boston. 

H. DITSON & CO., - 867 Broadway, New York. 

Lr^Lt Ju.CSC'S HAY t»UL3S£S. 

je , a & tuc cuslonicr 

tf^-^V* •<!*» fch ke.pii.gthcone 

^Sk> ^ m , " atwiu 




Or.'ero it>-lnl. address for circular and location of 
' •--ter 1 bm'I Southern Storehouses find Acents. 
■ • rsrOE'.llCK &. CO.. Albany. N. Y- 



b Pills cure rheumatism and heaoacbe. 



IIEALD'S 

AGRICULTURAL WORKS, 

JOHN L. HEALD, Proprietor, 
Crockett, Contra Costa Co., Cal, 

MANUFACTURER of 

HBALD'S PATENT 

Wine Making Machinery. 



Is the only machinery that has given universal satisfac- 
tion, and is to be f und in all the first-class Wine Cellars 
in the State. The Patent Crushers, Stemmers, and Ele- 
vators, includes the elevation of grapes in boxes as well 
as loose. Capacity of large Crusher and Stemmer up to 
15 tons per hour. Hand Crushers, or Crushers and 
Stemmers that can be worked by hand, horse, or steam 
power to a capacity of 10 to 30 tons per day. 

My Hydraulic Wine Press has a capacity of four times 
that of any other press in the market, and will save from 
S2 to S3 worth of wine at eich pressing over all others. 
Wine-makers cannot afford to use any other press if they 
desire to save money in wine and labor. Wine Pumps, 
Pomace Cars, or any other appliance needed in a Wine 
Cellar, such as Boilers, Engines, Shafting, Pulleys, etc. , 
new or second-hand, for sale at lowest prices. Plans and 
specifications for Wine CePars tarnished at lowest figurts. 

If you want the best Irrigation or Drainasre Pump, call for 
one of " J. L. Heald's Centrifugal," cuaranteed to 
pump water at a cost not to exceed 50 cents per acre for 
irrigation, which is much cheaper than ditch water, and 
is the only Centrifugal Pump that can be run by horse 
power. 

Get one of "Heald's Barley Crushers" if you 
want the best in the market. Capacity up to 10 tons per 
hour. It took the first premium at State Fair, 1884. 

Heald's Patent .Straw-Burning Engine has 
proved itself for years to be the best, and took first pre- 
mium at State Fair, 18S4. 

Heald's Patent Steam Engine Governor has 
given entire satisfaction wherever used, in adding 15 per 
cont more power to the Engine, and, with speeder attach- 
ment, enables the Engine to run at any spted required, 
with the utmost regularity. This governor will main- 
tain the same speed under varying pressure or load. 



Concrete Apparatus 

RANSOME, 402 Montgomery St., S. F. Send for Circulars. 




The BUYERS' GUIDE Is 
issued lilarcli End Sept., 
eaclt year. 4Sf- 216 pages, 
j 8^x11% inches, with over 
3,5QO illustrations — a 
whole Picture Gallery. 
GIVES Wholesale Prices 
direct to consumers ou all goods for 
personal or family use. Tells liow to 
order, and gives exact cost of every- 
thing you use, eat, drink, wear, or 
have fun with. These INVALUABLE 
BOOKS contain information gleaned 
from the markets; of the world. "We 
will mail a copy FREE to any ad- 
dress upon receipt of 10 cts. to defray 
expense of mailing. L,et us hear from 
you. Respectfully, 

MONTGOMERY WARD & CO. 

98T *r, 229 Wabash Avenue, Chicago. HI. 

MISSION ROCK DOCK 
Gi^AIN WAREHOUSE. 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

75 OOO TONS capacity. 7k nnn 

I UyKJKJKJ storage at Lowest Rates. ' 0,\J\J\J 

CHAS. H. SINCLAIR, Supt. 
Cal. Dry Dock Co., props.— Office 318 Cal. St. room 3 



geedg, Wants, fete. 

B. V. CUTTINGS 

I OFFER 

1,000,000 

OK THE 

Best Tried and Selected Wine Cuttings. 

GUARANTEED HEALTHY, 
Carefully Prepared, and from First Cut, 
and Made Only to Order. 

S&-NO ORDERS WILL BE RECEIVED AFTERtEJ 
Febkhart 1, 1886. 



Will deliver, at any depot of San Jose or Santa C'ata, 
F. O. B.: $10 per 1000, tulc packed, 25 per cent down— 
Portal Ploussard, Cabernets (inc'uding my Cabernet Sau- 
wgnon, imported from Montoellier Station, France,) and 
Teinturier or Pied De Perdrie, Petit Pinot or Crabbs' 
Black, Burgundy, and Merlot. 

$t.00~ Malb c's, Mataro, Grenaehe, Carignane, Sau- 
vignon Verte, Fnlle Blanche, Blanquette or Clairette, etc. 

$3.50— For all other Wine Grapes, well known as the 
Zinfaudel, Rieslings, Trousseau, Charbono, etc. 

tfSTKiR-T Ordered, First Served. Discounts on Large 
Orders. Address 

J. B. J. PORTAL, 

San Jose, Cal. 



MILLER & COSGRIFF, 

DEALERS IN ALL KINDS OF 

Tobacco for Sheep Wash Purposes 

Or for VINES and TREES. 

"If we have to keep on constantly spraying, we had 
better use Tobacco dcoetion, which costs ten times less 
than other washes."- Ellwood Cooper, President, Cali- 
fornia Fruit Growers in Council, 1385. 
417 Battery St., cor. Merchant, San Francisco. 

JtSTPrices furnished on application. 




Will be mailed FREE to all applicants, and to oustomers of 
™ wltbout ordering it. It contains about 180 pages, 
600 illustrations, prices, accurate descriptions and valuable 
directions forplanting all varieties of VEGETABLE 
and FLOWER SEEDS, HULKS, etc. Invaluable 
to' all, especially to Market Gardeners. Send for It 

D. M. FERRY & CO., Detroit, Michigan. 



OLIVE TREES FOR SALE. 

We are offering Olive Trees of the PICHOLINE 
variety at $16 per hundred. From (i to IS inches in 
hight. For further particulars address 



BELL 



CONSERVATORY CO., 

Sacramento, Cal. 



THE 0. W. CHILDS NURSERIES, 

L03 ANGELES, CAL. 

Our Stock of Deciduous Fruit Trees is exceptionally 
tine. We make a specialty of Orange, Lemon and Lime. 
Our Trees are clean and Lee of all injurious insect pests. 
Our Orange Trees include the celebrated Washington 
Navel and Satruma Orange; the latter a kid-glove va- 
riety of superior excellence. This variety, it is said, will 
endure hard frosts, much harder than other varieties 
grown here. Price list free. Address 

THOS. A. GAREY, Agent, 
P. 0. Box 452. Los Angeles, Cal. 



All Communications relating to 

DR. 0. H. C0NGARS GRAFTING DEVICE, 

Should be addressed to him at Pasadena, Cal. 



For Sale— About 2000 French Prune 

Trees, from 4 to 7 feet high, at §55 per 1000, or S8 per 
100. I raised the trees for my own use and they are free 
from insects. B. SCHULTE, Box 132, San Jose, Cal. 



40 



fACIFie f^URAls f RESS- 



[Jan. 9. 1886 



Seeds, Plants, fac. geeds, Wants, ttc. 



geeds, Wapts^fetc. 



geeds, Wa nts, fac. 



BARREN HILL NURSERY, 

NEVADA CITY, CAL. 

19 Varieties of Walnuts, 



CLUSTER WALNUT, the newest, most prolific 
and most valuable Walnut ever introduced into this 
country. 

PR.33PARTURIENS. or Early-Bearing Walnut, in 
troduced in 1871 by Felix Oillet; guaranteed SWUM 
All the Leading Varieties of Europe and 

America. 

Our Praparturicns, Cluster, and all other Seedling 
Wa'nutsare trees of the "Second Generation," and there- 
fore more likely to retain the characteristics of the spe- 
cies. From 30 cents to $1 per Tree, according 
to age, size, and variety. 

9 Varieties of Marrons or Grafted Chestnuts 

7 Varieties of the most prolific, largest, and finest 
Filberts. 

12 Varieties of Figs (White, Black, Yellow, Brown and 
Purple). 

4 Varieties of April Cherries, the earliest and most 
prolific in California. 

178 Varieties of Grapes (tab'e, raisin, and wine), 
Blue Muscat and Bulhery Blanc (the earliest Grapes in 
California, 50 cents per root). 

81 Varieties of English and French Gooseber- 
ries, the finest collection of largest Gooseberries in 
America. 

APRICOTS, PLUMS, PEARS, Etc. 
CONSTANTINOPLE QUINCE, 

The Largest kind. 

New Varieties of Strawberries: "KING 
HENRY," one of the best shipping varieties, truly 
"Remontant;" bears all the year round. 

10 Varieties of Prunes. 

ST. CATHERINE, true from the root; RED and 
BLUE PERDIGRON, Etc. 




LOT D'ENTE! 

The purest and largest type of the PRUNE D'AGEN 
or Robe De Se-gent. Direct Importation Treea, 
"True from the Boot" and Grafted. 

MULBERRY TREeT and CUTTINGS, 

Kor Silkworm Feeding. 
SKRicrc.TURK Chart, 50 cents. 

All our mountain trees heavily rooted. No Scales 
nr any of the insect pests infesting ott er pirts "f the 
state. No Phylloxera. 

tS"Scnd for Catalogue, illustrated with numerous cuts 
representing Nuts, Prunes, and Fruit, the most of them 
raised on our grounds. 

FELIX GILLET, Nevada City, Cal. 



San Leandro Nursery. 



Pine Assortment of the Leading 
Varieties of 

FRUIT TREES. 

The Hardy White Tuscany, Hardy Yellow 
Tuscany, Clingstone Peaches. 

LARGKST REACHES IN CALIFORNIA. Splendid 
flavor; good shippers; excellent for canning. 

4STA11 trees grown on new, rich soil, without irriga- 
tion, and arc positively free from insect pests. 

G. TOSETTI, 
San Leandro. Alameda Co., Cal. 

CYPRESS AND GUM TREES. 

Regularly transplanted in boxes; nil hardy, 
healthy ^stock. Monterey Cypress, 6 to 8 inches, 
$1.75 per 100, or S15 per 1,000; 8 to 10 inches, 82 per 100, 
or $17.50 per 1C00; 10 to 11 inches, 42.25 per 100, or $2 1 
per 1000. Transplanted in Larger Spaces— 12 to 14 
inches, at $3.00 per 100; H to 16 in.hes, $3.50 per 100; 
16 to IS inches at $4.00 per 100; IS to 20 inches, $4.50 per 
100; 20 inches to 2 feet, $6 per 100 Seedling Cypress, 6 
to S ioches, at $5 per 1000. Monterey Pine, 10 to 18 
inches, 2J inches apart, at $3 50 per 100. Transplanted 
Blue Gums, 6 to 10 inches, at $1.25 per 100, or $10 per 
1000; 10 to 18 inches, at $1.50 per 100, or $12.50 per 1(00. 
Red Gums or Acacia (Black Wattle) 6 to 10 inches, $1.75 
per 100, or $15 per 1000; 10 to 15 inches, $2 per 100, or 
S17.50 per loOO Well Sacked Blue or Red Gums, 3 to 4 
feet, straight and stout, with branches on, at $2 per dozen, 
or $14 per 100. Seeds of ttie above kinds at very low 
rates. U. 8. stamps will be taken for orders not exceed- 
ing $2. 

GEO. R. BAILEY, 
Parle Nurseries Berkeley, Cal. 



GILL'S NURSERIES Oakland. Cal. 

We now offer for sale a large and complete stock of FRUIT, SU A 1)1 and ORN AMENTAL TREKS 
SHKUliM and GRKENHOUSE I'L.VNTS, including Azaleas, specimen Araucarias Imbriceta, Camellias 
and Rhododendrons. RO"<ES and PIN KS, our specialties, for which this place has long been noted. SEED- 
L1NGS: Cypress and Laurestinus, all sizes, for hedging; 5000 Ulue and Red Gums, transported in boxes. 
We invite inspection of our stock. Send for catalogue and Price List. Address 

E. GILL, 28th St., bet. Adeline and Market, near San Pablo Ave., Oakland, Cal. 

fy.San Pab'.o Avenue Horse Cars pass close to Narsery. 



FANCHER CREEK NURSERY, 

FRESNO CITY, CAL., 

ofTV this season for sale an unexcelled stuck of well-grown, healthy and Insect- free 

FRUIT TREES, 

SUCH AS 

PEARS, APPLES, PEACHES, APRICOTS, QUINCES, CHERRIES, Etc. 
A full assortment of Ornamental Trees and Shrubbery, Soft Wooded and Bedding 

Plants. The Abyssinian Banana, the largest and handsomest of all ornamental plants. 

FORTY-FIVE different varieties of Oleanders, Rooted Grapevines for Claret and 

Sherry; imported kinds, such as Palomino, Doradilla, Cabernet SauvigDon, Mataro, Pedro 
Ximenes; also Sabal Kanski- Imperial Table drape of Russia, etc. 

THE WHITE ADRIATIC FIG, 

The finest drying His? known. The San Pedro, the largest of all table Figs. The White Genoa, etc. The 
Papersliell and I Spanish Ruliy Pomegranates. The Curuba fruit. Olives. Many novelties. Send for 
Circular about Fig Culture. It answers all your questions. 

We have a small quantity of Adriatic Kiss, Dried and Cured, ami will send a Sample Fig to each one of 
our custom, rs who buys for at least 85.00 worth, or to any one sending us 10 cents in stamps to pay for packing and 
postage, which in any suf. sequent order will be placed at their credit 

Fig Culture and Fig Curing is the coming paying industry of California. 

ROSE-GROW1N 3 a Specialty. Fine Plants true to label. Catalogue, ready iu October, contains Guide 
to Roseculture. 

Mr. W. C. Wkst, formerly of West's Stockton Nursery, is in charge of the propagating department. 
ASTA:.:. Lkttkrs to bb Addressed to 

GUSTAV EISEN, Fresno City, Cal. 



OLIVE CUTTINGS, 

IN LOTS TO SUIT, AT LOW PRICES. 

SPECIAL RATES ON LARGE ORDERS. 

Vegetable, Flower § Tree Seeds. 

FRUIT and ORNAMENTAL TREES. 
FLOWERING BULBS and PLANTS, Etc. 
Large Stock. Best Quality, at Low Rates. 

R. J. TRUMBULL & CO., 

Catalogues on Application. 419 and 421 Sansome St., San Francisco. 



Santa IFLojset Nurseries 

HALF A MILLION THRIFTY WELL-GROWN TREES. 



Nut Trees. 
Apples, 
Pears. 
Plums. 
Prunes. 

Cherries, 
Peaches. 
Apricots, 
Nectarines, 
Figs. 




Olives. 
Quinces. 
Loquats, 
Guavas, 

Medlars, 

Persimmons, 

Pomegranates, 
Mulberries, 
Small Fruits, 
Rhubarb, 

Asparagus, etc. 



Santa Rosa Nurseries are now and always have been FREE FROM SCALE, and the unusual care which 
we have always taken to have everything which leaves our nurseries true to name, and in the best possible 
condition to grow, tins given them a reputation for reliability which has caused our sales to more than double 
every year for the past ten years. fJTSKXD kor True List. 

LUTHER BURBANK, Santa Rosa. Sonoma Co., Cal. 



HALF A MILLION GARD 

am H. - -PL 






Our Seed Warehouses, the largest ii 
New York, are fitted up with every ap 
pliance for the prompt aud careful 
filling of orders. 

Our Catalogue for 1886, of 140 pages, containing colored plates, descriptions and illustrations 
of the NEWEST, BEST and RAREST SEEDS and PLANTS, will be mailed on receipt of 

(in stamps) to cover postage 



Our Green-house Establishment at 
Jersey City is the most extensive in 
America. Annual Sales, 1\ Million 
Plants. 



6 cts. 



PETER HENDERSON & GO. 35 * "; ™ s ' 



RIVERSIDE NURSERY, 

O. O. GOODRICH, Pioprietor, 
Offers this season a Large and Fine Stock of 

FRUIT TREES 

At Reduced Rates. 
Peach Trees of all leading varieties a specially. Parties 
wishing to purchase will find it to their interest to com- 
municate with me. t <r i List and Catalogue sent on 
application. O. O GOODRICH, Sacramento, Cal. 



FOR SALE. 

200,000 GRAPE CUTTINGS 

At $3 00 per M. 

Emperor, Flam Tokay, Muscat, Sultana, and Muscatel. 
OAK SHADE FRUIT COM. ^.NY, 
Davlsville, Cal. 



RESISTANT VINES! 

Make your Vineyards Permanent 
by Planting Resistant Vines. 



200,000 
Seedlings and Rooted Vines 
Riparia and Californica. 



ot 



JOHN ROOK, 

San Jose, ... California. 



Rose Springs Nurseries, 

Roseville Junction, Placer Co., Cal., 

Offers for sale a fine stock of well-grown, healthy, insect- 
free and non-irrigated 

FRUIT TREES. 

Also GRAPEVINE ROOTS, one and two years old, of 
the leading shipping varieties, and Cuttings of the lead- 
ing sorts in the State for wine, shipping and drying. 

Fruit Trees, Vines, and small Fruits, by 
mail, a specialty, 

Strawberries -Old Iron Clad, Big Bob, James Vick, 
Jersey tJncen, and other varieties. Blackberries, Rasp- 
berries, Currants, and Gooseberries, both English and 
native. 

A full assortment of Ornamental Trees and Shrubbery, 
soft-wooded and bedding plants. We have an immense 
stock of Greenhouse and other plants which we send by 
mail or express. 

Wc will send 10 Everbloomlng Roses, or 10 Brgonias, 
or 10 Colcus, or 10 Geraniums, or 10 Fuschias, or 10 Car- 
nations, or 10 Heliotropes, all our choicest, by mail, to 
any address in the United States, we paying postage, for 
one dollar, but no order for less than one dollar will be 
sent. 

/rarCorrespondenee solicited. Send for descriptive 
Catalogue and price list. 

E. BOOTH, 
Roaevllle, Placer Co., Cal. 




| Established 1852.) 

J. Hutchison's Nurseries, 

OAKLAND, CAL. 
Nursery Depot and Seed Store, 
cor. 14th & Washington Sts. 

'he Largest Collection of the most desirable 

Flowering and Ornamental Trees 
and Shrubbery in 

CYPRESS in large quantity. CUT FLOW- 
ERS and FLORAL WORK a specialty. 

Fruit Trees of all kinds Choice Flower 
and Vegetable Seeds, Bulbs, etc., of all kinds. 

J9"Send for New Catalogue. 



PACIFIC NURSERIES, 

Lombard Street, between Baker and Lyon, 
San Francisco. 

25,000 OLIVES, PICHOLINE, from *10 to $20 

per hundred. 

250.OO0 BLACKBERRY, KITTITANY and 

LAWSONS, (12 and $15 per thousand. 
50,000 MONTEREY CYPRESS. 
6000 BLACK WOOD ACACIAS. 
lbOO TREES. ROSES 3 to 5 feet high. 

Also Camellias, Azaleas, Araucarias exeelsla, and 
Araucarias bidwillii. 

Also an immense stock of Evergreen Trees and Flowtr 
ing Shrubs. 

F. LUDEMANN. 

TOKALON VINEYARD, 

NAPA COUNTY. 

Important Vine Cuttings for Sale. 

Cabernet Sauvignon 
Cabernet Franc, 
Petite Sirrah, 



Merlot, 
Trousseau. 
Carlgnan, 



Beclan, 
Mataro, 
Malbec, 



Tannat, 



Black Orenache, 
Gross Blaue B. Burgundy, 

Blaue Portugueser, 

Pied de Perdrix, 
Gamay Telnturier, 
Clairette Blanche, Semlllion Blanc, 

Pineau Chardonay, 
Sauvignon Verte, Sauvignon Blanche, 
Black Farmot, 
And all the more common varieties in any qualities. 
H. W. CRABB, 

Oakville, Nana Co., Cal. 



BELLEVUE NURSERY. 

All Descriptions of Fruit Trees for Sale- 

ALSO ORNAMENTAL TREES. 

Our stock of Bartlett Pears is very Hne and extensive. 
We guarantee our nnnery stock to be perfectly free from 
either White or Red Scale, or the San Jose Scale. Send 

for Catalogue. 

MILTON THOMAS. 

P. O. Box 304, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Tklkpiiohe No. 19. 



For Oilier Seed Advertisements See Pages 46-47. 



i 



Jan. 9, 1886.] 



f ACIFI6 I^URAb PRESS 



An Improved Dairy. 

We give herewith a 
rough sketch of the dairy 
arrangements of E. L. 
Stewart, a Rural Press 
subscriber,at Denverton, 
Solano county. Though 
not a work of high art, it 
gives an idea of the way 
in which modern appli- 
ances can be brought in- 
to operation without any 
great expenditure for 
power or buildings. 
Starting with the lean-to 
to Mr. Stewart's large 
barn we see the feed cut- 
ting with one of the Ross 
cutters, which Mr. Stew- 
art says gives great satis- 
faction, and enables him 
to cut the hay for 150 
dairy cows in fifteen 
minutes. The cutter is 
run by a tread-power, 
which can be seen on the 
floor below. The cut 
feed is dropped through 
the floor and distributed 

along in front of the cow stanchions. The 
artist has rather a different idea of a cow 
from that which holds in a dairyman's mind, 
and the reader will have to imagine them to 
suit. From the stable the milk is carried and 
poured into the reservoir of the De Laval 
cream separator, as is shown in the engraving. 
From the separator skim milk flows sweet and 
warm to the calf troughs,while the cream flowing 
through a cooling apparatus reaches the cream 
jar, as shown. The separator is run, as shown, 
with a common tread-power located outside the 




SKETCH OP A SOLANO COUNTY DAIRY OUTFIT. 



dairy house. Mr. Stewart finds his modern - 
izjd dairy very satisfactory in all respects, as 
his note to the Rural shows, as follows: 

I take pleasure in giving my experience with the 
De Laval Cream Separator, thinking others might 
profit by my experience. I have had one in oper- 
ation since August, and I find that I mi.de a gain of 
six pounds per day over the old way of setting in 
pans, besides making a decidedly better quality of 
butter, which brings the very top of the market. I 
am satisfied that my separator will pay for itself by 
spring. No one running a dairy can afford to be 



without one; if I had to go back to the old way of 
setting in pans, I would quit dairying. 

Butter made from cream secured by the cen- 
trifugal method is continually gaining in the 
esteem of city dealers and consumers. The 
merchants who sell centrifugal butter attest its 
high quality. The apprehension that the result 
might be a soft butter has proved mistaken. If 
there is any difference, it is harder and firmer 
than the old make. This is cleat ly shown in 
the case of butter shipped down from Del Norte 
county by dairymen who use the separator. 



Inducements to Subscribers. 



To favor subscribers to this paper, and to induce new 
patrons to try our publication, we offer the following 
advantages to all new subscribers wlio pay one year in 
advance, or present subscribers who will pay their sub- 
scriptions up to a date fully one year in advance of the 
present time. We will furnish the following articles 
while this notice continues), al the reduced rates named: 

REGULAR 

1. — The Agricultural Features of Cali- price. 
fornia, by Prof. Hilgard, 138 1 .rge pages, 

bound in stiff cloth, with colored 

maps Postpaid for 25 cts. $1.00 

2. — World's Cyclopedia, 794 pages, with 

1250 illustrations, worth St. 75. Postpaid 50 cts. 

3. — Patent Binder (cloth cover) with name 

of this paper in gilt Postpaid for 50 cts. 1.00 

4 — Niles' Stock and Poultry Book, pam- 
phlet, 120 pages Postpaid for 25 cts. .50 

6. - Kendall's Treatise on the Horse and 

Diseases Postpaid for 5 cts. .25 

6-— To New Subscribers, 12 select back 
Nos. of the Rural Press Free. .75 

7. — Any of Harper's first-class periodicals, 
15 per cent, less than regular rates. 

8. —Frank Leslie's and most other U. S. 
periodicals, 15 per cent discount from 
regular rates. 

9. — Pacific Coast and Eastern Dailies, 
Books and Periodicals, except special 
publications, we can usually give 10 to 
15 per cent less than advertised retail 
rates. 

11. — Life among the Apaches, 322 pages. 

stiff cloth Postpaid for 25 cts. 1.00 

12. — §1 worth of choice seeds, to be selected 
from a list of 189 flower and 82 garden 
seeds, as previously published, or which 
list we will send on application 

Postpaid for 25 «ts. 1.00 
1 3 — Picturesque California Homes (40 

building plans and estimates).. Postpaid for $1.10 3.50 

14. — Dewey's Patent Newspaper File Hold- 
er (18 to 36 inch) Postpaid, 25 cts. . 50 

15. — European Vines Postpaid, 5 cts. .25 

1 6. —The A B C of Potato Cu lture 10 cts. . 35 

17- — Sugar from Melons, 56 pages 5 cts. .25 

18. — De Oroot's Early History of Cal. Min- 
ing 5 cts. 

19. — Webster's Dictionary, 634 pages, with 

1500 illustrations 50 cts. 1.50 

20. — Gen.Grant'sLithograph,size24xl9in.l0 cti. .50 

21. — Cleveland Fine Steel Plate, size 12x16 

in 10 cts. .50 

22. — Gen. Grant's Fine Steel Plate, cabinet 

size 5 cts. 

Note. — The cash must accompany all orders If too 
much is sent for any article or publication, the balance 
will be returned immediately. Address this office, No. 
252 Market St., S. F. 

Send for any further information desired. 
' Readers will please inform their new neighbors and 
others concerning our paper and these offering?. On 
application, sample copies of this paper will be mailed 
free to the address of any persons thought likely to sub- 
scribe — especially to new settlers. Each subscriber is 
invited to send in 5 to 10 names, and we will mail such 
tack Nos. as we have to spare. 

Newspaper Agents Wanted. 

Extra inducements will be offered for a 
few active canvassers who will give their 
whole attention (for a while at least) to so- 
liciting subscriptions and advertisements 
for this journal and other first-class popu- 
lar newspapers. Apply soon, or address 
this office, giving address, age, experience 
and reference. — Dewey & Co., Publishers, 
No. 252 Market St., S. F. 

Don't Fail to Write. 

Should this paper b- received by any subscriber whe 
does not want it, or beyond the time he intends to pay 
for it, let him not fail to write us direct to atop It. A 
postal card (costing one cent' only will sufRoo. We 
will not knowingly send the paper to anyone who does 
not wish it, but if t is continued, through the failure of 
the subscriber to notify us to discontinue it, or some 
irresponsible party requested to atop It, we shall positively 
demand payment for the time it is sent. Look carefully 

AT THE LABEL ON YOUR PATER. 



A Vineyard Plow. 

We give herewith a picture of a vineyard 
plow, made by the Oliver Chilled Plow Works, 
which has a branch establishment at 37 Market 
street, San Francisco. The description of the 
main points of value in the plow is as follows : 

The Standard and Beam are thrown to th'e 
center so as not to interfere with the growing 
vines. The Lindside handle is adjustable, and 
can be thrown to or from the land at will of 
operator. The share of this plow is made in two 



in place is considered. The peculiar notched 
prongs forming the upper portion of the point, 
or that part which fits into the standard, are 
held in position by a lever resting against the 
inside of the standard, and when the strain is 
applied as the point comes into use the pressure 
on these prongs is so graduated as to be almost, 
if not quite uniform and perfect, and thus 
nearly the entire strain is taken off the foot of 
standard and exposed portion of the slip point, 
thereby avoiding much of the liability to break- 
age, so common in the ordinary points and 
standards. 




pieces, the wing forming one and the point the 
other, each reversible independently of the 
other, yet as a whole, forming a very strong and 
most complete share. The Wing, as shown in 
the illustration, is so made that the bearings 
or fitting parts are entirely concealed from view 
when in position, so that they are not exposed 
to wear in the least, thus insuring a complete 
tit under any and all circumstances. The spe- 
cial design of the wing is such that a concave 
surface is always presented to wear, and this 
holds good until worn out, no matter how often 
reversed. 

The Slip Point is a marvel of strength and 
utility, which is clearly apparent when the 
principle upon which it is constructed and held 



The bearings of the slip point, like those of 
the wins, are entirely concealed, hence are not 
effected by any use the point may be subjected 
to and a perfect fit always results. 

The design of this implement, which is styled 
"O.iver Chilled Plow, No. 8," resulted from a 
special inquiry into and study of the needs of 
Pacific orchard and vineyard men. The im- 
plement was introduced only last year, but 
"took" at once to such an extent that the 
branch house in San Francisco could not supply 
the demand, and the prospect now is that the 
reputation it has already made for itself will 
grow proportionately the present season. The 
plow can be examined by all interested at 37 
Market street, San Francisco. 



DEWEY & CO.'S 




Patent Agency. 



Inventors on the Pacific Coast will find it greatly to their advantage to consult this old 
experienced, first-class Agency. We have able and trustworthy Associates and Agents in Wash 
ington and the capital cities of the principal nations of the world. In connection with our edi- 
torial, scientific and Patent Law Library, and record of original cases in our office, we have 
other advantages far beyond those which can be offered home inventors by other agencies. The 
information accumulated through long and careful practice before the Office, and the frequent 
examination of Patents already granted, for the purpose of determining the patentability of 
inventions brought before us, enables us often to give advice which will save inventors the 
expense of applying for Patents upon inventions which are not new. Circulars of advice sent 
free on receipt of postage. Address DEWEY & CO., Patent Agents, 252 Market St., S. F. 

A. T. DEWEY. W. B. EWER. GEO. H. STRONG. 



DIVIDEND NOTICE. 
The German Savings and Loan Society. 

For the half-year ending December 81, 1885, the Board 
of Directors of the German Swings and Loan Society has 
declared a dividend at the rate of four and one-half (4$) 
per cent per annum, on term deposits, and three and 
three-fourths (3|) per cent per annum, on ordinary de- 
posits, and payable on and after the 2d day of January, 
1886. By order. GEO. LETTE, Secretary, 



DIVIDEND NOTICE. 
San Francisco Savings Union, 

532 California St., cor. Webb. 

For the half-year ending December 81, 18S5, a dividend 
has been declared at the rate o' lour and one-half (4J) per 
cent per annum, on term deposits, and three and three- 
fourths (3j) per cent per annum, on ordinary deposits, 
free from taxes, payable on and after January 2, 1886 

LOVELL WHITE, Cashier, 



DYSPEPSIA. 

Sedentary habits, mental worry, nervous 
excitement, excess or imprudence in eat- 
ing or drinking, and various other causes, 
induce Constipation followed by general 
derangement of the liver, kidneys, and 
stomach, in which the disorder of each 
organ increases the infirmity of the others. 

The immediate results are Loss of Appe- 
tite, Nausea, Foul Breath, Heartburn, Flat- 
ulence, Dizziness, Sick Headaches, failure 
of physical and mental vigor, distressing 
sense of weight and fullness in the stomach, 
and increased Costiveness, all of which are 
known under one head as Dyspepsia. 

In every instance where this disease does 
not originate from scrofulous taint in the 
blood, AVER'S Tills may be confidently 
relied upon to effect a cure. Those cases 
not amenable to the curative influence of 
Ayer's Pills alone will certainly yield if 
the Pills are aided by the powerful blood- 
purifying properties of Ayer's Sarsapa- 
RILLA. 

Dyspeptics should know that the longer 
treatment of their malady is postponed, 
the more difficult of cure it becomes. 

Ayer's Pills 

Never fail to relieve the bowels and pro- 
mote their healthful and regular action, 
and thus cure Dyspepsia. Temporary 
palliatives all do permanent harm. The 
fitful activity into which the enfeebled 
stomach is spurred by "bitters," and alco- 
holic stimulants, is" inevitably followed 
by reaction that leaves the organ weaker 
than before. 

"Costiveness, induced by my sedentary 
habits of life, became chronic; Ayer's 1'ills 
afforded me speedy relief. Their occasional use 
has since kept me all right.'' Hermann Bbino- 
hoff, Newark, N. J. 

-"I was induced to try Ayer's Pills as a 
remedy for Indigestion, Constipation, and 
Headache, from which 1 bad long been a suf- 
ferer. 1 found their action easy, and obtained 
prompt relief. They have benefited me more 
than all the medicines ever before tried." M.V. 
Watson, 162 State St., Chicago, III. 

"They have entirely corrected the costive 
habit, and vastly improved my general health." 
Rev. Francis B. Hari.owe, Atlanta, Ga. 

"The most effective and the easiest physic I 
have ever found. One dose will quickly move 
my bowels and free my head from pain." W. L 
I'age, Richmond , Ya. 

"A sufferer from Liver Complaint, Dys- 
pepsia, and Neuralgia for the last twenty 
years, Ayer's Pills have benefited me more 
than any medicine I have ever taken." P. R. 
Rogers, Nceihnore, Brown Co., Intl. 

"For Dyspepsia they are invaluable." J. T. 
Hayes, Mexia, Texas. 

AYER'S PILLS, 

PREPARED BY 

Dr. J. C. Ayer & Co., Lowell, Mass. 

Sold by all Druggists. 




FRUIT TREE SEEDLINGS 

FROM FRANCE 1 

125,000 Pear for Planting out and 
Grafting Sizes. 

75,000 Apple, Cherry, & Myrobolan 
Plum Seedlings. 

Eastern Black Walnuts and Seedlings. A quantity 
French Pear Seed just arrived. Send for price litt. 

J. T. BOGUS, 

Martinez, Cal. 



■VIcDER MAID'S 

Standard Boss Churn 

AND WHITE ASH BITTER TUBS. 

The best churn in the World. A 
child can work it. Makes ten per 
cent more butter. No chum 
cleaned so easy- No dashers, 
no paddles. No inside fixtures. One 
churn sold at wholesale prices 
where we have no agent. If you 
*o medcrmAIoVI want the best and cheapest chum 
» RQ C KF ORptY lw . I in the market, address manufac- 
™" * turers, 

McDERMAID & ALLEN, 

Agems Warned. Rockford, His. 



DIVIDEND NOTICE. 

OFFICE of 

The Hibernia Savings and Loan Society, 

N. E. cor. Montgomery & Post Sts. 

San Francisco, January 4, 1886. 
At a regul ir meeting of the Board of Directors of this 
Society, held this day, a Dividend at the rate of 3? t per 
cent per annum has been declared on all Deposits for the 
six months ending with December 31, 1885, free from all 
taxes, and payable from and after this date. 

ROBERT J. TOBIN, Secretary. 

ANNUAL MEETING. 

The Regular Annuil Meeting of the Stockholders of 
the Grangers' Bank of California for tho election of Di- 
rectors for the ensuing year will take place at the officii 
of the Bank, in the City of San Francisco, Stite of Cali- 
fornia, on Tuesday, the 12th day of January, 
1886, at one o'clock, p. H. 

San Francisco, December 14th, 1885. 

For Grangers' Bank of California, 

ALBERT MONTPELLIER, 

Cashier and Managsr, 




42 



PACIFIC RURAb PRESS. 



[Jan. 9, 1886 



breeders' birectory. 



Six lines or less in this Directory at .Wc per line per month. 



POULTRY. 



E. C. CLAPP. South Pasadena, Ual. Light Brahmas, 
Plymouth Kocks and SilverSpangled llaniburgs. Fowls 
and Kggs. Ex. and P. I ). Money Orcer offices, Pasadena 

JAS. T. BROWN, 18 Georgia St., Log Angeles, Cal. 
Breeder of 'thoroughbred Poultry of the leading va- 
rieties. Send for circular and price list. 

T. D. MORRIS, Sonoma, Cal. Tuolouse and Embden 
Geese, Bronze and W. Holland Turkeys, and all leading 

varieties of Thoroughbred Poultry. 

D. H. EVERETT, 1618 Larkin St., S. K., importer and 
breeder of Thoroughbred Langshans and Wyandottes. 

J. N. LUND, Box 116, Oakland, Cal. Wyandottes, 
Langshans, L. Brahmas, P. Hocks, B. Leghorns, B. B. 
R. Game Bantams, T. Guineas, llom'g Antwerp Piegons. 



MRS. D. C. VESTAL, San Jose. Brown Leghorns, 
Langshans and Plymouth Kocks. Eggs and Fowls. 

CALIFORNIA POULTRY FARM, Stockton, Cal. 
Importers and breeders of Thoroughbred Poultry. Eggs 
and chicks for sale. Cutting & Kubinson, P. O. Box 7. 

JOHN McFARLING, Oakland and Calistoga, b'd'r 
Langshans, Partridges Butt Cochins, L't Brahmas, Ply- 
mouth Kocks, Rose Comb, Am. Dominick a: Wyand'tt's. 

R. G. HEAD, Napa, Cal , breeder of high-class Land 
and Water Fowls and Berkshire Pigs, Brahmas, Cochins, 
Langshans, Plymouth Rocks, Leghorns, Geese, Ducks, 
Turkeys. Send 2-cent stamp for Circular. 

C. H. NEAL, Lodi, San Joaquin Co., importer and 
breeder of Thoroughbred Poultry for 20 years. Has 
all the leading varieties and birds of all classes for sale, 
as well as Eggs for hatching. 

O. J. ALBEE, Santa Clara, Cal., breeder of Langshans. 
Partridge Cochins, Pedigreed Scotch Collies, W. C. B 
Polish, Wyandottes, B. Leghorns, B. B. R G. Bantams. 

MRS. L. J. WATKINS. San Jose, Cal. Pure bred 
Fancy Poultry. White and Brown Leghorns, Plymouth 
Rocks, Langshans, Houdans, Light Brahmas, and 

Black Spanish. Eggs and Fowls. 

W. O. DAMON, Na)«, Wyandottes, W. and B. Leg- 
horns, P. Rocks, L. Brahmas, Pekin Ducks. 



D. D. URIGGS, LosGatos, Cal.. Fancy Poultry breeder 



MRS. M. E. NEWHALL, San Jose. White and 
Brown Leghorns, Langshans, Plymouth Rocks, Light 
Brahmas, Pekin Ducks and Bronze Turkeys. 

GEO. B. BAYLEY, 1317 Castro St., Oakland, Im- 
porter and Breeder of all the best known and most 
) profitable Land and Water Fowls. Publisher of the 
Pacific Coast Poulterers' Hand Book and Guide. Price 
40 cents. Send 2-cent stamp tor Illustrated Circular. 



HORSES AND CATTLE. 

J. H. WHITE, Lakeville, Sonoma Co., Cal., breeder 
of Registered HolBtein Cattle. 



J. A. BREWER, Centerville, Alameda Co., Cal. 
Shorthorns and Grades. Young stock for sale. 

S. SCOTT, Cloverdale, CI., Importer and Breeder of 
high-breed Short Horn Cattleof the best milking quali- 
ties. Imported Duke of Auckland (8S. r >)at head of herd. 
Jacks and Spanish Merino Sheep. All kinds of stock 
for sale. < 

CLYDESDALE HORSE CO , Petaluma, Cai. 
Full bloods and grades on haml and for sale. Addrc.-s 
G. B. McNear, Secretary. 

GEO BEMENT, Redwood City, breeder of Ay rehire 
Cattle. Southdown Sheep, Berkshire and Essex Swine. 

PETER SAXE & SON, Lick House, San Francisco, 
Cal. Importers and Breeders, for past 14 years, of 
every variety of Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Hoge. 

WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. Thorough- 
bred Poultry, Cattle and Hogs. Write for circular. 

COTATE RANCH BREEDING FARM, Page's 
Station, S. F. & N. P. R. R. P. O., Penn's Grove, 
Sonoma Co., Cal. Wilfred Page, Manager. Breeders 
of Short Horn Cattle, English Draft Horses, Spanish Me- 
rino Sheep and Berkshire Swine. 

R. J. MERKELEY. Sacramento, breeder of Norman, 
Percheron Horses and thoroughbred Shorthorn Cattle. 

Estate of M. E. BRADLEY, San Jose, Cal., breeder 
of recorded thoroughbred Shorthorn Cattle and Berk- 
shire Hogs. A choice lot of young stock for sale. 

THE HYDE RANCH, Cornwall, Contra Costa Co., 
I. H. Schneider, M'g'r, Norman-Percheron horses. 

J. R. ROSE, Lakeville, Sonoma Co., Cal., breeder of 
Thoroughbred Devons, Roadsters and Draft Horses. 

SETH COOK, Danville, "Cook Farm," Contra Costa 
Co., breeder of Aberdeen Angus, Galloways and De- 
vons (Registered). Young stock for sole. 



SWINE. 



I. L. DICKINSON, Lone Oak Farm, Si.nora, Tuol- 
umne Co., Cal., breeder of thoroughbred Essex Hogs. 
Pigs now ready for sale. Prices reasonable. 

WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. Thoroughbred 
Poland-China and Berkshire Pigs. Circulars fr«p 

JOHN RIDER, Sacramento, Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire Swine. My stock of Hogs are all 
recorded in the American Berkshire Record. 



TYLER BEACH, San 
thoroughbred Berksbires. 



Jose, Cal., breeder of 



SHEEP AND GOATS. 

JULIUS WEYAND, breeder of pure-blooded An- 
gora Goats, Little Stony, Colusa Co., Cal. 

KIRKPATRICK & WHITTAKER, Knight's 
ferry, 0*1., breeders of Merino Sheep. Rams for sale 

E ASTON MILLS, Lakeville, Sonoma Co., thorough- 
bred Spanish Merino Sheep. Choice rams for sale. 

L. U. SHIPPEE, Stockton, Cal. Importer and breeder 
of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Red [Juror 
»nd Berkshire Swine High graded Rams for sale 



BEES. 



WM. MUTH-RASMUSSEN, Independence, Inyo 
County, Cal., dealer in Honey, Comb Foundation, and 
Italian (Queens in season. Bee-hive and frame ma- 
terial eawed to order. 



Houses ^nd G^TT LE - 




New Importation of French Horses 

T. SKIM-MAN, the pioneer importer, has just re- 
turned from France with one of the l>est importations 
ever made, including French l>raft and Coaching Stall- 
ions and Marcs. Horses for sale on reasonable and favor- 
able tTms at his sale stable in Pet»luma. 
l&'Catalogue on application. 

T. SKILL&IAN. 

Petaluma, Cal. 



SINCLAIRVILLE STOCK FARM. 




Trtiutle (370 N. H. B., 2943 H. H. B ,. 

Record— 95 lbs. of milk per day, and IS lbs. 9 oz unsaltcd 
butter in seven days in February. Winner of sweep- 
stakes prize at Ghent, Belgium, as giving the most and 
I r-t milk of any cow on exhibition. 

HOLSTEIN-FRIESIAN CATTLE ! 

Over One Hundred Head, 

With Barrington (278 N. H. B., '2103 II. H B.) at head 
of herd, whose dam, Hamming, has a milk record of 09 
lbs. in one day. Zuarta, of our 1881 importation, made 
600 lbs. butter in 2o0 consecutive days; Aimada, 1 lb but- 
ter from 161 lbs. milk; Linaria, 1 lb. butter from 151 lbs. 
milk; Jennie B 2d, 18} lbs. butter in seven days in March, 
fctij lbs. milk in one day; Bexje, 93} lbs. in one da); 
Baroness S. , 72 lbs. milk prr day at three years old. Cows 
and heifers in calf by Barrington and other noted bulls. 
We employ no aoknt, but visit Ho land and personally 
select from the dktest milk and M7YTM families to be 
found. Stock of all ages and both sexes for sale. Address 
B. B. LORD & SON. 
Slnclalrville, Chautauqua Co., N. Y. 




Norman and Percheron Horses 

FOR SALE. 
All Registered in National Register. 

Selected by me in France and imported direct to San 
Jose September, 1S8:»; took first premium for 4-ycar-old 
stallion; first premium for 2 year-old stallion; second 
premium on 3-year-old stallion; first premium on 4-year- 
old marc at California State Fair of 1S.S5. Stock may be 
seen at Dexter Stables, San Suse Sales at reasonable 
rates, and time given if desired. Send for Catalogue. 

J. C. DUNCAN, San Jose, Cal. 



BADEN FARM HERD. 
01 Short Horn Cattle and Dairy Cows. 

Catalogues and Prices on application to 

ROBERT ASHBURNBR, 
Baden Station, ... San Mateo Co 



FINE IMPORTED 

Pore Bred & High Grade Animals 

FOR SALE 

BY Till 

PETALUMA STOCK BREEDERS' "ASSOCIATION. 

location: 
PETALUMA, SONOMA CO., CAL., 

BOARD OF DIRRCTORS: 

J. R. ROSE, THEO. SKILLMAN, E. DEN MAN, 
ROBERT CRANE, J. H. WHITE. 

Sixteen Draft and Three French Coach 
Stallions Just Received: the 
Pick of France. 

Home-bred and H igli-Krade" Stallions and 
. Mares for Sale. 



Everything Guaranteed as Represented. 
Pine Breeding Animals a Specialty. 

HORSES: Draft, Carriage and Roadsters. 
CATTLE: Holstein, Devon, Jersey, Ayrshire and Short 
Horns. 

SHEEP: Merinos, Shropshires, Southdowns and others. 
SWINE: Berkshire, Duroc and Poland-China. 
POULTRY: All approved varieties. 

Call ou or address J. H. HrNABB, Sec'y, 

McCune'8 Block, Petaluma. 



Clydesdale and Eng- 
lish Shire Horses. 

The only stud In Ameri- 
ca containing the very 
best specimens of both 
breeds. Prize winners at 
ChtciiK'oKiiir.lhe World's 
Fair at New Orleans, the 
lb.val Society of Kng- 
Isnd. etc. Larue Impor- 
tation arrived August 12, 
and more to follow. 
iOur buying facilities be- 
ting ■ueututltod, there 
Is no such opportunity 
offered elsewhere, to 
procure tlrst class animals of choicest brcodini: at 
very lowest prices. Every animal duly recorded 
and guaranteed. Terms to suit all customers. 
Catalogue, on application. 

GALBRA1TH BROS., Junc.vlllc, Wis. 




SHORTHORN 
DURHAM CATTLE. 



Registered Bulls of All Ages for Sale 
at Reasonable Prices. 
Apply to 

G H. HOWARD, 

San Mateo, Cal. 

Or W. H. HOWARD, 

523 Montgomery St., San Francisco. 



HOLSTEIN and JERSEY CATTLE. 

The undersigned has choice Registered animals of 
this bree of cattle for sale at reasonable prices. 




Also BERKSHIRE and POLAND-CHINA 
riGS. 

POULTRY IN ALL VARIETIES. 

Address: WILLIAM NILES. 

Los Angeles, Cal. 



IMPORTANT! 

That the public should know that for the past Fourteen Tears our Sole Business has been, and now Is, 
importing (Over 100 Carloads) and breeding improved Live Stock— Horses, Jacks, Short Horns, Ayrshiros 
and Jerseys (er Alderneys) and their grades; also, all the varieties of breeding Sheep and Hogs. We can sup* 
ply any and all good animals that may be wanted, and at very reasonable prices and on convenient 
terras. Write or call on us. PETER SAXE and HOMER P. SAXE. 

San Francisco, Cal., Oct. 22, 1884. I I M I : SAXE A SOX, Lick Honse, S. F. 



HOLSTEIN-FRIESIAN CATTLE. 

ALL AGES AND HOTH SEXES. HOME- 
BRED AND IMI'OKTKD. Cows and Heifers 
bred to best Netberland and A aggie Hulls. 

The average Records of a Herd are the true test of its 
merit The following Milk and Butter Records have all 
been made by animals now in our Herd: 
MILK RECORDS. 
Three Cows have averaged over 20,000 fbs. in a year. 
Five Cows have averaged over 19,000 lbs. in a year. Ten 
Cows have averaged over 18,000 ths. in a year. We know 
of about 30 Cows that have made yearly records exceed, 
ing 16,000 lbs., and 14 of them are now In our Herd and 
have averaged over 17,500 lbs. Twenty-five have aver- 
aged over 16,000 ll>a in a year. Sixty three, the entire 
number in the Herd that have made yearly records, in- 
eluding fourteen 3 year-olds and twenty -one 2-year-olds, 
have averaged 12,785 lbs. 5 ozs. in a year. 
BUTTER RECORDS.— Five Cows have averaged 20 U.S. 7 ozs. in a week. Kine Cows have averaged 19 
lbs. ^ oz. in a week. Fifteen Cows have averaged 17 ths. 6 ozs. in a week. Six 3-year-olds have averaged 14 Ths. 3 
Ms, in a week. Eleven 3-year-olds (the entire number tested) have averaged 13 lbs. 2 ozs. in a week. Six 2-year- 
olds have averaged 12 ths. 1| ozs. in a week. Fifteen 2-ycar-olds (entire number tested) have averaged 10 lbs. 8 3-10 
ozs. in a week. The entire original imported Netherland Family of six Cows (two being but 3 years old) have aver- 
aged 17j Its. in a week. This is the Herd from which to get foundation stock. Prices low for quality of stock. 

SMITHS, FO WELL A LAMB, Lakeside Stock Farm, Syracuse, -N . Y. 




Swine. 




For Sale at our Farm at Mountain View. 

From our Thoroughbred Berkshire Boar and Sow, 
which we imported from England in 1880. Pi-rs from Im- 
ported Boar and Sow, $25 each; from Imported Boar and 
Thoroughbred Sow, f 10 to $20. Our Imported Pigs are as 
nice PigB as there are in the State. Address, 

L J. TRUMAN. San Francisco, Cal. 



=> Q 

o u-i 

DC DC 

o CO 



sS 



CO 

m 

o ^ 
CO I 



dkV 



From imported stock direct from England, bred by 
Russell Swanwick, President Royal Agricultural College 
Farm, England, from the Celebrated STUMPY and 
SALLIE FAMILIES. Young stock always for sale 
at lowest possible rates. Address AN DREW SMITH, 
Redwood, or 218 California St., S. F. 




POLAND-CHiNA. 



Registered and Thoroughbred Animals, 
from 4 to 10 months old, for Sale. 

£jTCORRg8l>ONDK.VCll SOLICITED. 

W. D. RUCKSR, 

Santa Clara, Cal. 



JT. ME3LVIN, 

Davisvllle, Cal. 



ItSSXSS&tSi POLAND-CHINA PIGS 

For fale reasonable. My Imported Pigs are as nice 
Pigs as there are in the State. Stock re- 
corded in A. P. C. R. Correspondence 
solicited. Address as above. 



SrjEEf* \nd Sr|EEPWJ^Sr|. 



LITTLE'S 




SHEEP DIP. 

Price Reduced to 
$1.25 

PER GALLON. 



Twenty gallons of fluid 
mixed with cold water will 
make 1,200 gallons of Dip. 
It is superior to all Dips and Dressings for Scab in 
Sheep; is certain in effect; is easily mixed, and is applied 
In a cold state. Unlike sulphur or tobacco, or other 
poisonous Dips, it increases the growth of the wool, stim- 
lates the fleece, and greatly adds to ths yolk. It destroys 
all vermin. It is efficacious for almost every disease (In- 
ternal and external) sheep are subject to. 



FALKNER, 



BELL & CO- 

San FranclBCO, OaL 




E. W. PEET, 

Importer 



Breeder 



THOROUGHBRED 



SPANISH MERINO SHEEP. 

400 Head for Sale. 

E. W. PEET, 
Hay wards, Alameda Co., Cat 




Calvert's Carbolic 

SHEEP WASH 

$8 per Gallon. 

After dipping the Sheep, Is use- 
ful for preserving wet bides, de- 
stroying the vine pest, and for 
wheat dressings and disiufecting 
purposes, etc T. W. JACKSON, 
8. F., Sole Agent for Pacific Coast. 



conniN's 
GREAT HORSE LINIMENT. 

Cure tor Swinney, Weakness of the 
Kidneys and Spine, Sprains, Strains* 
Corrin's Great Horse Liniment bos all 
the properties c.aimed for it. 
DIRECTIONS — Rub well the swinnled shoulder and 
gently raise the hide from shoulder blade during the 
friction. PRICE— $1 per bottle. For sole by all Drug* 
gists. All rights secured in U. S. Patent Office. 

A. C. JOSEPH, Proprietor. 
For Sale by Rbddinoton & Co., S. F. 




IF YOJ REALLY WISH 

to use the very best Butter 
Color ever made; one that 
never turns rancid, always 
gives a bright natural color, 
and will not color the butter- 
milk* ask for Wells, Rich- 
ardson & Co*8., and take no 
other. Bold everywhere. , 

MORE OF IT USED " 

than of all other makes com* 
bined. Send for our value* 
ble circulars. 
fVELlA RICHARDSON & CO., Burlington, Vt» 



W.R&CO'S 
IMPROVED 

BUTTER 
COLOR 



Jan. 9, 1886.] 



pACIFie RURAb fRESS. 



43 



CALIFORNIA 

Poultry Association 




THE THIRD ANNUAL EXHIBITION 

Of this Society will be held at 

ST. IGNATIUS HALL, 

Market Street, between 4th and 5th. 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

FROM THE 

11th to the 16th of January next, 

HOT!! DAYS INCLUSIVE. 

iW Entry List positively closes January flth. 

For Premium Lists, entry blanks and any further in- 
formation, address the Secretary, 

H. G. KEESLING, San Jose. 
Or California Poultry Association. 

Box 1771, San Francisco. 

Thoroughbred 
LANGSHANS 

— AND — 

WYANDOTTES. 




D. H. EVERETT, 

Importer and Breeder, 
1618 Lark in St., San Fran- 
cisco, C'al. 

EGGS and FOWLS. 



EAGLE POULTRY FARM. 

Fruit Vale, Alameda County, Cal. 

KDCBEKNET, BREEDER OF THO- 
• roughbred Fowls. Eggs and Fowls for sale. Brown 
and White Leghorns, 81 per setting. Plymouth Rocks 
and Houdans, $1 60 per setting; White Face Black 
Spanish and Langslians, $2 per setting; Pekin Ducks, $1 
per setting. Money to accompany order. Address, 

K. DUBEBNET, 
P. O. Box 76. Brooklyn, Alameda^Co^Cal. 



CALIFORNIA POULTRY FARM. 




Headquarters for Thoroughbred 
Poultry and Eggs. We have all the 
leading and most profitable breeds. 
Chicks for delivery Sept. 1, 1885. 
Agents for White Mountain Incuba- 
tor. Send 2c. Btamp for price list. 

CUTTING & ROBINSON, 
P. O. Box 7, Stockton, Cal. 




GRIND YOUR OWN BONE, 

Meal, Oyster Shells & Corn in the 

yHAND MILL 
(P. Wilson's Patent.) lOO 
per ct. more made In keeping Poultry. Also Power 
Mills and Farm Feed Hills. Circulars and testi- 
monials sent on application. WILSON BROS. 
EASTON, Pernio. The Pacific Coast supplied bj 

HAWLEY BROS. HARDWARE CO.. 

301 to 309 Market St., San Francisco. Cal. 



HORTON 

FAMOUS 

ENTERPRISE 

Self-Regulating 

WINDMILL 



KENNEDY'S 



Is 



recognized as 
the Best. 





HEADQUARTERS FOR 

Wyandottes, Light Brahmas, Plymouth Rocks, Buff Cochins, Partridge 
Cochins, Langshans, Houdans, Silver Spangled Hamburgs, 
White aD(l Brown Leghorns, W. F. B. Spanish, 
Pekin Ducks, and Bronze Turkeys. 
My Fowls are raised on seven different farms, making them healthy and vigorous. 
Also, Breeder of UUROC SWINE. Pigs for Sale. 
Circular Free. Address 
T. WAITE, Brighton, Sacramento Co.. Cal. 



Always gives satisfaction. SIMPLE, 
STRONG and DURABLE in all parts. 
Solid Wrought-iron Crank Shaft with 
double, bearings for the Crank to 
work in, all turned and run in adjust- 
able babbitted boxes. 

Positively Self-Regulating, 

With no ooll springs, or springs of any kind. No little 
rods, joints, levers, or anything of the kind to get out of 
order, as such things do. Mills in use 8 to 12 years in 
good order now, that have never cost one cent for repairs. 
All genuine Enterprise Mills for the Paciflo Coast trade 
come only through this agency, and none, whether of 
the old or latest pattern, are genuine except those bear- 
ing the "Enterprise Co." stamp. Look out for this, as 
inferior mills are being offered with testimonials applied 
to them which were given for ours. Prices to suit the 
times. Full particulars free. Best Pumps, Feed Mills, 
etc., kept in stock. Address, 

HORTON & KENNEDY, 

GENERAL OFFICE AND SUPPLIES (as always before), 
LIVERMORE, ALAMEDA CO., CAL. 

San Francisco Agency— JAMES LINFORTB 
116 Front St.. San Francisco. 

This paper is printed with Ink Manufac- 
tured by Charles Eneu Johnson & Co., 500 
South 10th St., Philadelphia. Branch Offi- 
ces— 47 Rose St., New York, and 40 La Salle 
St., Chicago. Agent for the Pacific Coast- 
Joseph H. Dorety. 629 Commercial St., S. F. 



GOLDEN GATE INCUBATOR! 

An improvement in the system of manufacture, >>y the new Golden Gate management, cheapens production somewhat, 
and we gi?> our patrons the benefit. From Jan. 1, 1886, our machine will be sold at the man it factor it, n-iihont i.rtrns, at 
•^55. Boxirg aud shipment. -^2.50. Ten do'larn' worth of extras, including brooders, drinking cups, feed-pans, and egg 
tester, to purchasers of machine* only, for $7.50. The capacity of our incubator is 280 ordinary-sized hens' tggs; aud at the 
prices named it is the cheapest machine sold, at auy price; whi e for efficiency Its equal does n t exist, as our numerous 
testimonials abundantly testify. Send for circular ty G. G. INCUBATOR CO., East Oakland, Cal. 





BUT PLENTY ALSO 



EGGS ! 

EGGS ! 



USING 



NO DISKASE, 

EGGS ! 
EGGS Vo 

WHEN 

WELLINGTON'S IMPROVED EGG FOOD for POULTRY. 

REMEMBER- To-day, those who find their flocks free from disease, laying when 
Eggs are high in priee, profitable, and desirable in every way, are those who feed this Egg 
Food, and follow the direccions closely. 

NOTE.— Not onz in one hundred who do not feed tin's Egg Food, find their flocks in 
the above condition. Then give it the test of 1 pound Eg* food to each dozen hens. It 
then lasts long enouf.h to prove it all, beyond a doubt. 

1-Ib. boxes, 35c; 3-lb. boxes, $1 ; 10-lb. boxes, $3.50 ; 25-lb. boxes, $5. 

B. F. WELLINGTON, Prop.; S^&fc 425 Washington St., S. F. 



D 



Alfalfa, 
Evergreen 
Millet, 
Grass, 
Clover. 
Vegetable, 
Fruit, 
Flower, 
Seeds 
In packages. 
Scccls 
In bulk. 

Seeds 

IN ANY 

QUANTITY 

AND 

EEDS 

OF EVERY 

VARIETY. 




The "ACME" subjects the soil to the action of a Steel Crusher and. Leveler, and to the Cutting 
Lifting, Turning process of double gangs of CAST STEEI. COULTERS, the peculiar shape and arrange 
mcnt of which give immense cutting power. Thus the three operations of crushing lunips,HeveliDg 
off the ground and thoroughly pulverizing the soil are performed at the same time. The entire ab 
sence of Spikes or Spring Teeth avoids pulling up rubbish. It is especially adapted to inverted sod and 
hard clay, where other Harrows uttei ly fall; works perfectly on light soil, and is the only Harrow that cuts over 
the entire surface of the ground. We make a variety of sizes, 3 to 15 feet wide. 

The " ACME" is in practical use in nearly every Agricultural County on the Pacific Coast, and has proved itself 
to be just the tool for use in VINEYARDS, ORCHARDS, and GRAIN FIELDS. 

OTSend for Pamphlet containing Thousands of Testimonials from 48 different 
States and Territories. 

3Nr-A.SH c*? BROTHER, 

Manufactory and Principal Office, Millington, N. J. 
N. B.— Pamphlet " TILLAGE IS MANURE, and Other Essays," sent free to parties who name this paper. 
FOR SALE ON THE PACIFIC COAST BY 
Arthur W. Bull, San Francisco; G. B. Adams Si Son, San Gabriel, Cal.; Staver 
Walker, Portland, Or., and Walla Walla, W. T. 




S. W. Corner Kearny and Montgomery Avenue, San Francisco. 

Free Coach to and from the House. J. W. BECKER,: proprietor. 




The Machines are light, strong, 
easy-running, admit&b] 
in design and finis 
Practical all-da; 
Tool.. 



S. L. ALLEN & CO 

127 and 129 

Catharine Street, 

PHILADELPHIA, FA, 




Send, now if you are in- 
terested in Farming, Garden- 
ing, or Trucking, for our 
1886 CATALOGUE, 
which fully describes our Seed-Drills, 
Wheel- 



Hoes, and Hol- 
low Steel Standard 
Horse Hoes and Culti- 
vators. Free to all. 
CORRESPONDENCE SOLICITED. 




DEWEY & CO. 



} PATENT AGENTS. 



THE PACIFIC INCUBATOR! 

Awarded the Gold Medal 
at the State Fair, Sacra- 
mento, and at the Mechan- 
ics' Institute Fair of 1885 
as the best machine made. 

It will hatch an}' kind of Egga 
hetter than a Hen. 
Send Stamp for Illustrated Cir- 
cular to GEORGE B. BAYLEY, 
Manufacturer, 1317 Castro St., 
| Oakland, Cal 

N B.— A large line of Poultry 
Appliances, such as Wire Netting, 
Bone Mills, Chopping Machines, 
etc., for sale at the lowest rates. 

The Pacific Coast Poulterers' 
Hand Book and Guide; price 40c. 



THE LAST IS FIRST. 
The Star Incubator 

Has proved itself to be the most successful hatcher, pro- 
ducing healthier chickens than any other in use. It is 
made en the principle of nature, and nature is true to 
itself; the nearer we come to it the better the success. 
No burnt chickens or burnt air. So simple that a child 
can use it. itaTIt has also a simple attachment by which 
the eggs can be turned at once, in a moment's time. 
Call and see them at R WALKER'S, 

364 Twelfth St., Oakland, Cal. 




J, M. HALSTED'S 

INCUBATORS 

From $20 up. 
The Model Brooder 
from $5 up. Send 
for circular contain- 
ing much valuable 
information. 

Thoroughbred 
Poultry and Eggs. 
1011 Broadway, 

Oakland, Cal. 



THE PETALUMA INCUBATOR. 

. The Simplest, Cheapest and 
Hest Incubator made. Three 
~"t f | Gold Medals, 1 Silver Medal, and 



11 



15 first premiums. Send for 
large illustrated circular— vrke. 
\ Address PETALUMA INCUBA- 
TOR CO. Pstaluma Cal. 




Dear Sir :— Having so many inquiries about prices of 
Gates and County Rights, etc., I herewith give prices of 
this celebrated Gate: 

For a Wood Frame Gate, Wire Rod $26 00 

For a Wood Frame Gate, Wire Rod, Hog and Rab- 
bit tight 30 00 

For a Wrought Iron Plain Gate 40 00 

For a Wrought Iron Plain Gate, Hog and Rabbit 

tight 45 00 

For a Wrought Iron Plain Gate with fancy scroll 

on top 45 00 

For a Wrought Iron Frame, filled with Marsh Wire 50 00 
For a Wrought Iron Frame, filled with Marsh Wire 

with fancy scroll on top 60 00 

For a Tubular Iron Plain Gate 35 00 

For a Tubular Iron Plain Gate, Hog and Rabbit tight 40 00 
For a Tubular Iron Plain Gate with fancy scroll on 

top 45 00 

For a Tubular Iron Frame, filled with Marsh Wire, 

with fancy scroll on top $50 00 to 60 00 

For Very Fancy Iron Gates from $60 00 to 100 00 

In asking for prices of County Rights, and discount to 
agents, etc., it is hard to make any fair impression on any 
person who has never seen the article they are inquiring 
about. Even if I quoted the largest discount given by 
any firm, or if I quoted the price of County Rights to you 
almost for nothing, yet any business man would not buy 
or handle any article before viewing it, and ascertain 
what it was. 

The question would naturally follow, "Will it pay to 
canvass for this; if it does, will it pay better to buy the 
territory in which he wishes to canvass in?" ThoBe are 
questions any business man will ask himself before he 
embarks into any enterprise of this kind. And to place 
you on a fair basis, I will ship you a gate $5.00 less than 
the prices quoted. You put it up according to our direc- 
tions, and if the gate don't give satisfaction, send it back, 
freight paid, and I will refund you the money, or you can 
deposit with Wells, Farao & Co.'s express agent the price 
of the gate, less the $5.00, subject tomy order in ten days 
after receiving the gate. This will give you ample time 
to test the gate and see what it is. Should you return 
the gate, upon presenting the shipping receipt, freight 
paid, you can draw the amount from the agent with 
whom you deposited the money. I make this proposition 
because 1 know the gate will give the best of satisfaction, 
and I can show you figures whereby you can make more 
money on the sale of this gate every year for fifteen years, 
than you can on the best 160 acres of land in your county. 
If you have any desire to enter into this business and buy 
County Rights, and thoroughly canvass, I will send you 
a confidential circular gh ing the bed-rock figures of the 
cost of these gates, which will show you the large profit 
there is in them, and as to the sale of the gate, they are 
easily sold, more especially where they are introduced for 
any length of time, there is where they sell the fastest. 

For further particulars inquire of yours truly, 

JOHN AYLWARD, 
P. O. Box 88, Livermore, Alameda Co., Cal. 

/WSee my othi r advertisement in this paper. 

CALVES and COWS 

Provented sucking each other, also, aelf-SUCklng, by 
S 1 :e's Patent Weaner. Used by all Stock Raisers. 
Prices by mail, postpaid; For Calves till one year old, 
65 cents; till two years old, 80 cents; older, $1.12. Circu- 
lars '■■ee. Agents wanted. 

B. C. RICE. FarmlrjBton. Conn. 



SMALL S FEEDER 

litis NKVV artiele is appreciated 
proved hy all progressive Fanm 

siuok BaMn, The eair raeka 

nluwly, in a perfectly natural wm 
Inn as well as when led on in own 
Cireular.free. SMALL 4 MATTH 
U South Market Street, BOSTON, 



I EWS.1l ' 
MASS.' 1} 



44 



PACIFIC RURAb PRESS. 



[Jan. 9, 1886 



jg,3EU 0?ARKET J^EfOF^T 

Not a.— Our quotationsare for Wednesday, not Saturdaj 
the date which the paper bears. 

Weekly Market Review. 

DOMESTIC PRODUCE, ETC. 

San Francisco. Jan. 6, 1885. 

Trade is slow awakening from the holidays, and 
does not yet disclose any figures of much comfort to 
growers of large staple products. Some special lines 
of minor products are a :tive and others dull, as will 
be noted below. It will probably take another week 
for transactions of much importance to be reached. 
The wheat markets abroad and at the East have been 
in poor shape for the last few days. 

Liverpool, January 6: WHEAT— Quiet but 
Steady. California spot lots, 6s od to 7s; off coast, 
35s 6d; just shipped, 35s 6d; nearly due 35s 6d; car- 
goes off coast and on passage, steady; Mark Lane 
Wheat and Maize, quiet but steady; English and 
French country markets, quiet; Wheat and Flour in 
Paris, quiet; weather in England, heavy snowfall. 
Freights and Cnartera. 
The following is a summary of the engaged and 
disengaged tonnage here and at adjacent points and 
on the way to this port Monday morning: 

1884. 1885. 

Engaged tons in port 83,500 43, 000 

Disengaged 108,000 126,000 

On the way 186,000 144,000 

Totals 377. 5°° 3 1 3.ooo 

Decrease, 1885. 64,000 

Under engagement for Wheat Monday 

morning, tons 34.°°o 

Same time last year 74. 000 

The spot disengaged list includes 30 British ves- 
sels, 42 American, 1 Nicaraguan, 2 German. 
Foreign Review. 

LONDON, Jan. 4. — The Mark Lane Express, in 
its review of the British grain trade for the past week, 
says: The land is very wet, but growing crops ap- 
pear to be doing remarkably well. The year opens 
very promisingly. English Wheat is now arriving 
in a wretched condition, causing lower prices. The 
sales of English Wheats were 30,245 quarters at 30s 
3d, against 35,020 quarters at 31s nd for the corres- 
ponding week of last year. Flour is weak; old Oats 
and Beans firm. The market for foreign Wheat is 
apathetic. Foreign Flour has a dragging tendency 
and is weaker. One cargo of Wheat arrived. It 
was sold and two remained. The trade in forward 
is stagnant To-day the Wheat trade was miserably 
dull, and prices favored buyers. Flour is in poor 
request and cheaper. American Corn is firm, with 
more inquiry. Barley is steady. There was a fair 
business in Oats at an advance of 3d@6d. Beans 
are from 6d@is cheaper. 

Grain in Sight. 

Chicago, Jan. 4. — The official statement of the 
Board of Trade showing the number of bushels of 
grain in sight in the United States and Canada on 
January ad, and the amount of decrease or increase 
over the preceding week, is as follows: Wheat, 58,- 
432,499 bushels; increase, 112,025. Corn, 7.950,543 
bushels; increase, 915,663. Oats, 2,609,625 bushels; 
increase, 28,807. Rye, 755,484 bushels; decrease, 
51,544. Barley, 2,214,928 bushels; decrease, 28,248. 

Eastern Wool Markets. 

Nkw York, Jan. 4. — Coarse Wools are somewhat 
more active, and fine descriptions are a little more 
active. It cannot be said, however, that the feeling 
is quite firm, nor does there appear to be any chance 
for fleeces to advance in price. Foreign Wool will 
soon begin to come into competition, and Monte- 
video Wools are already here, and Australian w ill 
begin to arrive in a month. Ohio X is quoted at 
33c, XX at 34c. Foreign Wools can be laid down 
at rel itively the same values. Stocks of fine Wool 
are moderate in this market. There will be offered 
by auction, on Wednesday, 594 bales of damaged 
Australian, out of the Persian Monarch, which ar- 
rived on the 24th of December. The sales of the 
week include 50,000 pounds of Oregon on private 
terms, 97.000 pounds of California spring at 14C11 igc. 

Boston, Jan. 5 — Wool, firm and steady. Mich- 
igan X fleeces, 3i@3iMc for unwashed fleeces; 25 
@40C for common and very choice. 

New York, Jan. 5. — Wool, steady and fairly 
active. Domestic fleece, 27@^6c; pulled Wools, 14 
@33C $ lb; Texas, 9@22c. 

Philadelphia, Jan. 5. — Wool, firm, steady and 
unchanged. 

New York Hod Trade. 

Nkw York, Jan. 4. — Hops rule inactive and 
tame, with the general market showing no particular 
change. Choice grades arc firmly held, while low 
and inferior are somewhat irregular. Pacific Coast 
unchanged. 

New York Fruit Market. 

New York, Jan. 4. — The Fruit marke'lias ruled 
quiet throughout the week with the exception of 
Thursday, when a brisk demand set in. Raisins 
were in fair request, and the tone of the market is 
firmer. New Turkish Prunes dull; nominally 3^c. 
Persian Dates, 5@5^c. There were small sales of 
Figs at io@i5c 

BAGS — It is reported that shipments from Cal- 
cutta are late this year. Two vessels are expected 
from that port. We quote Calcutta Wheat Bags at 
4K@5C for spot lots, and 5H@5Jic for next June 
and July delivered; Potato Gunnies, 9@io; Wool 
Bags, 32j 5 @36c. 

BARLEY — Feed Barley is quotable a point higher 
lhan last week, and holders are firm at $1.32^ for 
No. 1 Feed Barley. Brewing is held at $1,45(8,1.50. 
There seems to be considerable confidence in the 
situation. Cali sales have been made as follows : 
Bjyer '86 — 100, $1.37. Seller season — 500, 1.29^; 
1000, $1.30; 200, I t.^o'i ; 200, $1.30^ ; 200, $1.30^ ; 
200, $1.29%. Seller '86—100, 65c; 100, 94c. Sales 
at 2 o'clock were: Buyer season — 100, $1,3^. 
Seller season — 300, $1.30; 100, $t.20,K; 100, $1.29^, 
Seller '86— 100, 94c; 400, ojjfc; 200, 93HC; 100, 
93 He. 

BEANS — Beans are still decidedly dull and prices 
are unchanged, and not likely to improve unless 
something occurs to wake up the dealers. 

CORN— Corn is being taken regularly for feed- 
ing purposes, but not in amount enough to make 



PACIFIC COAST WEATHER FOR THE WEEK. 

[Furnished for publication In this paper by N«lson Gorom, Sergeant Signal Servioe Oorpa. U. S. A. 





Portland. 


Red Bluff. 


Sacramento^ 


S. Francisco. 


Los Angeles. 


San Diego. 


DATE. 




a? 
§ 


p 


1 


c* 


Tem 


5' 


ft 


H 
i 

f 


B 


Ef 




a 


Tem 


4 
a 


* 

I 


S? 
f 


Tem 


5' 




a 

£ 


Tem 


I 


5! 

ft 


Dec. SO Jan. 6. 




X) 


P* 






<p 


P. 


er 
3 




V 


s. 


er 
9 

H 




■a 




8 




•a 


0. 


— 

• 








a 




.30 


38 


8 


Ki 


.00 


48 


N 


CL 


.00 


45 


NW 


Fr 


00 


63 


NW 


01 


.00 


59 


SK 


CL 


.00 


61 


S 


Fr. 




.00 


31 


S 


0/. 


.00 


46 


N 


CI. 


.00 


4*i 


sw 


CI 


.00 


S2 


N 


CL 


.00 


67 


N 


CI. 


.00 


69 


NW 


OL 




.00 


32 


W 


Cy. 


.00 


4fi 


N 


Fr. 


.00 


45 


8 


CI. 


.00 


50 


NE 


Fr. 


.00 


53 


SE 


CI 


.00 


67 


w 


CL 




.00 


45 


SF. 


Cy. 


.00 


44 


\u 


CL 


.00 


42 


NW 


CI. 


.00 


50 


N 


CL 


.00 


6/ 


N 


CL 


.00 


57 


NW 


CI 




.14 


48 


8 


Cy. 


.00 


48 


N 


Cy. 


.00 


43 


V W 


CL 


.00 


53 


N 


CL 


.00 


63 


SW 


CL 


.00 


69 


SW 


OL 




.84 


45 


S 


Cy. 


.00 


44 


8 


CI 


.00 


38 


8E 


Fy. 


.00 


SO 


SE 


CI 


.00 


62 


SK 


CL 


.00 


61 


NW 


CI 




08 


40 


W 


Fr 


.00 


SO 


N 


CI. 


.00 


SO 


8W 


CL 


.00 


49 


N 


01 


.00 


58 


N 


01. 


.00 


00 


w 


OL 


Totals 


1 n.; 








N 








.00 








.00 








.00 








.00 









Explanation.— CL for clear; Oy , cloudy; Fr., fair; Fy., foggy; — indicates too small to measure, 
wind and weather at 12:00 H. (Pacific Standard timel, with amount of rainfall in the preceding 24 hours. 



Temperature 



impression on the supplies, and rates remain very 
low. There is no change from prices as reported 
last week, but sales tend toward the inside figures. 

DAIRY PRODUCE— Butter is increasing in 
amount, and only an occasional box brings the 35 
cer.ts, which has been the top price for fancy lor 
the last two weeks. If supplies continue shading 
down must be expected. Cheese is about the same, 
the high rates being paid for choice new cheese, 
which is still in moderate supply. 

EGGS— Eggs have dropped off five cents per doz. 
since our last report, and the demand has slack- 
ened instead of increasing with the decline. There 
are still Eastern and Utah on sale. 

FEED — Bran and mill feeds have improved this 
week and ohow considerable sltength. The advance 
in each has been 50c per ton. Hay on the other 
hand has declined 50c per ton, but is selling quite 
well and moderate amounts coming in. Fair to 
choice lots run as follows: Wheat and wild oat, 
$12(11 13 50; barley, $io@n: alfalfa, $I2@I3; cow, 
$io@i2; stable, $12(6)13 50 ton. 

FRESH MEAT — Some fancy beef, extra well fed, 
brings 9c per tt>. The range of ordinary beef is un- 
changed. Mutton continues to improve. Some 
strictly spring lamb has sold from 20 to 25c per lt>. 
and yearlings at 7 to 8c. Pork is unchanged from 
last week's advance, but bacon and hams have 
dropped off again, which is not a good condition to 
affect pork values. 

FRUIT — Some cho : ce apples are selling up to 
$1,75 per box. The bulk of the apples are in very 
bad shape from the codlin moth. Pears are un- 
changed. Oranges are selling fairly and rates un- 
changed. Limes are doing better and lemons have 
advanced a little. Dried fiuit is exceedingly dull 
again and very little doing. 

HOPS — Hops are lifeless and unchanged, with a 
nominal rate of 6@8c. 

OATS -Oats are still in full supply, and with but 
a moderate demand; rates do not change. There is 
just about enough doing to keep the market steady. 

ONIONS — The best onions are selling this week 
up to $1.40— a slight improvement. Onions which 
have been "cut' or "sprouted" are selling at 50c 
per ctl. 

POTATOES. — Early Rose show an improvement 
of 5c per ctl. Other sorts are about stationary. 
Sweets have declined again to 50® too, according to 
quality. 

PROVISIONS — Large supplies have caused a 
marked reduction in both bacon and hams. East- 
ern hams have been shaded down quite generally, 
and buyers have a decided advanlage this week. 

POULTRY AND GAM I-;— There is a very grati- 
fying advance to those who have either fowls or tur- 
keys; Our price list shows an advance of $1 per 
dozen on hens; $1,50 per dozen on choice, young 
roosters and broilers. Supplies are very short this 
week, which has caused the advance. Turkeys 
have advanced also two cents per lb, on live and 
dressed stock. Game and ducks are higher. 

VEGETABLES — The vegetable list is very small. 
The frost ha? cut off the mushrooms. Marrowfat 
squash is limited in amount, and has sold for $12 
per ton, 

WHEAT — Nothing much is doing either for 
shipment or milling. Rates are perhaps a little 
lower than last week, but are mostly nominal. The 
speculative market is quiet and weak. Sales at 
11:15 were: Buyer season— 200, $1.40%; 300, 
$1.40^; 100, Si.50^; 100, $1,4054; 200, $1.40 'A; 
2,400, $1.40. Buyer '86—400, $1.43}^; 100, $1.43^; 
400, $1.43^4 , 500, $1.42^; 200, $1.43. Seller '86— 
100, $1.32; 300, 100, $1.31 >«. 

oales at 2 o'clock w^re: Buyer season — 800, 
$1 40J6; 100. $1.40; 300, $1.40^1 400, S1.40H; 100. 
$i.4oK; 100. $1.40?* ; 100, $1,41. Buyer '86 — 300, 
$1.43; 100, $i.43'j; S°o. ♦'■4254'; 100. $'-43?a- 
Seller 86—300. $1,325^. 

WOOL— Holders of the small amount of wool 
on hand are firm, and propose to realize all the mar- 
ket will afford before selling. In another column 
will be found the review of the wool trade for the 
year 1885. 

Fruits and Vegetables. 

WHOLESALE 

WlDNIIDAT. Jan 6, 1885. 

FRUIT MARKET. Dates 

Apples, box 25 @ 1 75 |Figs, pressed,.., 

Apricots, lb i'<f 1 Figs, loose 

rUnanas. bunch. 2 00 (pe 4 00 Nectarines 



Blackberries.cht 

Cranberries 8 00 toll 00 

Fl*s, bx - @ 

Grapes white, bx 75 (a 1 25 
do black 1 00 @ 1 50 



Peaches. 

do pared. .... 
Pears, sliced.... 

do qrtd 

do evaporated 



Zante Currants. 



VEGETABLES 



do Tokay 1 25 (a) 1 60 Plums 

do Coiuichou. 1 73 tft '2 00 PI urn i pitted 

do Isabella... 1 25 (a I SO Prunes 

do Mission 75 «' 1 00 do French . 

do wine, ton . .25 U0 «iX 00 

Limes, Mex 7 00 9 00 

do Cal. box . . . 1 00 & 1 25 
Lemons, Cal.,bx 1 25 & 2 00 
do Sicily, box. 5 00 § 6 00 
do Australian. — w — 
Nectarines box. — @ — 
Oranges, Cal., bx 1 25 ® 4 50 
do Tahiti. M 9 00 &10 00 lOelery. doz.... 
do Mexican, M 7 50 @12 50 Cucumbers box 
do Panama... — ■ — Eggplant, box . 
Peaches, bx. . , — (a — Garlic. tt> 



Artichokes, doz. 

Beets, ctL 

Cabbage, 100 lbs. 

Oarrots, sk 

Caulifiower, doz. 




Pears bx 

do Nelis 

Persimmons, 

Jap, bx 

Pineapples, doz. 
Pomegranates, b 

Plums lb 

Primes bx 

(Quinces bx 

Strawberries ch. 

DRIED 
Apples, sliced, lb 

do evaporated. 

do quartered .. 
Aprioots 

do evaporated 
Backberriea .... 
Citron 




Green Corn, box 1 00 @ 1 65 
Green Peas, sk . 

do sweet, lb. 
Lettuce, doz.... 
Mushrooms, lb. .. 
j do cultivated. 
Qkra, dry, lb... 

Parsnips, ctl 1 00 

Peppers, dry tt).. 10 
do green, box 50 
Rhubarb box... 75 
Squash, Marrow 

fat, too 12 00 (A — 

do Summer bx 75 & 1 00 
Tomatoes box.. 60 ■ 75 
String beans. ... 6 w — 
Curnipsctl 76 @ - 




Domestio Produoe. 



BEANS AND PEAS 



Bayo.otl 1 35 

Butter 1 40 

Castor 4 00 



1 50 

1 1 60 



1 88 
1 35 
1 25 



1 85 

2 60 



Pea 1 75 

Red 1 31) 

Piuk 1 20 

Large White.... 3 00 
Small White.... 1 75 

Lima 1 00 

Fid Peas, blk eye 1 75 

do green 1 60 A 1 75 

BROOM CORN. 

Southern 3 & 3; 

Northern I« 6 

CHICCORY. 

California 4 

German 6j 

DAIRY PRODUCE 

BUTTER 

Cal. fresh roll. tt). 30 A 

do Fancy br'nds 34 

Pickle roll 21 «t 

Firkin, new 20 @ 

Eastern 121(3 

CHEESE 

Oheeae.CaL. tt... 8 3 

Eastern style... 14 @ 
M 

Cal.. ranch, doz.. 31 £t 

do, store 27J'6J 

Ducks — & 

Oregon — ot 

Eastern, by ex.. 2T m 

Pickled here.... — ffl 

Utah 27 § 

FEED 



WHOLESALE. 

Wednesday. Jan. C, 1885. 

NUTS -Jobbing. 
Walnuts, OaL.B) 7 

do Chile. 7 
Almonds, hdshL 6 

Soft shall » «« 

Brazil 11 <A 

Pecans 9 S) 

Peanuts Id 

Filberts 133 

POTATOES 

Burbank 60 @ 

Early Rose 3D (a) 

I JufTey Cove — W 

Jersey Blues. . . 60 <& 

Petaluma. — @ 

'Tomalea 50 @ 

' H River reds 25 <g 

• 7 Hiunboldt 60 & 

ETC. I do Kidney. 

Chile 

r 33 do Oregon 

t 35 Peerless 

I 27 [Salt Lake.... 

I 221 Sweet ctl 

I 16 I POULTRY AND GAME 

Hens, doz VI (8 7 00 

M Roosters 4 50 @ 7 50 

16 Broilers 4 50 « 6 00 

Ducks, tame ... 5 00 (8 7 00 
321 do Mallard.... 3 50 <a 4 00 
30 do Sprig 1 25 (S 1 50 

- Geese, pair 1 50 (g 2 00 

- 1 Wild Gray, doz 2 00 (3 2 50 
271 White do... 1 50 a 

- Turkeys, 0) 12*3 15 

2) do Dressed.. 15 @ 17 

Turkey Feathers, 




Bran, ton 14 03 015 00 1 tall and wing.. 10 

Commeal 27 00 @2'1 00 Snipe, Eng., doz. 2 00 

Hay 10 00 @13 50 I do Common.. 50 

Middlings 18 53 ffll!) 50 

Oil Cake Meal. 27 03 <ft2S CO 

Straw, bale 50 ■ 75 

FLOUR 
Extra, City Mill* 4 37 ■ 4 75 
(0 Co'ntry Mills 4 00 4 75 Oal. Bacon, 
Superfine. 2 75 I 3 50 Heavy, tt) 



20 



Quail 1 00 <a 

Babbits 1 00 £ 

Hare 1 50 « 

Venison B | 

PROVISIONS. 



FRESH MEAT 
BeeMstqual., tt> 7 

Second 

Third 

Mutton 

Spring Lamb.... 
Pork, undressed. 

Dressed 

Veal 

GRAIN, ETC 
Barley, feed, ctl. 1 271 
do Brewing.. 1 35 1 

Chevalier 1 40 1 

do Coast... 1 10 
Buckwheat 1 25 




Medium . 

Light 1 

Extra Light.. 1 

Lard 

Oal.SmokedBeif 1 

Hams, Cal 1 

do Eastern.. 1 
SEEDS 



Alfalfa., 
do Chile. 

1 324 Canary 

1 45 Clover red.. 

1 50 



111 



White 46 1 



1 20 Cotton . 

— Flaxiesd 

Corn, White.... 1 10 V 1 15 Hemp 

'11;"' Italian RyeGrass 

— Perennial 26 1 

— Millet, German.. 10 1 
1 40 1 do Common. T 1 
1 ?5 Mustard, white.. 3 1 
1 171 Brown.... 



1 75 



Yellow 1 10 

Small Round. — 1 

Nebraska 1 10 1 

Oats, choice 1 30 

do No. 1 1 20 

do No. 2 1 121 

do black 1 46 1 

do Oregon 1 15 1 25 

Rye 1 25 ffl 1 271 

Wheat, No. 1... 1 35 <§ 1 871 

do No. 1.. 1 30 

Choloe milling 1 40 
HIDES. 

Dry 161(8 

Wet salted 7i@ 

HONEY, ETC 

Beeswax. tt> 22 & 

Honey In comb. 6 <s 
Extracted, light. .*;-< 
do dark. 4 
HOPS. 

Oregon — & 

California. 6Q 

ONIONS. 

Red - <& 

Silverskin 50 « 1 40 jSan Joaquin 

do Oregon.... — \ct — | Southern Coast, 



1 

1 421 



Rape.. 

Ky Blue Grass.. 20 

2d quality 16 1 

sweet V. Grass. 76 1 

Orchard. 20 1 

Red Top 15 1 

Hungarian.... 8 1 

Lawn SO ( 

Meeqult 10 I 

Timothy 51 

TALLOW. 

13 Crude, It ill 

6 Refined 6f 

44 WOOL, ETC. 

KALL 1886 

— Humboldt and 
8 Mendocino... Is H 

1 Free Mouutain . 13 

— NTiern defective 12 



21 




HALL'S PULMONARY BALSAM, 

The best remedy in use for COUGHS, COLDS. ASTHMA, 
BKONCHITIS, INFLI ENZA, CROUP, INCIPIENT CON- 
SUMPTION and all THROAT and LUNG TROUBLES. 
*»'*"!•! by all Druggists (or 60 cents. 

J. R GATES & CO , Proprietors, 

417 Sansome St, 8. P. 




MANUFACTURERS OF 

Fine all Wool Knit Hosiery 
and UNDERWEAR. 

Ladies' all wool Vests and Drawers. 
Ladies' and Misses' all wool Under Shirts. 
Misses' all wool Vests and Pantalettes. 
Men's all wool Shirts and Drawers. 
Boys' all wool Shirts and Drawers. 
Ladies' and Misses' Wool Hose. 
Men's Wool Hose. 
Men's Shaker Socks. 

FOR SALE EVERYWHERE. 

SALESROOMS: 

31 SUTTEE ST., SAN FEANCISCO 
Mills -Oakland, Cal. 



CHAMBERLIN AUTOMATIC 




00 



OS 



t=3 



CO 



Knabe 

A. L. Bancroft k Co. 
721 Market St., 
"'an Francisco, Cal. 



Fifty years before 

the Public. 
The best Piano made. 

Pianos 



WAKE LEE'S 



THE BEST 



IS THE 



THE 
CHEAPEST. 




DON'T BUY 

Inferior Article 

BECACBI IT IS 

More Profitable 
to some one 
else. 



SQUIRREL AND GOPHER EXTERMINATOR I 

IN 1-LB. AND 5-LB. CANS. 



Jan. 9, 1886.] 



fACIFie RURAL* f RESS. 



Rural Seed Offering— 1885. 



Greater Inducements for New Subscriptions 

There should be more gardens planted on this Coast. 
It would add pleasure and health to many, and enhance 
the value and attraction of their homesteads. To en- 
courage the planting of seeds, and to extend the circula- 
tion of the Pacific Rural Press, we will offer, while this 
notice remains in our columns, to furnish to all old or 
new subscribers the following seeds on the favorable 
terras named below: 
VEGETABLE SEEDS. 





IN PAPERS POST PAID. CTS. 

1 Early Blood Turnip 

Beet 10 

2 Early Extra Bassano 

Beet 10 

3 White Sugar Beet. ... 10 
i Yellow Sugar Beet.. 10 
6 Early Long Dark 

Blood do 10 

6 Early York Cabbage. 5 

7 Early Dutch Cabbage 10 

8 Early Wakefield 10 |°° G1,,be Amaranthus.. 

_ _ , ** _. - . IMI f2irnnnnhil<i la lainnu 

9 Extra Fine Large 

Dutch 15 

10 Early French Oxheart 



93 Campanula Specu- 
lum, Venus Looking 
Glass 5 

94 Candytuft, white fra- 
grant li 

95 Centaurea Cynus 
(Bachelor's Button) 5 

96 Clarkia, fine mixed. . 5 

97 Convolvulus (Morn- 
ing Glory) mixed. . . 5 

98 Foxglove, mixed 5 

99 Gilia, mixed 5 



101 Gypsophila Elegans. 

102 Hibiscus Africanus.. 



103 Ice Plant 6 

do'' * '"" v " jo'104 Larkspur, finest 

11 Large Late Drum " L. , mixed , • " ■ i 

head do xo, 105 Linum Grandiflora 

12 Red Dutch (for pick'- . „ : •• 

ling) do 10 108 Love-in-a-mist 

13 White Solid'ceiery.. 10 }<% JS^^^S^ 1 * 

14 Early Paris C'auli 

flower. 10 

15 Extra Early Forcing 

Carrot 10 

1C Long Orange Carrot . 10 

17 Early Horn Carrot . . 5 

18 White Belgian do. . . . 6 

19 Early Cluster Cucum 

20 Long' Spine'.'. 10 117 Sweet Pea, Crimson, 

21 Early Frame Cucum- I Everlasting . ........ 

u er g! 118 Sweet Peas, mixed . . 5 

22 Long Green do! 5 «» Sweet William, mix'd 5 

23 Eng Gherkin for JgO Sunflower, Cal.dbl.. 5 
Pickles 10i 121 Adlumia Cirrbosa 

in (Mountain Fringe). . 10 
122 Althea (Hollyhock) 



5 
6 
5 

108 Mignonette, Sweet . . 5 

109 Nasturtium 5 

110 Nolana 5 

111 Portulaca, mixed ... 5 

112 Poppy, double mixed 5 

113 Kocket, Sweet 5 

114 Scabiosa, dwf, mixed 5 

115 Sensitive Plant 5 

116 Sweet Pea, White. . . 5 



24 Early Curled Silesia. 

25 Victoria Cabbage Let- 

tuce 10 

26 Ice Drumhead do 5 

27 Simpson's Early Curl- 

ed do 10 

28 Large Yellow Cante- 

lope Melon 10 

29 Extra Fine Nutmeg 

do 10 

30 Casaba Melon (new). 10 

31 Cuban Queen Water- 

melon 10 

32 Phinney Watermelon 10 

33 Mountain Sweet Wa 



fine mixed 10 

123 Aster, mixed China . 10 

124 Australian Vine 10 

125 Balsam (L. Slipper) 
fine mixed 10 

126 Balsam, Fine Paris 
double 15 

127 Balsam, Splendid dbl 10 

128 Balsam, dbl. Dwarf.. 25 

129 Balsam, dbl. Koso 
Flowered 15 

130 Balloon Vine 10 

131 BrowalliaGrandiflora 10 
termelon" ] | 182 Canna (Indian Shot). 10 

34 Black Spanish do .;.'.' 10 133 Canna, fine mixed va- 

35 White Imperial, or ... J a ? M f , "A^ .ill 10 
Lodi Melon 10! 134 Ce'osia Cnstata, va- 



The " SHIPPEE " and HOUSER Works Consolidated 



36 Earlv Red Onion ... 10 

37 Red Wethersfield 10 

38 Yellow Dan vers 10 

39 White Portugal 10 

40 White Portugal, or 

Silver Skin 10 

41 Yellow Danvers do. . 10 

42 White Dutch Parsnip 6 

43 New Early Round do 10 

44 Mammoth California 

Radish., 10 

45 Olive Shaped Kadish. 10 

46 Early Scarlet Turnip 

Radish f 

47 BlackSpauishorWin- 

terdo 1C 

48 Early Scollop Bush 

Squash 5 

49 Early Summer Crook 

Neck do 5 

60 California Field 
Squash 10 

51 Valparaiso Squash. . . 10 

52 Marblehead Squash. 10 

53 Boston Marrow Win- 

ter do 1C 

54 New Hubbard Win- 

ter do 10 

65 Large Yellow Tomato 10 

66 The Conqueror To- 

mato 10 

57 Early Red Smooth 

Tomato 10 

58 Trophy do 10 

59 Canada Victor (earli- 

est var.) do 10 

60 Cow Horn Turnip. .. 10 

61 Yellow Rutabaga or 

Swedish 10 

62 Early White Flat 

Dutch Turnip 5 

63 Long White French 

do 10 

64 Improved Late Ruta- 

baga 6 

65 Kohlrabi 10 

66 Scotch Kale 10 

67 Curled Parsley 6 

68 Round Leaf Spinach. 10 

69 Large Flanders Spin- 

ach 10 

70 Spinach 5 

71 Sage 10 

72 Thyme 10 

73 Tobacco 25 

74 Blue Gum 26 

75 Monterey Cypress ... 26 

76 Black German Wax 

Beans 10 

77 Refugee do 10 

78 Red Valentine do . . . 10 

79 Extra Early Peas 10 

80 Champion of England 10 

81 Yorkshire Hero 10 

82 Queen of Dwarfs 10 

FLOWER SEEDS. 



-ITS 



POST PAID 

83 Acroclinium 

84 Alonsoa, Grandiflora 

85 Alyssum, Sweet 10 

ofl Amaranthus Abyss 

inicus 16 

87 Ageratum Lasseauxii 10 

88 Adlumia Cirrhosa... 10 

89 Ambronia Uinbellata 10 

90 Amaranthus Cauda- 

tus (Love-lies-bleed- 
ing) 

91 Antirrhinum Majus, 

finest mixed 6 

92 CacaliaCoccinea(Tas- 

sel flower). 6 



UNDER THE FIRM NAME OF 



riegata 10 

135 Celosia Cristata, pur- 
purea 10 

136 Clematis Flammula. 15 

137 Dahlia (Superflua), 
mixed 26 

138 Dianthus Chinensis 
(Indian Pink) 10 

139 Dianthus Chinensis, 
dbl. White 10 

140 Celosia Cristata, fine 
mixed (Coxcomb) . . 10 

141 Chrysantheuni Al- 
bum 10 

142 Datura, fine mixed. . 10 

143 Evening Primrose. . . 10 

144 Four O'clock, mixed 10 

145 Forget-me-not 10 

146 Geranium Zonale. .. . 10 

147 Geranium, Fancy 
Colored Leaves .... 25 

148 Godctia (The Bride) 10 

149 Gourds (Hercules 
Club) 10 

150 Ipomoea (Cypress 
Vine) 10 

161 Indian Pink, double 

mixed 10 

152 Lobelia, Crystal Pal- 
ace Compacta 25 

163 Lobelia, Blue 10 

154 Musk Plant 10 

156 Nierembergia Gra- 
cilis 10 

156 Pansy, fine mixed... 10 

157 Petunia, mixed 10 

158 Phlox Drummondii, 
fine mixed 10 

159 Pyrethrum Aureum 
(Golden Feather).. 10 

160 Salpiglossis, mixed . . 10 

161 Stock (Ten Week)... 10 

162 Wallflower, fine mix'd 10 

163 Wallflower, puiple.. 10 

164 Zinnia, mixed fine. . . 10 

165 Zinnia, dbl. Scarlet. . 10 

166 Belles Perennis 

167 (Daisy) single 15 

168 Campanula Medium 
(Cantebury Belle). . 15 

169 Canary Bird Flower. 15 

170 Thunbergia, mixed.. 15 

171 Aquilegia Alpina(Co- 
lumbine) 20 

172 Heliotropium, fine 
mixed 20 

173 Heliotropium, dark, 
mixed 20 

174 Verbena, choice mix'd 20 

175 Violet, Blue 20 

176 Balsam Canielia, flow 
ered 20 

177 Carnation, fine mix'd 20 

178 Digitalis 5 

179 Dolichos (Hyacinth 
Bean) 10 

180 GaillardiaGrandiflora 
Hybrida 10 

181 Nemophila, fine mix'd 10 

182 Perillia Nankineusis. 6 

183 Saponaria Multi- 
flora 6 

184 Scabiosa Nana. 6 

185 Scabiosa Atropurpu- 
ria. 10 

186 Scarlet Runners- 
Climbers 5 

187 Schizanthus— Hardy 
Annuals 5 

188 Schizanthus, finest 
mixed colors 6 

189 Myrsiphylium Aspar- 
agoides (or Smilax). 25 



STOCKTON COMBINED HARVESTER and 
AGRICULTURAL WORKS, 

STOCKTON, CAL. 

The only Manufacturers of Belt and Geared, Pull and 
Push Comb ? ned Harvesters. 

HOLD YOUR ORDERS; DON'T BUY UNTIL YOU H4VE SEEN OUR 

Improved Minges, Houser, &"Shippee" 
Combined Harvesters for 1886, 

Of all sizes and capacity, from 10 to 30-feet cut, Small and Large, Light and Heavy; adapted for 
either hard land or sandy soil, small or large farms. They are the 
Premium Harvesters which have 

RECEIVED ALL PREMIUMS and GOLD MEDALS at our State and County Fairs. 

These Harvesters have made Grain Raising Profitable. 
The Low Price of Wheat is Mo e than Offset by using our Machines, 

For they place the grain in the sack at less cost than the old method of putting it in the stack. They are fully 
protected by 23 U. S. Patents. We own all Patents on Combined Harvesters which have proved of practi- 
cal value. They are a protection to purchasers of our machines from suits for infringement— a guarantee which no 
other manufacturers can give. They are not an experiment— have been succ ssfully run for years. We have 
over 300 Testimonials and Recommendations from our most prominent farmers. The Minges is a 
Pull and Belt Machine. The Hou-er is a Pull Machine and is built either Belt or Geared. They both have records 
of from 25 to 70 acres and from 200 to 800 sacks a day, according to width of cut and condition of grain, and are 
adapted for large farms with sandy soil or hard land. The " Shippee" is a Push Machine, suitable for small farms 
and hard land, and has harvested from 20 to 40 acres a oay and from 200 to 40C sacks. We guarantee our 
harvesters to <lo good work when properly handled. They require from 3 to 4 men and 
12 to 10 Animals, according to width of cut and condition of grain. 

4S"Please call at our Works, corner Main and East Streets, Stockton, examine our Harvesters, read our Testi- 
monials, see or correspond with those who have used our machines. 3eud for Circulars. Correspondence solicited. 
For further information, prices, etc., address 

STOCKTON COMBINED HARVESTER AND AGRICULTURAL WORKS, 

STOCKTON. SAN JOAQUIN CO, CAL. 



TELJaGnArii wire. 



MARKET "WIMS. 




SHIP RIGrGrlKTGr. FLAT DFtOI^JII. 

AGENTS FOR 

The New Jersey Wire Cloth Co. The Buckthorn Barbed Fence Co. 



For $1.00 we will furnish new subscribers th3 Pacific 
Rural Prkss for three months, and 81.00 worth 
of the above seeds. For $1.75 the Rural six months 
and (1.00 worth of seeds. For $3.25 the Rural one 
year, and $.1 worth of seeds. For $4.00 the Rural for 
fifteen months and $1 in seeds. The seeds wll I be promptly 
forwarded, post paid, from some one or more of our lead- 
ing and reliable seedsmen, whose name will accompany 



the package. In ordering, write on a separate sheet the 
number only of each article wanted as numbered, 
together with your address. 

Old subscribers can advance payment so that their sub- 
scriptions will be paid the same length of time in advance 
and receive the same terms as above. Those who have 
remitted since this offer was made can send the addi- 
tional amount which would have entitled them to a 
premium, and receive the same by stating which number 
they prefer. 

For other kinds of seeds, or for seeds in larger pack- 
ages, patrons are referred to reliable seedsmen advertising 
in this paper. We wish to aid in increasing the planting 
and cultivation of gardens. 

We are not going to embark in the regular seed busi- 
ness, anil have not time to investigate or answer many 
questions of private interest »nly, nor respond to orders 
received without remittances. 

Subscribers will please notify neighbors who do not 
take this paper of this offer, and the merits of the Rural. 

In writing correspondence, items of information, or on 
other business, please use a separate sheet. 



Le Conte Pears are unexcelled for shipping. 
Brought $2 per box in San Francisco this season. 
Trees, on Le Conte roots only, for sale. Circulars 
free. C, W. Dearborn, Oakland, Cal. 



W. E. Chamberlain, Jr 



T A. Robinson. 




Tfees, belt?, ttc. 



T PACIFIC ELECTRIC PAD 
THE GREATEST DISCOVERY OF THE AGEl 
Patented Jan. to, 1882. 
Bes t Retainer in Existence! 

Gives perfect ease and comfort in all positions. Does 

not interfere with work or business. Wc guarantee a 

perfect cure Br of Rupture in all cases which we accept 
and treat, ■ m both ofadults andchildren. Now.reader. 
if you are ■ ■i.rupturcd, this is worthy of your invest- 
igation. We especially ■ m desire all extreme cases, 
thoscdilficulttoretainand ■ ■those considered incura- 
ble. If other treatment ■ ■ has failed you. come and 
see lis. EVIDENCE w§^^0 UNLIMITED! 
Our Terms: NO CURE, NO PAY. 

Cukes Uupiore in from 6j^[^'to 90 Days. 

Single Truss with solution, $10. Double Truss with so- 

lution, $15. Consultation and Advice ^^fc. Free. Write 
for full Information and circulars. Offi. n even'gs. 

We Guarantee to Retain any CaseI 

PACIFIC ELECTRIC CO. 4"* 

SOLE PROPRIETORS, 

No. 330 Sutter Street, San Francisco, Cal. v 



Returned to new building, former location, 320 Post 
strreet, where students have all the advantages of elegan 
halls, new furniture, first-class facilities, and a full corps 
of experienced teachers. 

LIFE SCHOLARSHIPS $76. 

Ladies admitted into all departments. Day ana Even 
ing Sessions during the entire year. 
/tS"Call, or send for Circular to 

CHAMBERLAIN & ROBINSON, Prop's. 



WANTED— BY A MAN OF LARGE EXPERIENCE, 
a position as superintendent or foreman of a ranch 
(stock ranch preferred); married; no children. Address 
P., care this office. 




DR. HOSNE'S ELECTRIC BELT. 

•5 r j To Young, old, rich or poor, 

r SS\lrf/y7 —~ hotn sexes,— stop drugging, 

A — rsT ^<i/VV.i — _ V and cure- yourself with DR. 

HORNE'S (\ew Improved) 
Electric Uelt. Electricity 19 
Life, and a lack of it is I)is- 
caseand Death. Thousands 
testify to its priceless value. 
80,1100 cures reported in 1883, 
Whole family can wear same Belt. Cures without medi- 
cine, Pains In the Back, Hips, Head or Limbs, Nervous 
Debility, Lumbago, General Debility, Rheumatism, Par- 
alysis, Neuralgia, Sciatica, Disease of Kidneys, Spinal 
Diseases, Torpid Liver, Gout, Asthma, Heart Disease, 
Dyspepsia, Constipation, Erysipelas. Indigestion, Rup- 
ture, Catarrh, Piles, Epilepsy, Ague, Diabetes. Send stamp 
lor Pamphlet, w. J. HOENE, 702 Market St., San Fran- 
O-isoo. Cal. Inventor. Proprietor and Manufacturer. 

ON 30 PAYS' TRIAL. 

THIS NEW 

I ELASTIC TRUSS 

' Has a Pad different from all 
others, is cup shape, with Self- 
adjusting Ball in center, adapts 
itself to all positions of the 
body while the ball in the cup 
presses back the intes- 
tines just as a person 

does With the finger. With light .pressure the Her- 
nia is held securely day and night, and a radical cure 
certain. It is easy, durable ami cheap Scut 1> v mail. Cir- 
culars free. EUULESTON TRUSS CO., Chicago, Ul. 
(mention this paper.) 





RUPTURE 



itively cured in 00 days by 
Or. Hume's Eleetro-Miiisiictlo 
Helt-Truss, con. billed. Guar.m 
teed the only one in the wor'd 
generating a continuous FJertrirtSr Mag- 
netic Current. Seientifle. Powerful, Durable, 
Comfortable and EffectiTe in curing Rup. 

ture. Price Reduced. 500 cured in 84. Send for pamphlet. 
KLKCTRO-illAGNKTIC TRUSS* COMfY. 

702 Market St. San Francisco. 




PKICK *5 The PERFEC- 
TION ELECTRIC BELT, for 
male or female, with all the 
latest In provements, will be 
sold until furtliernotiee at the 
remarkably low price of ?5. 
( all or address J. H. VVIDBEK, 
Druggist. 7t)l Market St , cor- 
ner 'Ihird, San Francisco. 




RUPTURE! 

A New Invention ! The " Perfection - 
Belt Truss, with Universal Joint Move- 
ment and Self-adjusting Spiral Spring, 
Worawith perfect comfortiiigfitaud day 
Givcsuniversalaatisfaction. Price,frora 
•3 to 66. Call or Bend for descriptiva 
circular. Ad'lreRS. J. H. AVIDBEK. 
(Drugtrist) 701 JUarkct Bt.eet, cot. Third, 
(Jan lr'raiirioco. 




1,300 Engines now in use. 
40,000 Horse Power now running. 
Sales 2,000 H. P. per month. 

<WSend for strated Circular and Reference List. 

PARKE & LACY, 

Sole Agents for Pacific Coast & Territories 
21 and 33 Fremont St., San Francisco. 



AN EXTRAORDINARY RAZOR 

HAS BEEN INVENTED BY THE QUEEN'S OWN 
COMPANY, of England. The edge md body is so THIM 
aud FLEXIBLE AS NEVER TO h EQUIRK GRINDING 
aed hardly ever tettiug. It glides ov. r the face like a piece 
of velvet, making shaving quite a lux i ry. It is CREATING 
A GREAT EXCITEMENT in Bur »I e among the experts, 
who pronounce it PERFECTION. I wo doll rs in buffalo 
handle; §3 in ivo-y. Every razor, to « genuine, must bear 
on the reverse side the name of NATHAN JOSEPH, 641 
Clay street, San Francisco, the only place In the United 
States where they are obtained. Trade supplied; sent by 
mail 10c. extra, or C. O. D. 

OC Comic Transparent and 25 (no 2 alike) Chromo Cards, 
*^»» nam* nn. Wc Present free. A Hlnes. Oajwvllle. O 

tfSyg^NawStvle Chromo Illdden Name Cards, 10c Game 
t££2J AuU> <>r>,10c. Acme Card Factor j.Clinloaville.Ct. 



46 



fACIFie RURAlo press. 



[Jan. 0, 188G 



geedg, Wapts, ttc. 



ESTABLISHED 1858. 

Pepper's Nurseries 

A General Assortment of 
FRUIT TREES 

AT W1IOLKSALK AND RETAIL. 

Apricot, Plum anil Prune on first-class Myrobolan 
Berating stock. Apple, Cherry, Peach; Baxtlett, Winter 
Xrlis, Beurre Clairgcau, anil other kinils of Pears; 
Quince, Kg, Currant, Gooseberry, Blackberry, Raspberry, 
etc. 

IAWSOX or COMET FK Alt in dormant bud 
at 50 cents each. 

MYROBOLAN PLUM SEEDLINGS. 

HOME OK0WN. 

PRICES-lst size, per 1000, S10; 2d size per 1C00, »B. 

My Trees are drown Without Irrigation j 

WOOd fully ripened; are carefully taken up with finely 
proportioned roots, and securely packed for shipment to 
any part of the Pacific Coast. 

I offer no Trees fur sale but what has boen grown by 
myself, and claim they are FREE FROM SCALE BI G 
and other Tree Pests. 

NOTE— Persons intending to plant Trees should be 
very careful and procure clean, healthy Trees. The 
better way is to go to the Nursery and examine before 
purchasing. 

t4T\ employ no Canvassers or Tree Agents. 

Send orders direct to the Nursery and save from ?0 to 
40 per cent. Prices low, and furnished on application. 
Address 

W. H. PEPPER. 

Petaluma, Cal. 



Rancho Chico Nurseries. 

Large Stock of 

FRUIT TREES and VINES 

Grown upon new land without 
irrigation. 

t&Wr. Have ix Stock : 

TRUE PRUNE D'AGEN 

Upon Myrobolan Root. 

JAPANJ»LUMS. 

Our Own New Pear, 

THE KENNEDY, 

Superior to Winter Nfllis, but little 
earlier in ripening. 

MUSCAT GRAPES. Callfornica StocK for 
Resistant Vineyards. 

JOHN BIDWELL, 

Chlco, Cal 



MYROBOLAN NURSERY. 



OFFERING FOR 1885: 

Per 100. 

Apricots on Myrobolan $10 00 

Nectarine on Myrobolan 10 00 

Nectarine on Peach 6 00 

Peaches on Myrobolan 10 00 

Peaches on Peach 6 00 

Plums on Myrobolan 10 00 

PRUNES. 

BO.Oiki Frencli Prunes on Myrobolan 10 00 

25,0(10 Bulgarian on Myioholan 10 00 

Kelsev Japan Plum on Mvrobolan, $12j(rfl5 00 

Soft Shell Almonds ". 6 00 

(Quinces 12 50 

Prices of cherry, Apple and Pear on application. 

A general assortment of Nurscy Stock always on hand, 
Free from all insect pests and Trees raised Without Irri- 
gation. JAMES O'NEILL, 

Haywards, Alameda Co., Cal. 



Per 1000. 
m 00 

90 CO 
60 00 
90 00 
B0 00 
90 00 

no oo 
uo oo 



APPLE SEEDLINGS 

ROOT CRAFTS 

it aVV->"'' s!Vi!i7,r , ,""Vs n "!!i2SP '" ,,mv 

BLOOmiNGTON Phoenix NURSERY 

EataM'd 18S8. BLOOJHINOTOHTilL! 



VALLEY NURSERY CO., 

Successors to W. E. SIBLEY. 

15.000 Itart!<-tt Pears. 20,000 of other va- 
rieties, including Keifl'er and Le Conte. 15,000 
Soft-shell Walnuts. Also a general assortment of 
Nursery Stock. Address 

WM. SHARPLES, Manager, 

Santa Ana, Lios Angeles Co., Cal. 



OLIVE TREES FOR SALE. 

BOOHED OLIVE TREES for sale; also OLIVE 0UT- 
TINUS, grown at and shipped from San Fernando. 
Apply to 

ALFRED WRIGHT, 

Los Angeles, Cal. 



ROSENDAHL'S NURSERY, 

Washington Colony, Fresno, Cal 

200,000 Fruit Trees and Vines 

Or ALL KINDS. 

Particulars on application. Lowest rates to the trade 
\ddress C P. WALTON. Sole Agent. 

Box 570. Fresno, Cal. 



CLEAR YOUR LA ND WITH JU DSON POWDER. 

RAILROAD MEN, FARMERS AND VITIOULTURISTS HAVE, 

by practical experience, found that the Jl'ltsos POWDKR especially, is the best adapted to REMOVE 

STUMPS and TREES. 

FROM 5 TO 20 POUNDS OF THIS POWDER will always bring any sized stump or tree with 

roots clear out of the ground. The EXPENSE IS LESS THAN ONE-HALF the cost of drubbing. 

In most instances, Giant Powder, or any other "High Explosive," is too uick, and ordinary Blasting Powder 
not strong enough. 

iVFor particulars how to use the same, apply to 

BANDMANN, NIELSEN & CO., General Agents 

GIANT POWDER COMPANY, 

SAN FRANCISCO. CAL. 



SOLE AGENTS FOR 

W.W. GREENER'S BREECH-LOADING 

Double Guns. 

For Strength, Durability, Style, Finish and Extraordinary 
Shooting (Qualities those Guns are unsurpassed. 

COLT, PARKER, SMITH, and REMINGTON 

lioublo Gruns. 

Champion, Forehand & Wadsworth, and 
Remington Single Guns. 

Winchester, Billiard. Colt New Lightning. Marlin, and Kennedy Repeating Rifles. 

BALLARD and REMINGTON SPORTING and TARGET RIFLES. 
Colt and JSixi itli eft? Wosson Pistols, 

AMMUNITION AT LOWEST PRICES. 

N. CURRY & BRO., - 113 Sansome St.. San Francisco. 

Pacific Coast Agents for the Merino Elastic Felt Gun Wads. 




200 Acres ±xx Close Cultivation ! 



J. LUSK & SON'S 



Oakland, Alameda County, Cal. 



1,000,000 NON-IRRIGATED FRUIT TREES 

FOR THE SEASON OF 1885-86. 



Embracing all the Leading Varieties of Apple, Pear, Peach, Plum, Prone, Apricots, Nectarines 
AIbo tne Largest and Most Complete Assortment of 

NEW ATSTID RARE FRUIT! 

On the Pacific Coast, including many California productions of great promise. 




and Cherries. 



CD 
CD 



52. cd 



CD 



C~3 

CO 

CD 

a> 



CD qj 



CD 



CD 



L STOCK OF 

SHADE and ORNAMENTAL TREES, 

EVERGREENS, SHRUBS, ROSES, 

Clematis and Flowering Plants, Small Fruits, Grapevines, Etc. 

Our Trees are grown on new ground without irrigation, and are Free from all Insects and Disease. 
Before purchasing elsewhere, people intending to plant Trees will Bod it to their interest to come and see our stock 

and learn our prices. 

NURSERIES AND RESIDENCE— NORTH TEMESCAL. 

The University and Telegraph Avenue Street Cars Stop at the Nurseries. 
tr CORRESPONDENCE SOLICITED. Address all Communications to 

J. LUSK & SON, P. O. Box 9, North Temescal. 
Office at Nurseries, 45th St. and Telegraph Ave-, Oakland, Cal. 

CATALOGUE for 1886-86 Free on Application. 



geedg, Wants, tic. 



1883-86. 

LEONARD COATES. S. M. TOOL. 

NAPA VALLEY 

NURSERIES 

FULL ASSORTMENT OF 

FRUIT TREES AND GENERAL 
NURSERY STOCK. 

"CENTENNIAL" CHERRY, 

(Offered now for sale for the first time.) " An im- 
provement on its parent, the Napoleon Hi 
garreau."— Ho». Marshall P. Wilder, President 
Amerlean Pomologieal Society, and a host of other testi- 
monials from experts all over the United States, Canada, 
and England. 

Grapevines. Resistant Grapevine 
Stock. 

PRiEPARTURIENS WALNUT, 

Imported direct by us, and in hearing In our 
orchard at three years old. 

"Muir" Peach, Glalftter Plum, Kelsey Japan 
Plum, Marshall's Seedling, or Red 
Bellflower Apple, and many 
other novelties. 



■\^7"ISU» and don't buy trees that 

have been subject to irrigttion. Don't buy cheap stock, 
but get the best, and from a reliable firm. Don't buy 
from districts known to be infested with scale bug and 
other pestg. 

Start your orchard with absolutely healthy trees, and 
the expense and trouble of keeping them so is reduced to 
a minimum. Let there be but one egg of scale not de- 
stroyed, and the probabilities arc that the pest will 
spread through the whole orchard. An annual wash of 
whale oil soap or lye w ill prevent the attacks of insects, 
but it will not kill all the cirgs. Therefore, to get 
trees from an unlnfested locality, is essen- 
tial to success. 

Our handsome Catalogue, with colored lithograph of 
our "Centennial" Cherry, a Treatise on Insect Pests and 
their Remedies, and much other valuable infonnation, 
mailed free to all applicants. 

fSTOur prices are reasonable, and parties planting 
large orchards can get special rates. Address 

COATES & TOOL, 

Napa City, Cal. 

San Francieco Branch, 234 Bush St. R 38. 



Fine Small Fruits a Specialty. 

CUTHBERT RASPBERRY. 



"^sii?*'^r^ 




BEST MARKET KKKKY KNOWN! Largr, 
Firm and Luscious, stands travel finely, bears im- 
mensely, and has two crops a year. 75 cents per dozen; 

per 100. Also, Strawberries, Blackberries, Gooseber- 
ries, Currants, etc.. of finest imported varieties. Prices 
on application. L. U. McCANX, Santa Cruz, Cal 

THOMAS' NURSERY, 

VISALIA. CAL. 
This Nursery contains more varieties of Tested Fruits 
than any other Nursery in the State, the proprietor hav- 
ing fruited 70 varieties of Peaches, 13 Apricots, and 12 
of Nectarines this season. Douu's Nbctakinb, the latest 
in the State, a specialty. Send for Catalogue, Address 
I. H. THOMAS, 

Viealla. Cal. 



QUITO OLIVE FARM. 

ROOTED TREES, 

Two and Three-year-old MiwioD. 
One and Two-year-old Picholine 

CUTTINGS. 
In lots to suit. Apply on the premises to LUDO- 
VICO GADDI. at Gubaerville, Santa Clara 
Co., Cal , or to A. T. MAKVIN, 616 California St., S. F. 



COLLINS' HAYWARDS NURSERY 

Offers for Sale the usial assortment of 

FRUIT TREES. 

Healthy anil totally Free from Scale Pests. Special offer 
at very lo* rates: 2000 Plums and Prunes, on Myrobo- 
lan seedling stock; 1000 Lewelling Cherry (best shipper), 
one-year-old trees, from 4 to 7 feet high. Reference: E. 
Lewelling, orehardist, San I.orctjzo. Address 

ISAAC COLLINS, lla\ wards, Alameda Co., Cal. 



FOR SALE. 

ALL Choice Varieties of Wine and Raisin Grape Hoots 
and Cuttings, including Riparia, at low prices, by 
M. DENICKE, 
Vineyard Del Monte, Freeno, Cal 



Jan. 9, 1886.] 



pACIFie r^URAlo fRESS. 



jieeds, Mapfc Etc. {Seed?, Want?, be. 




FAIR Si SQUARE DEALING. 

Believing that if a man has dealt squarely with his fellow, 
men his patrons are his best advertisers, 1 invite all to 
make inquiry of the character of my seeds among over a 
million of Farmers, Gardeners and Planters who have 
used them during the past thirty years. Raising a 
large portion of the seed 6old,(few seedsmen raise the 
seed they sell) I was the first seedsman in the United 
•taws to warrant (as per catalogue) their purity and freshness. 
y £'~wX f ' R< ' ,0,1 ' e a,ld Flower Seed Catalogue for 1880 will be 
.n( Hil E lo all who write for it. Among an immtnse variety, 
y friends w ill find in it (and in none other) a new drumhead Cab- 
bage, just about as early as Henderson's, but nearly twice as 
large ! James J. II. Gregory, Jlui blcutad, Mass. 



Stockton nXT"u.2risory- 

TRUE SMYRNA, ADRIATIC, AND SAN PEDRO FIGS. 

PRUNE D'AGEN, Imported Direct. 

Pr8eparturl6ns Walnuts. Persimmons, Pichollne Olives, Resistant Vines, and a full line 
oi_Fruit and Ornamental Trees, Shrubs, New Roses and Hot-house Plants. Guaranted free from scale. 

E. C. CLOWES, Prop. (Successor to W. B. WEST), Stockton, Cal. 




Washington Navel 

ORANGES 

AND 

EUREKA LEMONS. 



SEND FOR PRICES. 



Will also contract to bud 
special varieties for future 
delivery in quantities to suit. 

Address : 
BYRON O. CLARK and 

RIGGINS BROS.. 
Box 88, Pasadena, Cal. 



If You Want to Save Money and avoid a life of trouble, buy Trees Free from Scale. 



?eeds, Wants, ttc. 



{Seeds, Mapts, ttc. 



J. N. KNOWLES, Manager. EDWIN L. GRIFFITH, Secrela y. 

ARCTIC OIL WORKS, 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

Sperm Wlialo, ZEloi^liiiTxt and Flsfi Oils. 

WHALE OIL SOAP, 

STRONGEST MADE ON PACIFIC COAST. 
Especially adapted for Vineyards and Fruit 0r< hards. OFFICE— 28 California St., San Francisco. 



O 

CM 

> 

n 

CO 



0> 
CO 



WILLIAMS' 

SEMI-TROPICAL and GENERAL NURSERIES. 

375,000 TREES. 1,000,000 ROOTED VINES. 

FOR THE SEASON OF 1885. 



Apples, Pears, Peaches, Apricots, Nectarines, French and Hungarian Prunes, Plums, Figs 
and Cherries. Cypress, Gums, Acacias, Ornamental Shrubs, Greenhouse Plants. 

8,000 WHITE ADRIATIC FIGS— The fig of commerce, home grown, for sale thecoming 
season. Sixty varieties of Grapes, rooted and cuttings, including all the best Wine and Raisin 
varieties. Catalogue free. 

XW. TVt. WIT JjIAMS , 



P. 0. BOX 175. 



Fresno, California. 









-1 








fD 




<B 




V> 








w 




-i 




-i 


e 


w 


-i 










rcT 


s» 


£5. 


■o 




=r 




3' 


■n 




REE 








-i 




o 




3 




C/5 




o 




SL 




CD 



Kieffer's Hybrid, Le Conte and P. Barry Pears, at Reasonable Prices. 



TREES! TREES! TREES! 

We have greatly enlarged our CAPITAL NURSERIES, and are now enabled to furnish to the Trade the 
finest and largest stock of Fruit, Shade and Ornamental Trees, Shrubs, Flowering Plants, Grape 
and other roots to be found on the Pacific Coast, which we will sell at the lowest market rates. 

Besides the leading Standard Fruits, we have a large number of new and rare kinds of great promise. We will 
furnish the widely advertised (Kelsey) Japanese Plum at half the price usually asked. This is true of other 
new and choice Fruits, etc. We have propagated and distributed many new and choice varieties, and will continue 
to do so at whatever cost. 

We call especial attention to the following: Stitson, Boquier, Twenty-ounce Cling, Edwards' Cling, French 
Cling, Blood Leaf Muir and Wheatland Peaches. The New Pacific White Fig. Climax, Markley, and 
Violett Apples (the last-named is the finest apple we know of, see description in Catalogue), and other varieties named 
in our Catalogue. 

OUR SEED DEPARTMENT 

Embraces every description of Field, Garden, Flower, and Tree Seeds, Our long experience in this line 
enables us to know Just what is best adapted for cultivation and for profit. Our Seeds are Fresh, Reliable, and 
their germinating quality well tested before offering for sale. 

Our SEED and TREE C ATALOGUE for 18 86, with its beautiful lithograph cover and plates, is 
the finest ever published on the cost, and w ill be an ornament to any parlor table. These Catalogues we furnish 
free, on application, to anyone requiring Seeds and Trees. 

OUR FRUIT AND PRODUCE DEPARTMENT 

Is very extensive. This is constantly filled with tho best the market affords, of Green, Machine, and Sun Dried and 
Canned Fruits, etc., Nuts, Honey, and General Farm Produce." 

Being «o closely identified with the interest of the producer and grower, we are able to know and meet their 
wants in furnishing Seeds or Trees best for cultivation and profit. Orders filled with dispatch. Consignments 
and Correspondence solicited. 

W. R. STRONG & CO., Nos. 102 to 110 J St., Sacramento, Cal. 



SHINN'S NURSERIES. 



.| True to Name and raised without irrigation. 



HEALTHY, WELL-GROWN TREES. 

FRUIT TREES. { A " the Be9t Varicties ,or Shipping, Canning, Drying and Home Use. 

NUT TREES AND ORNAMENTALS. {SSSMSS-!? Tree8a Ddplant8,orLawn3 • 

We especially recommend Seller's Golden Cling Peach, Nichols' Cling, the Kaghazi Persian Walnut, and the 
Shipley or Blenheim Apricot. Also our choice BUDDED ORANGES AND LEMONS, home grown and 
Free from Scale, and hardy. 

The Stock grown in this Nursery has always been free from Tree-infesting; Pests. 

w e arc able to offer SPECIAL TERMS to parties wishing to plant largely, and to the trade. Correspond- 
snce SoLioiKD. Send for Catalogue. Address 

SHINN & CO., Niles, Alameda Co., Cal. 



P 



ESTABLISHED 1853. 



A. D. PRYAL, Prop'r. 



nxrTT 



Y 



Seeds, 



Seed -A.ixixu.stl. 



MAILED FREE ON APPLICATION. 

A valuable book for every Farmer and Gardener. It contains description and price of VEGE- 
TABLE, FLOWER, FIELD, GRASS, CLOVER, and TREE SEEDS. All the Best Varieties of 
Fruit Trees adapted to the Pacific Coast. 

TH0S. A. COX & CO., Seed Merchant, 409 Sansome St., San Francisco. 



North Ternescal, near Oakland, Cal. 

As usual, I offer for sale, at the lowest possible prices, a large and choice assortment of non-irrigated Fruit 
Trees, all healthy and free from insect pests. Of APPLES, APRICOTS, CHERRIES, PLUM, PEACH, PEAR, 
QUINCE, NECTARINE, FIGS, GRAPES, and all kinds of Small Fruits, including the BERKELEY GOOSEBERKY, 
I have a full and complete stock. This year, on account of the excellence of my new varieties of Japan 
Plums, I received the First Premium from the Mechanics' Institute Fair of San Francisco, for the best 
collection of Plums. A full line of Forest, Street, Lawn, and Garden Trees, Ornamental Shrubs and Plants, 
Roses, etc, ^"Descriptive Catalogue sent free upon application. Address as above. 



SAMUE 



SUCCESSOR TO 



3FL EH CK, 




IP- Silvester, 

IMPORTER AND DEALER IN 

GARDEN and VEGETABLE SEEDS, 

Alfalfa, Timothy, Red and White Clover, Millet, Flax, Red Top, Blue 
Grass, Lawn Grass, Orchard and Rye Grass, Bird Seeds, etc. Imported 
Red and Blue Gum and French Mangel Wurzel and Sugar Beet Seed. 

No. 317 WASHINGTON STREET, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL 



E. J. BOWEN'S ILLUSTRATED DESCRIPTIVE and PRICED CATALOGUE OP 

VEGETABLE, FLOWER, and FIELD SEEDS, 

Cntain in g 128 pages of valuable information for the Gardener, the Farmer, or the Family, mailed free to all 

* applicants. Address 

E. J. BOWEN, Seed Merchant, 

815 and 817 Sansome St.. San Francisco. Cal. 



ESTABLISHED 1863. 



THOS. MEHERX2T, 

Importer, Wholesale and Retail Dealer in 



A Large Stock of AUSTRALIAN PERENNIAL RYE GRASS at Reduced Rates. 

EVERGREEN MILLET, ALFALFA, RED AND WHITE CLOVER, 

Timothy and Orchard Grass, Kentucky Blue Grass, Hungarian Millet Grass, Red 
Top, etc. Also a Lirge and Choice Collection of 
PRTJIT .A. UNTIED ORKTAMEKTTAIj TIFliniE-S , 

BULBS, ROSES, MAGNOLIAS, PALMS, Etc., AT REDUCED PRICES. 
43TEudding and Pruning Knives, Greenhouse Syringes, Hedges and Pole Shears. 

(p. o. Box 2059. THOS. MEHERIN, 516 Battery St., S. F. 

i^Price List Mailed on Application s* 



AGENT FOR R. D. FOX'S NURSERY. 



NURSERIES OF C. W. REED & CO., 

Sacramento, Col. 

500,000 FRUIT TREES FOR SALE 

■A.T LOW PRICES. 

Call and examine our stock before purchasing elsewhere. Our Seed and Seedlings all im 
ported in order to obtain the best naturals for nursery stock. Trees all grown on strong clay 
loam, comprising all the leading market varieties. A large stock of Bartlett and Winter Nelis 
Pear Trees. *S"Send for Catalogue and Price List. 

C. W. REED & CO., 

Box 161 , Sacramento, Cal- 



20th Year. 



200 Acres. 



ROCK'S NU^SEI^IES! 



I WAS AWARDED THE FOLLOWING 



PREMIUMS AND MEDALS 



WORLD'S EXPOSITION AT NEW ORLEANS: 

16 Premiums on Fruit Trees. 

15 Premiums on Evergreens and Shrubs. 

10 Silver Medals on Evergreens and Shrubs. 

8 Premiums on Roses. 

2 Silver Medals on Roses, 

The Largest and Most Complete Stock 

EVER OFFERED ON THE PACIFIC COAST ! 

New Descriptive ") No. I. — Fruits, Grapes, Olives, etc., 4 Cents. 
Catalogues will INo. II. — Ornamental Trees, Evergreens, Palms, Plants, etc., 4 Cents, 
be sent as follows : J No. 111. — Roses and Clematis, gratis. 

JOHN ROCK, San Jose, Cal. 



48 



fACIFie RURAL, pRESS. 



[Jan. 9, 1886 



19 REASONS WHY THE "GLIDDEN" LEADS ALL OTHERS: 




BECAUSE being made from new ingot steel wire it is 20 to 50 per cent stronger than others 
made from "merchant" or scrap steel wire, and .... ., . . . 

BECAUSE being composed of one-half to full size larger main wires its strength is increased 
200 to 400 pounds breaking strain. . u - u ■ t a t u 

BECAUSE the Galvanized wire is treated by the English process, which instead of burning 
the wire, as the acid processes do, actually increases its stke.noth. We guarantee it to be 
300 to 600 pounds stronger than acid galvanized wire. 

BECAUSE the Glidden is one to four ounces per rod lighter than any other barb fencing 

composed of equal size main wires, for reason of its i.kiutek BARB. 

BECAUSE it has the greatest number of barbs per rod, hence gives better protection. 

It has in the "Thick Set" scyle 20 to 40 more barbs than other wires. 

BECAUSE though it has more barbs, they weigh leS8, requiring as they do twenty to fifty 
inches less material to make them. 

BECAUSE owing to its lighter weight per rod. it will cost for one hundred rods of fenoe, 
$1 00 to $3 00 less than other styles at same price per pound. 

because it has the shortest, sharpest, lightest, strongest and most effective barb. 

BECAUSE its barbs cannot be removed or uisplaced. 

BECAUSE it holds its tension better than any other, as barbs do not bind main wires to- 
gether, thus interfering with contraction and expansion. 

BE( a i si: it is more evenly twisted, thus giving full strength of both wires. 

BECAUSE it is twisted just enough to give it spring and elasticity, and not enough to over- 
some those qualities or to make it unnecessarily heavy. 

BECAUSE main wires bind the barb instead of barb binding main Wires, thus giving 



J-OHXTES dfe GrIVEIVS 



No. 1G BEAIjE ST., SAN FHANCISCO, 



spring and elasticity the whole len<;th of the line, instead of between tiie barbs. It is 
universally admitted that the Glidden remains taut through varying temperatures better than 
any other. 

BECAUSE it has most weight and strength in main wires where needed, and least 
weight >u barbs. 

BECAUSE all the barbs are at right angles to the line, and each standing alone makes 
every point effective. 

uECAUSE one hundred pounds of Glidden makes as many rods of fenoe as one hundred and 
thirty of other styles, where Bame size main wire is used. 

BECAUSE a guarantee of quality goes with every pound sold and the manufacturers stand 
ready to make it good. 

BECAUSE it is the most perfectly made on most approved machinery and most rigidly 

inspected. 

BECAUSE, in a word, it is universally admitted to be the BEST. 

More farmers use the Glidden than all others combined. More railroad companies use it 
than all others combined. It is better known and better liked than any other. It is the 
STANDARD OF THE WORLD, and where its merits are known, readily commands $1 per 
one hundred pounds more than any other wire in the market. 

The manufacturers have never yielded, in the sharpest competition, to the temptation of 
decreasing the size of the wire, nor the quality of the wire itself, knowing that any fabric like 
Barbed Wire is only as strong between any two posts as the weakest place within that distance, 
and believing their customers would, sooner or later, recognize their settled determination to 
afford the soundest and strongest fencing offered in the market. 

9 PACIFIC COAST GENERAL AGENTS, 

No. 200 J ST., 8A.CR.A.MEIVJTO. 



SAN FKANCIM O 
Junction Market, Pine, and 
Davis Streets. 



BAKER & HAMILTON, 



SACRAMENTO : 
Nos. 9, 11. 13, and 15 

J Street. 



MANUFACTORY: Benicia Agricultural Works, Benicia, Cal. EASTERN OFFICE: 88 Wall Street, New York. 

MANUFACTURERS, IMPORTERS, AND DEALERS IN 



HARDWARE 

BARB 



W 



RE!^ 



AND AGRICULTURAL 



7 




MPLEMENTS. 

BARB 
WIRE! 



We find that many of our customers, and the people generally, have a wrong impression 

regarding our 

IOWA STEEL 4-POINT BARB WIRE 

There has been a great many INFERIOR kinds of four-point wires placed on this market, and 
people have come to regard all four point wires as inferior. Now, this is a mistake. The cheap 
four-point wires were poor; they would not stand the strain, and were made from poor wire — 
and these wires are still sold in competition with our Iowa Wire, and the agents often say they 
are the same as the Iowa. The fact is, the Iowa Pour-Point Barb Wire is the only 
good four point wire in this market. You can buy some wires for '2.">: to 50a per 100 pounds 
less than you can good two-point wire, but they are inferior in quality. So you can buy inferior 
four-point wire cheaper than our Iowa Wire. But if yOU want a good quality of wire, you Can- 
not afford to buy these inferior grades at any price. 

It will not weigh more than the two-poiut wires. It is the only four point wire where the 

barb locks batween the strands and passes around them. We claim that a fence made with 

three strands of Eour- Point Iowa Wire is equal to a fence made with four strands of two-point 
wire. Every barb on the Iowa Wire is short, sharp, aud firmly fastened on the wire. Persons 
using the Iowa Barb Wire are always satisfied that they have the best wire made. 

We claim that our IOWA BARB WIRE is the only good four point wire in this market. 
We leirn of unscrupulous parties offering other four-point wires as Iowa, and selling them as 
such, knowing that they are not as represented. 

We can therefore advise every one who wishes to purchase wire, and wants the best, to buy 
the Iowa barb, as it contains all the favorable features that are required, and none of the objec- 
tionable ones. It is made only from the best ANNEALED STEEL, fully warranted, either 
galvanized or painted; put up in spools of from 100 to 120 pounds each. 



With Barbs 3^ or 7 inches apart, as ordered. 
GUARANTEED FULL WEIGHT. 

The 7 inch weighs 352 pounds to the mile. 
The 34 inch weighs 410 pounds to the mile. 

Our wire is put up on spools in length of about 100 rods, weighiog from 100 to 120 pounds, 
so as to be easily handled. One pound of 7-inch measures 15 feet in length. Our staples run 
about MO to the pound. 

WHICH 13 THE BEST KIND OF BARB WIRE TO BUY ? 

This is frequently asked by the farmer, and we will endeavor to answer it without preju- 
dicp, and honestly as we believe the facts '.o be. There are four kinds of wire on the market, 
which we will designate generally as follows : 

A four-pointed double wire, with wire barbs. 

A two-pointed double wire, with wire barbs. 

A four and two-pointed single wire, with wire barbs. 

A four-pointed double wire, frith metal plate barbs. 

As regards the difference between a two-pointed and four-pointed barb, we are satisfied that 
a four-pointed barb is more efficient to turn stock than a twj-poiuted — p'ovided t.h • kind of 
four pointed barb is such as stand at right angles — limply b >came a four pointed barb presents 
a point in any position, whereas, with a two-pointed birb several may be found in succession 
standing parallel to each other, and therefore presenting a point only in one direction. If any 
one doubts this let him attempt to run his hand along on a two-pointed barb wire, then on a 
four-pointed and see which offers the most resistance. We should, therefore, advise buying a 
four-pointed barbed wire. The question still remains: Which of the four-pointed wires is the 
best? The single strand wire, made of No. S or wire, has th i defect that it is quite impossible 
to place barbs upon a single wire so that they will not in time slip and work together. Again, 
if this were not so, there is no economy in its u *e, as the increased weight per rod is equal to 
more than the difference in price between th it and twisted wire, not to mention the expens of 
a windlass to wind up and let out the single wire for winter and summer, to prevent breaking by 
contraction in cold weather. The twisted wire has sufficient spring to preserve an equal tension 
throughout the different temperatures of the weather, requiring no attention. We therefore 
could not advise buying the single wire. 

The four-pointed metal plate barb is usuilly made by a tight twist, holdiDg the barb only by 
a twist between the two wires. This tight twisting not only contracts the wire, making it heavy 
per rod, but is liable to injure the fiber of the metal by twisting so closely. A^ain a metal barb 
presents a knife-blade, or cutting point, rather than a thorn point, and cuts rather than pricks. 




c c 



Terntory con- 
trolled by 
S. F. Office : 

ARIZONA, 
CALIFORNIA, 
OREGON. 
WASHINGTON 

TERRITORY, 
NEVADA, 
IDAHO. AND 
HAWAIIAN 

ISLANDS. 




AGENTS WANTED 

IN UNOCCUPIED TERRITORY. 



We have pur- 
chased the Sewing 
Machine Interest 
of The Estate of 
Samuel Hill, and 
have removed from 
108 Post to 6S4 
Market Street, 
opp. Palace Hotel. 

THE NEW HOME 
SEWING MA- 
CHINE CO. 

\V. W. Egnew, 

MANAGES. 



CQ 



GO 
»~3 



Best 


Stand, 


Best 


Feed, 


Best 


Shuttle, 


Best 


Attachments, 


Best 


Woodwork, 


Best 


Wearing. 




TATVEZONrTY-I^OXJU. PAOE EDITION. 



Vol. XXXI-No. 3.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 16, 1886. 



$3 a Year, in Advance 

Single Copies, 10 Cts. 



Beaufort. 

Our artist has given us a very spirited por- 
trayal of an exceedingly fine Norman stallion 
mported from France in October, 1885, by 
Theodore Skillman, the pioneer draft horse im 
porter of Petaluma, Sonoma county. Mr. Skill- 
man has imported and bred many fine animals, 
but he looks upon Beaufort as exceptionally 
fine, and the artist 1 rin ,s out points which all 
hippophiles will recog- 
nize as honorable. 
Beaufort is especially 
worthy of mention, 
from the fact that he 
had won laurels in his 
own country — the 
home of this excellent 
breed of draft horses — 
wherehe notonly came 
in competition with a 
large number of his 
class, but was meas- 
ured alongside of the 
moat noted hoises of 
France. To win, :ip 
he did, the Bret prize 
of 1500 francs, at Lil- 
lie, France, in 1884, 
and alsobeing awarded 
a pension from the 
Government, speaks 
more in his favor than 
anything we could 
write. As his picture 
indicates, Beaufort is 
a light dapple gray. 
He is five years old, 
16 J hands high, and 
weighs 1800 pounds. 

Mr. Skillman is ex- 
tensively engaged in 
importing and breed- 
ing French draft 
horses, and at his sales 
arables in Petaluma, 
and upon the Mag- 
nolia stock farm, near 
that city, may be seen 
many of the most per- 
fect specimens of this 

class of horses, including mares and colts. He 
has also three French coach horses, lately im- 
ported by him, which are pronounced by com- 
petent judges to be as fine styled carriage 
horses as were ever landed upon this coast. 
Mr. Skillman has done much to improve the 
large horses of his State, and his labors have 
been appreciated by his fellow citizens. 

Fair Directors. — Governor Stoneman has 
addressed the following circular to the secre- 
taries of the different agricultural districts 
throughout the State : ''The terms of a por 
tion of the directors of your agricultural dis. 
trict expired on the Let of December. As I am 
desirous of making appointments to till the 
vacancies, you will please consult with the di- 
rectors, the people engaged in agriculture in 
your vicinity and in the counties comprising 
the district, and suggest names for appoint- 
ment." 

Petaluma Dairy Shipments.— One million 
two hundred thousand pounds ot butter and 
160 tons of cheese were shipped from Petaluma 
during the past'year. 



The University. — President Holden was 
introduced to the faculty and students at Ber- 
keley, on the afternoon of Wednesday, Jan. 6. 
The affair was quite informal, and thus designed 
so as not to lessen the dignity of the formal 
inauguration ceremonies, which will be held in 
due time. A short address was made on the 
part of the students, by Mr. Turner, and a 
welcome from the faculty by Prof. Martin Kel- 
logg. President Holden responded briefly, and 



land is a part of the realty, and there is no 
authority of law for disposing of the same in the 
manner indicated. 



National Dairy Convention. — A conven- 
ion of the National Dairymen's Protective 
Association will be held at (irand Central 
hotel, New York, Friday, February 5, 1886, 
to which all friends of the dairy are invited. 
The object of the convention is to give expres- 




NORMAN STALLION "BEAUFORT," IMPORTED BY THEODORE SKILLMAN, PETALUMA , CAL. 



assured all of his interest, sympathy and desire 
to go to work with the aid of all in the perform- 
ance of the trust placed upon him. 



Poultry Calendar. — Our poultry breeders 
evidently do not intend leaving attractive ad- 
vertising lo other lines of business. Jasper J. 
Jones, of the Alhambra Poultry Yards, Mar- 
tinez, has issued a neat calendar, counting- 
house style, in which he gives a fine set of 
moral maxims in the shape of injunctions to do 
something valuable in the poultry line. It is 
quite proper for poultry to figure on calendars; 
the cock crowing has been the mark of the new 
day's coming since the time of Eden. 



Decision on Burning Timber. — Land Com- 
missioner Sparks has promulgated a decision 
which prohibits the custom of selling burned 
timber belonging to the Government at auction. 
He says that such a sale promotes forest fires 
by inducing unscrupulous parties to fire timber 
for the purpose of deadening the same and thus 
rendering it subject to purchase in large quanti- 
ties. He holds that standing timber on public 



Ruinous Frost in Florida. 

According to the Associated Press dispatches, 
Florida has encountered another severe afHie- 
tion of frost. It has been unusnally cold and 
stormy all along the Atlantic Coast and as far 
west as the Rocky mountains, and enough of 
the cold was left to do much injury in Florida. 
A dispatch from Jacksonville, Monday, Jan. 
11th, says that the temperature began falling 
on Friday night, and 
on Saturday night 
the thermometer re- 
corded "21 degrees at 
the Signal Office and 
I'ldigrnsin exposed 
places. Monday morn- 
ing it was 22 degrees 
at the Signal Office in 
Jacksonville, and IS 
where exposed. The 
temperature fell to 15 
at Ftrnandica on Sun- 
day, to 20 at St. Au- 
gustine, and is re- 
ported to have fallen 
to 16 as far south as 
Tampa. It is said that 
the damage done is 
less than expected. 
All the oranges re- 
n i , 1 1 1 1 1 1 cm ii.c trees 
are frozen, and the 
lemon trees in Noith" 
ein Florida probably 
killed. But beyond 
losing their leaves it 
is not believed that 
the orange trees are 
injured anywhere in 
the State. 

It is usual for the 
early reports to be 
wois f , and we have 
expected that sub- 
ser|uent dispatches 
would reduce the evil 
somewhat, but it 
seems that the results 
are very serious. A 
dispatch on Tuesday 

sion to the sentiment against the manufacture j says} that it his been the longest and severest 



and sale of fraudulent butter, and to consider 
means for the protection of dairymen and con- 
sumers against the gigantic evil. The work 
already done in this direction is beginning to 
show grand results, and by uniteel, earnest 
effort the evil may be abated, if not entirely 
eradicated. Able speakers will be present to 
address the convention, and as the American 
Agricultural Association meets at the same time 
and place, the occasion will be one of much in- 
terest. All who can are requested to attend. 



San Diego Honey Crop. — It is reported that 
the honey crop of San Diego for 1885 was : 
Comb honey, 1,107,000 pounds; extracted, 
1,284,500; total. 2,177,500 pounds. This is 
equal to 1088 tons, or over 100 carloads of 
honey. At eight cents per pound it is worth 
over $178,000. 



The old Humboldt Canal, Nevada, has been 
repaired for a distance of nine miles, above Gol- 
conda, and will be used to irrigate the land 
with the water of the Humboldt river- 



cold spell ever felt in Florida. The loss in 
oranges on trees, according to Captain Ives, 
manager of the Florida Fruit Exchange, is 
$1,000,000. The loss to the vegetable crop ia 
immense, some men having 60 to 100 acres 
killed. The freeze extended to the extreme 
southern point of the peninsula. 

We have had rather a cold spell in this State, 
too, but nothing to do injury. At Riverside it 
is reported that the mercury fell to 21° but no 
damage to fruit is reported. In most parts of 
the State the cold weather has been welcomed 
as checking the too forward growth of grain and 
repressing too ambitious deciduous trees. It is 
rather a forcible commentary upon California 
conditions that Northern California is holding a 
citrus fruit fair of great extent and excellence 
at the same time that oranges are freezing on 
the trees in Florida. We are sorry that the 
orange-growers of Florida must suffer. They 
are unfortunate in having their trees planted in 
the wrong places. They ought to come about 
3000 miles west, and reap some of the benefits 
of oar far western climate. 



50 



PACIFI6 F^URAlo PRESS. 



[Jan. 16, 1886 



Qo Fv^ES PONDER (a E. 



Notes from a Novice — No. 1. 

Editors Press : — I am from the city, where 
1 have been knight of the pen for many years, 
where, worn out and brain-weary, old age not 
bo distant as it was twenty years ago, and 
almost despairing of ability to compete with 
j ounger blood, I resolved to try the country. 
So here I am, on a farm in Tulare county, in 
the famous artesian belt. 1 have hardly yet 
got acquainted witli my neighbors -hardly got 
acquainted with even the primary duties of a 
farmer — but if you think your readers would 
relish my experiences as a novice from the city, 
I will be glad to fun ish from time to time a 
glimpse of my struggles wi h nature and my 
intense ignorance of her ways aud the way to 
manage her. 

One of the darling hopes of nearly every 
clerk confined to the desk in a city is to be 
able some day to live on a farm of his own 
somewhere. Kven successful business men are 
inspired with this hope of retiring from busi 
ness and spending the remainder of their life 
in Arcadia. It is very natural that this should 
be so. Confined daily to the unnatural life of 
desk duties, knowing and feeling that they 
were born for higher purposes thau poring over 
long columns of figures, being driven into mad- 
ness over trial balance sheets, worrying over 
the late- - ijuotations and, above all, how to 
keep abreast or ahead of all competitors — it is 
little wonder that the free country air becomes 
to them the synonym for paradise. 

Kvery position in life has its disagreeable 
side, which enlarges the longer we are confined 
to it. A monotonous life is dangerous to hap- 
piness and an enemy to contentment. Thus 
we find the country raised youth pining for 
city experiences, life and civilization, where he 
can have access to the great centers of learn- 
ing, business, news aud amusement. He is 
living in the paradise of his city cousin, but he 
is insensible of the fact; the city is his parcdise. 

lVrhaps if a more equal interchange of dis- 
contents were made between the city and the 
country, it would be better for both; as it is, 
the balance is overwhelmingly in favor of the 
city— in fact, statisticians tell us that but for 
this supply from the country, not more than 
four generations would be necessary to reduce 
the entire population into either criminals or 
idiots. It is hardly right in the cities to ab- 
sorb so much fresh life-giving blood from the 
country without sending in return some of its 
discontented material, such as it is, when the 
cities are so over-populated wi h impecunious 
artisans and pale-faced counter jumpers. One 
grand difficulty in the way of the city clerk 
seeking his paradise iu Arcadia' is the neces- 
sary funds. It docs take a small fortune to be 
the lord of a farm in a good-working, paying 
condition. It is not easy, handicapped with 
inexperience and very limited means, to select 
a piece of land, move onto it, work it aud make 
a living. The reader of colony schemes in cir- 
culars issued from Fresno, San Bernardino, or 
even this highly-favored Tulare county becomes 
enthusiastic over what -0 acres can do, and 
what it has done. Some have undoubtedly 
been successful in so managing 20 acres that 
they are in Arcadian bliss. Success has 
been attained by some by purchasing 20 acres 
in favorable localities on the installment 
plan, and paying from their monthly salaries 
both for the land and the services of a competent 
man to plant and care for it, till vines and 
fruit trees are productive enough t) warrant 
their leaving the city. All this is no doubt 
true, but those circulars paint the beauties and 
capabilities of their respective Elysia in a very 
mischievous and misleading manner. They 
affirm with the most confident assurance that 
an ordinarily industrious family with average 
intelligence can, on one of their twenty-acre 
lots, so grasp nature that she will, in the most 
affectionate manner, rush hens and eggs into 
market in large quantities at remunerative 
prices, with turkeys inviting a saie or a feast, 
milk and butter flowing over everything, bees 
vieing with each other as to which should pro- 
duce the most for this favored lord of creation, 
with prospective harvests of pears, plums, 
prunes, grapes, raisins, etc., with side issues of 
pigs, cattle, alfalfa and grain, which is all 
sublimated nonsense. Vet it could be realized 
if a living were made outside of the 20 acres 
for four or five years aud have mouey enough 
to plant and care for the trees and vines. At 
least, so it seems to me. A city-bred man, 
even with more advantages than can be had 
on 20 acres, say a good -sized farm of 100 or 200 
acres, will find himself surrounded by un- 
dreamedof difficulties both in work and business. 
Let him make it known that he desires to buy 
horses and iu a remarkably short time all the 
antiquated, worn out, vicious quadrupeds in the 
county will beek his acquaintance and he will 
be forced to exhibit his absurd ignorance of 
horse flesh to the amusement and sometimes 
the profit of horse dealers; and he may in other 
transactions discover more sharpers and rogues 
than he ever dreamed could exist outside of a 
city. All this will annoy him and vex his 
pride, though it only goes to prove that human 
nature, whether in the city or in the country 
is very much the same, and that the tender 
foot, whether in the city or country, is esteemed 
a legitimate subject for plunder by those defi- 
cient ill conscience. He will also find in the 
country, as he has found in the city, noble, 



large hearted, clear-headed men and women 
whose society and confidence is a genuine pleas- 
ure and profit t > gain. 

Those fleeing from the city of distraction will 
find several "sloughs of despond" belore they 
reach the "wicket gate" which leads to Arca- 
dian bliss. A pilgrim from the city can hardly 
comprehend his vast capacity for ignorance, 
but it becomes more clear upon daily exhibi- 
tions, to the utter astonishment of those who 
in the daily presence and use of farming imple- 
ments and duties never dream but such knowl- 
edge is as inherent to our nature as seeing or 
hearing. Such, at least, has been my experi- 
ence; but in spite of my vast ignorance and 
inexperience, I have come to the country to 
stay, and I trust by watching the methods of 
my neighbors, practicing patience and persever- 
euce aud reading the RURAL Press, to mike 
some kind of a success. I am encouraged in 
this by the advice of Rdph Waldo Emerson, 
who, like Horace Greely, is an authority on 
agriculture. 

" Help comes in the custom of the country 
and the rule of lm)n ra jnttendo. The rule is 
not to dictate, nor to insist on carrying out each 
of your schemes by ignorant willfulutss, but to 
learn practically the secret spoken from all 
nature, that things themselves refuse to be 
mismanaged aud will show to the watchful 
their own law. Nobody need stir hand or 
foot. The custom of the country will do it all. 
I know not how to build or to plant, neither 
how to buy wood, nor what to do with the 
house lot, the field, or the wood lot, when 
bought. Never fear; it is all settled how it 
shall be, long before hand, in the custom of the 
country, whether to sand or whether to clay it, 
when to plow, and how to dress, whether to 
grass or to corn, aud you cannot help or hinder 
it." 

Such is my position and if you will permit an 
occasional exhibition of any ignorance iu your 
columns for the purpose of reuucmg it, vou will 
favor very much, J. W. M. 

[We shall be glad to hear of the progress of a 
novice who begins with such a stock of good 
sence and such a right spirit.— Eds. Prkss.] 



IU HE C^ARDEJSI. 



jgOF^ESTr^Y. 



The Fruit-Growers and the Forests. 

At the convention of California r'ruit- 
lirowers in Los Angeles, November 19, 188o, 
an essay was read by Abbot Kinney, of San 
Uabriel, Lis Angeles county, entitled, "For- 
ests and Kruit-Krowers." This essay will ap- 
pear in full in the official report of the pro- 
ceedings which are published from week to 
week in the Rural. Inasmuch as Congress is 
now in seasiou, and as it will be well to bring 
the ideas of the fruit-growers before the mem- 
bers thereof as soon as possible, we take from 
Mr. Kinney's essay the following suggestions 
and the resolution adopted by the convention, 
approving them: 

Recommendations by Mr. Kinney. 

When we consider the consequences of un- 
wise forest destruction and recall the deserts of 
desolation such destruction has caused, we 
must be still more impressed with the neces- 
sity of a proper care of our forests. The in- 
t;rests of the people at large would alone make 
a change of system advisable in the fraudulent 
land entries that have been made to serve the 
lumbering interest. 

To this end I would suggest that the law pro- 
viding penalties for burning forests bs changed 
so that it would become an object for persons 
to bring to judgment guilty parties. 

Secondly, thattue Government withdraw from 
market all its timber lands, cause them to be 
surveyed, and those found necessary for the 
preservation of watersheds be permanently 
dedicated to that purpose, and that none be 
s >ld unless over and above the proportion re- 
quired according to prtsent experience for the 
best agricultural results through climatic action. 
The whole to be managed like the forest lands 
of Europe, while giving a net return by prod- 
ucts to be still maintaiueil forever forest land. 

Thirdly, the abolition of the presen r protect- 
ive tariff on lumber, which not only operates to 
place this great interest in the hands of a pow- 
erful pool, but also sets a direct premium on 
the destruction of every acre of timber laud in 
the country. 

The wooded and brush-covered mountains of 
California are almost altogether worthless for 
agriculture, but their import ince as attractors, 
holders and distributers of moisture is vital. 

The life of the springs ami the streams of this 
State is the life of every interest iu it, and first 
of all of the farmers and fruit-growers. We 
fruit-growers, therefore, should take energetic 
steps ti secure the protection of our mountains, 
upon which so much depends. 

Action by the Convention. 

By H. P. Livermore, of Alameda county: 
/■'. -ulci <l, That it is the sense of the fruit-grow- 
ers of California in convention assembled, that 
special protective legislation should be had by 
our State and National Legislatures looking to 
the protection of all existing forests, and en- 
couraging the creation of new ones, and for the 
suppression, by severe penalties, of the de- 
vastating influences now so rapidly deforesting 
the country. 

The resolution was adopted. 



A Strawberry Patch. 

Editors Press: — I can well imagine some big 
farmer who plants his grain in hundreds or 
even thousinds of acres, turning up his nose at 
this title and considering it a " mighty small 
business" when a man has nothing better to do 
than to plant a strawberry patch. And yet, 
within a radius of 25 miles around us, there are 
a good many men, hauling in the dollars, hand 
over hand, from their fields of strawberries who 
barely made "both ends meet" when those same 
fields were planted year ia aud year out to 
wheat, oats and barley, and finally t> bean*. 
And yet, would you believe it, there are still 
t > be found people, so lost to their own best in- 
terests as to depend, in this nineteenth century 
of civilization, upon scrambling around among 
briars aud brambles in the woods for all the 
strawberries they get, rather than take the 
trouble to plant and properly cultivate in their 
own|gardeus, some of the new improved varieties 
of this delicious frui*. 

Were the cultivation of strawberries a difti 
cult matter, one could understand this: but 
when the ouly requirement is a little time, a 
few good plants to start with, and good rich 
soil to grow them in, the wonder increases. 

In fact growing a strawberry crop, or in 
deed almost any other crop, is like feeding a 
good cow. The more you can get her to eat, 
the more milk and butter will she produce for 
you in return. So with strawberries. They 
are not very particular as to what kind of ma- 
nures you give them, so you give them enough, 
and they are sure to return you big interest on 
your investment. Old, well rotted barnyard 
manure, ashes, spent hops, bone dust, leaf 
mold — even old straw, as a mulchiug, is a big 
help if you can do no more. 

In the Eibt, where irrigation is not practiced, 
great dependence is put upou mulching, to re- 
tain the moisture and prolong the season of 
bearing, which there rarely exceeds six weeks 
for the main crops. 

Iu California strawberries should always 
have the ground prepared before planting, with 
a view to future irrigation, whereby the straw- 
berries will produce fruit all through the sum 
mer season, and often far into the winter 
months. Indeed where proper care is bestowed 
upon them, and constant irrigation kept np 
during the dry season, they become literally 

"Everbearing Strawberries" 

In our highly favored State. The plan in 
general use for the extensive cultivation of this 
delicious fruit is one borrowed from the Chi- 
nese gardeners, who are experts in simple and 
inexpensive methods of irrigation, for, to sue 
ceed in growing strawberries as a continued 
summer crop, one must irrigate through the dry 
midsummer months. Kven where this is im 
practicable, however, one may have as they do 
in the East, an abundant crop of berries every 
spring, which will last longer here than they 
do there, from no other moisture than left over 
by the winter rain?. After being thoroughly 
cultivated and enriched with old, well rotted 
manure, the ground for the strawberry planta- 
tion is laid off, according to its water fall, in 
long, narrow beds, usually from two and a half 
to three feet wide, with a shallow trench about 
a foot wide between each bed. This trench is 
used jointly as a water ditch for irrigation and 
a path to walk in whilst gatheringthe strawber- 
ries, which are planted on either side of it, up 
on the sloping edges of the prepared beds. By 
this plan the ground around the berries them- 
selves is never tramped upon or packed down, 
and consequently retains its power of absorb- 
ing the moisture either from the air or the irri- 
gating ditch during the whole season, a vast 
improvement over the old way of plautiug, 
where every foot of the land except that bear- 
ing the strawberry plant itself was tracked over 
and made solid and impenetrable, to either air 
or water, by the feet of the pickers. 

For the first year or two it is customary, 
among the Chinese, t) utilize the center of eacn 
strawberry bed, by plant ng a row of small 
garden vegetables down the middle of it, such 
as raddishes, ltttiice, onious, etc. After these 
are off, if more strawberry plants are desired, 
the "runners" are allowed to take root upon 
the bed, which, as before suggested, is always 
kept in that loose, spongy couditiou best calcu- 
lated td retain all moisture and facilitate their 
rapid growth. It must be remembered, how- 
ever, that where the "runners" are permitted to 
grow, it is always at the expense of the best 
fruiting interest of the plants, as of course they 
are a heavy tax upon the parent strawberry. 
Propagation. 

Strawberries may be propagatad in three 
ways — by the "ruuners," as above described, 
by dividing the old plan's, or by the seed. The 
latter plan is, however, rarely practiced, except 
among fancy growers seeking new varieties 
The method, then, is to take the largest aud 
finest berry, of any desired sort, peel off the 
outside in which the little golden seed are 
studded, and spread this peeling upon a piece 
of blotting paper until the pulpy juice dries out 
or dissolves this away by washing the seed free 
from it, and then planting the seed in some 
warm, sandy soil iu a sheltered place. The re- 
sult may be no great improvement upon the 
parent stock, but it often happens when these 
seedling plants have been fruited, that there 



are "sports" of great value among them. It is 
from jast such sports, carefully kept to them- 
selves, that some of our finest varieties have 
sprung. 

Stamlnate and Plstllate. 

Much disappointment is often occasioned 
among amateur strawberry-growers from the 
want of a little botanical knowledge upon the 
subject. F'or instance, all varieties are not per- 
fect fbwered. To produce fruit the blossom 
must be furnished with both stamens and pis- 
tils. Many of the new varieties (and some of 
the fiuest strawberries grown are among them) 
have pistilate flowers which, to perfect their 
fruit, must have other varieties which have per- 
fect flowers planted near them. Suppoee, for 
instance, without knowing this fact, I look 
over a berry catalogue and from the size of 
berry pictured and description given of them, 
without noticing or understanding, may be, the 
full import of the little word pistila'e, or "P. 1 
aftir their names, I order 100 "Jersey Oaeens," 
| 100 "Manchesters," 100 "B g B jb" strawl>erriea 
(all pistilate varieties). I plant my new impor- 
tation with every ctre in the world. 1 may 
have lots of blossoms, the vines may seem to 
thrive, hut when fruitiug time comes I have not 
a berry ! And in a-few years, unless I find out 
my mistake and remedy it, I have not eveu a 
strawberry plant left of all my hundreds. I 
conclude, therefore, that my land won't raise 
strawberries, and give the thing up as a bad 
job. 

H ad I only understood the meaning of that 
mystic "P."jl should have known that this, 
though a grand variety, was a pistilate one, and 
to enable those varieties to bear fruit, a perfect 
flowered kind like the grand "Sharpless," "C n- 
derella,' "Cumberland Triumph," or any of the 
uumberless fine varieties of perfect flowered 
sorts, should have been planted near it iu alter- 
nate beds or contiguous rows, so that those sub- 
tle messengers that nature employb on such 
errand, 

Butterflies and buzzing liees, 
Midnight sighs and morning breeze, 

Might commingle their elements and render 
all alike fruitful. Then, instead of barrenness 
and disappointment, I should have reaped a 
harvest of crimson beauties as a reward for my 
knowledge of nature's secrets. 

For those, however, who do not care to be 
bothered to keep track of the "male" and "fe- 
male" plants, as they are sometimes called, it is 
much safer to plant at once the perfect flow- 
ered varieties, as among them are some so sat- 
isfactory in every respect that they leave noth- 
ing more to be desired, combining, as does the 
Sharpless, for instance, the largest size, finest 
flavor, firmness for bhipping and prolific bear- 
ing. 

Improvement of the Strawberry. 



From the time when Virgil wrote his w arn- 



ing: 

"Ye boys that gather flowers and strawberries 
L.o, hid within the grass a serpent lies!" 

Until the present day, the Fraijarin n nea 
(wood strawberry) ha- been an object of boyish 
search and delight. Year after >ear the breath 
of balmy spring has coaxed truants to the 
woods, where on grassy knolls or in shfdtered 
nooks, the small, but sweet wild strawberries 
were found. And yet, within the last century 
or so, how marvelous has been the improve- 
ment upon the native wildwood berry. Cul- 
tivation for generations, artificial manuring, 
intelligent selection, hybridization, etc , have 
evolved from such small beginnings the triumph 
of to day. And the "survival of the fittest" is 
still going on, as year after year the inferior 
kinds are being discarded and in their stead 
new and improved varieties are being plauted, 
which in their turn will no doubt be laid aside 
as future generations of men follow up the les- 

| sons which our age will transmit to them. 

To realiz i the advance that has been made 

I in this line alone, contrast, if you will, the lit- 
tle, insignificant strawberry of the woods with 
the mammoth "Sharpless" of to day, aud figure 
out for yourself the sum as to what future 
generation may accomplish with this grand 
berry for a "starter," in their future «-\pt-ri- 
uu-iits in evolution. L. U. McCa.nx. 

Santa Cruz. 



J^Or^TISUbTUr^E. 



Trie English Sparrow and Fruit Buds. 

We see items in our Southern county ex- 
changes concerning the operations of the Eng- 
lish sparrow on the fruit buds, which lead us 
to think that this lovely pest is rivaling his as- 
sociate in such evil deeds — the linnet. There 
is no question about it; these ill-doing birds 
"must go." Wo find in the last issue of Sci- 
ence a note which may interest those « ho feel 
forced to slay the marauders: 

Two years ago I published the fact in the 
'American naturalist (September, 18SU, p. 925), 
of the Englishsparrow having practically driven 
all the native birds out of the beautiful 
parks of New Orleans, when, even so long ago 
as that, this bird was to be found there in 
numbers I distinctly recolleot having seen 
them in Cheyenne, Wyoming, in 1S77; so that 
I think this pest has spread more rapidly than 
some of the correspondents of Science are per- 
haps aware. Of course, the most important 
point at issue now, is to devise means for so re- 



Jan. 16, 18S6.] 



pACIFie I^URAb fRESS. 



r 

v 



ducing their numbers as to render them harm- 
less in the future, or better still, if possible, to 
exterminate them entirely. 

The methods suggested by Mr. Ralph S. 
Tarr (Science, No. 149) are excellent so far as 
they go; but I would suggest a far more effici- 
ent weapon than the shot gun for use in the 
city parks, recommended by him. I refer to 
the collecting cane now in use by many orni- 
thologists in this country, with the seven-cham- 
bered pistol attachment. I have an excellent 
one by me now, belonging to the Smithsonian 
institution, and I will guarantee that I could 
kill 350 English sparrows with it in one day iu 
New York City, and keep it up tor every day 
in the year, or until their decreasing numbers 
reduced the average. It possesees several high- 
ly import int recommendations over the shot- 
gun; it makes scarcely any noise; the ammu- 
nition is cheap; no danger is run of injuring 
persons in a crowded city; and it would attract 
far less attention. This weapon might be 
placed in the hands of those who proved them- 
selves experts in its use, or any city police 
force. Other persons might also be licensed to 
use it, who were willing to practice extermina- 
ting the birds for a reward. R. W. Shufeldt. 

Fort Winyate, New Mexico, Dec. 18, 'So. 

French Prune Curing. 

We gave recently an essay by Mr. S. F. Leib, of 
San Jose, on the prune, which included a letter 
from Mr. H. K. Thurber, of New York, com- 
menting favorably upon the excellent quality of 
the prunes produced by him. We find in the 
Santa Clara Valley another letter from Mr. 
Thurber to Mr. Laib, which contains poiuts of 
intertst, as follows: 

In talking with our Mr. Godillot, who has 
charge of the French department of our busi 
ness and is thoroughly up in all French goods, 
I learn that the prunes before being bought and 
brought to our factory are dried in a stone oven 
aDd are only sufficiently dried so they will keep 
ten days to two weeks without molding, and 
that is universal all through France. Then the 
prunes are taken to the market where they are 
bought by the factories for another cure, and 
thai I can describe from being in our own fac- 
tory two years ago. They are packed in long, 
hollow metal tubes, which after being filled have 
a cap screwed on them to make them air-tight. 
These tubes are put into a steam drum and live 
steam is turned on, and they are cooked for a 
longer or shorter time, according to the size of 
the fruit, at a temperature of about 110. I 
might say that prior to going into these tubes 
they are run through wire sieves so arranged 
that all the smaller fruit will separate pretty 
nearly in 80 5 to the pound, 90 5, 100 5, 110 5, 
120-5, and so on, but all the large fruit cannot 
be separated successfully in that way, and they 
are picked out by hand and weighed. After 
that they are regularly packed, whether in tins 
or boxes, as is want d. They are intended to 
be sufficiently cooked that they will keep any 
length of time without molding. 

The Orange Union and the S. F. Trade. 

The operations of the Orange Growers' Pro- 
tective Association with reference to the San 
Francisco market have assumed definite shape. 
The president of the associa'ion, J.deBarth 
Shorb, informed a Call reporter last week that 
all the arrangements were completed. Seven 
firms have been selected in this city, to whom 
will be shipped all the fruit sent to this market 
by the members of the association. A meeting 
was held January 7th, at the Occidental hotel, 
at which were present Mr. Shorb, representing 
the association, Charles J. King, who has been 
selected as the general agent of the association 
in this market, and representatives from the 
following-named firms : Oalton Bros., A. Lusk 
& Co., Eveleth & Nash, the San Lorenzo F.uit 
Company, Littlefield, Allison & Co., Cezartich 
& Co., and HixBon & Justi, which are the firms 
selected to handle the goods. 

The goods will be shipped to the above-named 
firms on requisitions approved by the general 
agent, and will bear the brand of the associa- 
tion. No more fruit will be shipped than will 
satisfy the legitimate demands of this market, 
at a price fairly remunerative to the grower and 
the commission men, so that the alternate glut 
and scarcity of oranges which has been so detri- 
mental to the industry heretofore will be 
avoided. 

The agent of the company, Mr. Charles J. 
King, is expected to stand betwei n the growers 
and people on one side, and the commission men 
on the other, and to see that such a steady, 
uniform supply of fruit is kept in the market 
that there is no opportunity or temptation to 
corner the market. Fruit is now arriving on 
the order of the agent in this city. 

The plans were all fully discussed, and all 
present thought they were well calculated to 
protect the interests of all concerned. 



jSERieUbTUFlE. 



Silk Culture Society Meeting. 

A meeting of the Ladies' Silk Culture So- 
ciety of California was held January 7th at the 
rooms of the Academy of Sciences, at which 
Prof. Hilgard, of the State University, read a 



report of the work being done at Piedmont on 
the five-acre tract belonging to the association. 
He stated that in five weeks the tract had been 
cleared and 30 cords of wood were on hand from 
trees removed. The land was now ready for 
plowing and harrowing. 

It was announced that Mr. Booth, of Rose- 
ville, would furnish 250 mulberry trees at $10 
per 100, and that Mr. Trumbull would send 
100 as a gift. Mrs. Hollister, of Santa Barbara, 
had also promised some. Mr. Noyes, the 
Government Agent for Silk Culture, announced 
that the department would give 815 per month 
for irrigating purposes and that he would 
furnish fuel. He stated that the mulberry 
trees promised by Mr. Booth were the Morns 
multicaulvi. These are used in the first stage 
of the worms' growth, the alba and japonica 
varieties being the best for after stages. 

The 30 cords of wood on the ground were 
ordered to be sold by Prof. Hilgard. 

Mrs. Donald McLennan, the Treasurer, made 
her monthly report, showing receipts of $330 
and expenses of $94. The net receipts from the 
three lectures of Professors Cook, Le Conte and 
Putzker were $150, of which one third had been 
paid to the German library at Berkeley. Mrs. 
Manning read her report on the sale of tickets 
for the lectures and was tendered a vote of 
thanks. 

The corresponding secretary, Mrs. Mayer, 
made her report, reading several letters of in 
quiry from persons anxious to engage in silk 
culture. 

Mrs. Stringer read her report on trees and 
cuttings. Fifteen hundred cuttings had been 
received this week. 

Mrs. Theodore Hittell requested the press to 
announce that donations of trees and cuttings 
would gladly be received by Prof. Hilgard at 
Berkeley, as the tract at Piedmont is now ready 
for planting. 

In response to an inquiry it was stated that 
Miss Elizabeth Cleveland had not yet acknowl- 
edged the receipt of a pair of black silk stock- 
ings, the product of California silk, cent her re- 
cently by the society. 

The committee on mulberry trees consists of 
Prof. Hilgard, Prof. George Davidson, Dr. Al- 
bert Kellogg, Prof. E. Muller and R. J. Trum- 
bull. 



Silkworms or Fowls? 

Editors Press: — As one of those who ap- 
pealed to Mr. Gillet through your columns for 
information on the subject of silk culture, per- 
mit me to express in the same public manner 
my acknowledgment of his kind reply, in the 
carefully prepared paper which you have just 
published. 

The practical details there given are such as 
every beginner needs to know, but I have here- 
tofore looked for them in vain. Plenty of 
highly-colored pictures of possible profits, 
plenty of misleading advertisements have met 
my eye, but even my own small experience con- 
vinced me that they were a delusion and a 
snare. I could wish that copies of the Rural 
1'ri<ss of Dec. 19. h and 20th might fall into the 
hands of every woman who has ever thrught of 
trying the new industry. 

Mr. Gillet's facts and figures are reassuring 
to any one who has not been deluded into the 
belief of a fortune to be realized by the rearing 
of a small number of silkworms. From $70 to 
$100 he mentions as the income to be derived 
(under favorable conditions) from the worms 
fed on the prod net of one acre of mulberry 
trees. I know of no other way in which a 
woman assisted by the other members of her 
family can earn the same amount of money in 
six weeks. 

The sale of eggs and chickens has been the 
great dependence of the farmer's wife in Cali- 
fornia; but within the last year or two prices 
have been so low that very little has come to 
her from this source. Frequently last summer 
was the question asked me, " How will the 
rearing of silkworms compare with the chicken 
business ?" I was then unable to answer. But 
any inquirer may now judge for herself. I long 
ago arrived at the conclusion stated in the poul- 
try column by one of your correspondents that 
in order to keep fowls profitably you must your 
self raise all their food. As soon as you begin 
to buy grain for them your profits take to them 
selves wings and fly away. Very few farmers' 
wives have any idea of the expense of keeping 
a hundred hens. They feed them from a full 
granary, taking no heed of the value of the 
grain consumed, and the money received from 
the sale of eggs and chickens seems so much 
clear gain. Let them keep an exact account 
for one year, weighing the wheat and setting 
down the market price against the income from 
the " chicken-peddler," and they would begin 
to doubt the wisdom of spending so much time 
and strength in the care of their fowls. 

It may be that the rearing of the silkworm 
is to come in, and provide a profitable house- 
hold employment in California as in other coun- 
tries; but, if so, it must be by our being satis- 
fied at first wi h small returns for our labor and 
care. 

I have little doubt that those who are now in 
faith setting out their mulberry orchards will 
yet reap their reward; and I would strongly 
urge every woman who is feeling discouraged 
over the returns from her poultry yard to set 
out a few cuttings this winter, plant a few 
young trees of the best va'ieties if possible, so 
that when the new industry becomes general 
she may not be left behind. I. H. 

Walnut Creek. 



The Sex of Eggs. 

Editors Press: — It can hardly be said that 
this subject comes up for its regular, old, 
periodic discussion, for it is seldom discussed 
with much sense or soberness. 

Mr. Eyre, formerly a poultryman of Napa, 
once said in the Rural: "There is no possible 
way by which the sex of an egg can be ascer- 
tained. Any claim to ability to determine the 
sex by the shape or the location of the germ, or 
other method, is simply ridiculous, and no 
more to be depended on than the device of the 
farmer who carried eggs in his wife's bonnet to 
produce pullets, and in his own hat to pro- 
duce cocks." It would have been more modest 
for the gentleman quoted to simply say that he 
could not tell the sex of an egg; or that he 
knev nothing about it. 

That there is a difference between a male and 
a female egg seems very certain. That this 
difference is not easily detected by the external 
appearance seems equally certain. 

A gentleman some time ago stated, before the 
French Academy of Sciences, that he had posi- 
tively demonstrated that eggs with wrinkles on 
the small end contained the male germ, while 
an egg that has a perfectly smooth, small end 
is female. I have never tried this method, but 
I distrust its utility, for the simple reason that 
if it were true it would have been universally 
known long ago. The Chinese would have 
found it out, for they are expert poultrymen, 
and shrewd observers. But the Frenchman may 
be right, the wrinkles on the point of the egg 
may proclaim the long-sought secret that there 
is a rooster inside of that egg. There is money 
in knowing, and those who are interested 
should experiment, as in this case it would cobt 
nothing to try it. 

Mr. Eyre may be right in saying that nothing 
can be determined (or rather has, so far, been 
determined) from the shape or location- of the 
germ. And yet, on the contrary, I suspect 
that a male and a female germ are quite dif- 
ferent when impregnated, and that thie dif- 
ference can be detected by the use of the mi- 
croscope (after the egg is broken) by the shape 
or size, or color of the germ. But even if this 
is so, the breaking of the egg spoils the utility 
of the discovery. I am free to admit, then, 
that in a promiscuous lot of eggs it is difficult 
to discover the sex, or to pick out the pullets. 
But, given the eggs of a single hen, and the 
conditions (as to vigor, feeding, etc.) under 
which they were laid, and I think that three 
times out of four the sex may be determined ; 
that is, out of a sitting of thirteen eggs nine or 
ten pullets may be hatched almost every time. 

Sex Determined By Conditions. 

There are good reasons for believing that sex 
in poultry, and in all animals, is the result of 
special physical conditions rather than of any- 
thing else; or, in other words, the degree of 
vigor imparted by the parents to the offspring 
will determine the sex of the offspring. A high 
degree of vigor in the parent, or better still, in 
the parents, tends to produce female offspring, 
while a lack of vigor is likely to result in male 
offspring. It is an admitted fact in medical 
science that the vigor, as well as the welfare of 
the race, depends more upon the mother than 
the father. The male may transmit superficial 
markings powerfully, but for constitutional 
vigor the mother must be largely relied upon. 
Zjology teaches that all life, whether brute or 
human, beast or fowl, is from an egg, so that 
whatever is established by medical practice in 
the human species will be entirely true and ap- 
plicable, as far; as the conditions are similar, in 
the horse, the dog or the fowl. 

It is well understood that a mare colt is 
more vigorous and easier to raise than a horse 
colt. The same is true of male and female chil 
dren. Statistics show that 106 male children 
are born to every 100 female. And yet there 
are more girls who reach the age of five years 
than boys. This surely proves greater vigor in 
the female, and reasonably so, since the heavier 
physical burdens must always fall on her. Now 
since these things are so, it must follow that 
those eggs will produce pullets which are laid 
when the hen is in her fullest vigor. Great 
vigor in the heu means great vigor in the chick, 
and great vigor in the chick means a pullet, 
since this is nature's protection of herself. 

Botany teaches that the first ripe seeds have 
the most vigorous germs, and that in bi-sexual 
plants these most vigorous germs produce 
female blossoms. 

A hen begins to lay when she attains to ma- 
turity and a state of vigorous health. This 
fullness of vigor is well maintained until she 
has laid out half her litter of eggs, which half 
may vary in number from 5 to 15. Then her 
vigor begins gradually to decline (if her treat- 
ment has been uniform), and with the decline 
of her vigor must follow the decline 
of the vigor of her offspring. This decline will 
be manifest in the loss of color in the yolk and 
in the germ, and also in the size, fullness, sym- 
metry and weight of her eggs. 

The Application. 

And right here is where our ability to judge 
of the sex of eggs comes in. Different hens lay 
eggs which differ widely in all the above men- 
tioned particulars. And this is why it is diffi 
cult to pick out the pullets from a promiscuous 
lot of eggs. Some hena always lay more 
pointed eggs than others. But some of these 



pointed eggs are more pointed than others, and 
it is the most pointed and poorest specimens 
that proclaim a waning vitality, and these low 
vitality eggs will not be likely to produce pul- 
lets. The first half of a hen's litter of eggs 
will weigh more than the last half if she is a 
fully developed hen when she begins laying. 
Pullets' eggs, of course, will not come 
under this rule, and pulletb' eggs ought not to 
be used for hatching. The pullet must divide 
her vigor between her egg and her own up- 
building so long as she remains a pullet. 
Hence, a deteriorated offspring must be ex- 
pected from pullets' eggs. 

If any given litter of eggs be closely exam- 
ined when all are laid down together, a differ- 
ence will be apparent in proportion, symmetry 
and finish. The finest specimens were mostly 
the early laid. But it must be remembered 
that a hen is in better or poorer tone from day 
to day, according to weather, feeding and gen- 
eral treatment. Thus the tenth egg may be a 
finer specimen than the fifth, and the fifteenth 
may be finer than either of them. But these 
are accidents, and outside the rule. 

Now if you want pullets, let a keen-eyed 
woman, whose wits have been sharpened by 
much practice, go through a well filled basket 
of fresh eggs. She measures them with her eye, 
and tries the finish of the shell with her deli- 
cate touch. Any mal-shape, deformity, or 
roughness indicates lack of finish, lack of vi- 
tality, a flaw in nature's machine, and she 
avoids such eggs by imtinct. Man can learn 
much, but the subtle instinct is woman's by 
intuition. She understands eggs better than 
man. W. C. Damon. 

Napa, Dec. 22, 1885. 



Color of Eggs in Boston. 

Some of our poultry correspondents recently 
discussed the color of eggs as indicative of qual- 
ity and value. The subject attracted consider- 
able interest, but we believe definite conclusions 
were not reached. We find the same subjects 
discussed in V, istern exchanges, and as Boston 
seems to be the head center of brown eggs as 
well as of brown beans, we take an extract from 
the Boston Cultivator on the subject of colored 
eggs : 

It is folly to inform the producer that the 
dark egg is worth more than the light one, 
when his wife will tell him that two dark 
Brahma or Plymouth Rock eggs will beat up 
and make more cake than three Leghorn light- 
colored eggs, or when your commission mer- 
chant at Ouincy market (Boston) says, " I will 
pay you five to eight cents more per dozen to- 
day for your Brahma eggs than ior your light- 
colored ones." 

It is a most ridiculous assertion that food 
alone makes the difference in animal products. 
Grain given a Brahma or a Plymouth Rock hen 
will produce a more valuable egg, one that has 
a richer flavor, a thicker white and better cook- 
ing qualities than if fed a Leghorn heu. Our 
theorists deny this without practical t;st. 
Would these same theorists expect the same 
quality of food from the feeding of corn to the 
crow, the pig and the steer? Are the same re- 
sult! obtained in feeding grass to the rabbit, 
the sheep and the goat? Will the same food 
produce identical results in the Merino, the 
Cotswold and the Southdown sheep? 

Again it is asserted that Boston is the only 
city in this country where the dark eggs fetch 
more than the light ones. Does this prove that 
there is no difference in the comparative value ? 
Boston demands and secures, for instance, bet- 
ter lettuce, celery and winter cucumbers than 
any other city that does not send its orders 
here. Is there any reason why she should not 
know a good egg when offered on the market? 
The fact i are not changed simply because many 
careless people fail to discriminate in the qual- 
ity of eggs. 

Our advice to growers of farm produce is al- 
most invariably to meet the intelligent wants 
of the consumer. If light-colored eggs sell in 
Quincy market at five to ten cents per dozen 
less than brown ones, those who want to make 
the most money in the business will avoid the 
useless arguments of the theorists and produce 
only dark eggs. 

This very week we will escort any one of 
readers to the stall of one of the most exten- 
sive dealers in eggs in Quincy market, who au- 
thorizes us to make the following statement: 
"We sell thousands of dozens of eggs every 
week. We never have a sufficient supply of 
strictly-fresh, dark-shelled eggs. The demand 
is always in excess of the supply, and especially 
is this true at this season of the year. We are 
retailing dark -colored eggs, not over two or 
three days old, at forty cents per dozen, while 
light-colored eggs of equal freshness, command 
but thirty cents at retail. The best hotels and 
restaurants in the city think it a matter of 
economy to buy only those dark-colored eggs. 
They know by actual experiment that their 
value is at least one-third greater than the 
white eggs. It is not a matter of guesswork 
with them. They do business to make money, 
and they know what kind of eggs to buy. The 
white of a Leghorn egg is like milk or lime 
water, while that of a Brahma has subBtance, 
is gelatinous in appearance and will hold to- 
gether if lifted a few inches. The latter is 
better for any culinary purpose. The compar- 
ative value is not a matter of fancy but of fact. 
Dark eggs command the highest price, and that 
is what the producer should seek to secure. 
These fancy prices only refer to freshly -laid 
eggs marketed from near-by points." 



52 



fACIFie RURAL, p ress. 



[Jan. 16, 1886 



Matrons of Husbandry. 



Correspondence on Grange principles and work and re* 
ports of transactions of subordinate Granges are respect- 
full}' solicited for this department. 



Joint Grange Installation. 

On Saturday, Jan. 9th, Temescal (irange, of 
Oakland, and Kden Orange, of Hay wards, met at 
the Masonic Hall at Haywards, for the joint 
installation of the officers of the two Granges. 
The Grange was called on abmt half-past 1 1 
A. M. by Past Master Perham, in the absence of 
Worthy Master McDermed, when the ceremony 
of installation of a candidate of Kden t irange 
into the the third and fourth degrees took 
place, after which a recess was declared, during 
which the harvest feast was partaken of. _ The 
tables were bountifully spread by the ladies of 
Eden Grange, and full justice was done to the 
same by all present. Several hot dishes were 
served up on this occasion — a very pleasant de- 
parture from the usual bill of fare served on 
such occasions. The reporter can speak in 
special praise of a chicken pic, a quarter section 
of which more or less found its way to his plate. 
The fruit, except oranges, was all of local pro- 
duction and was as excellent as it was accept- 
able. 

After the tables were removed the (irange 
was again called to order and the ceremonies of 
installation were conducted by Bro. Amos 
Adams, assisted by Bros. Anway and Carriug- 
ton. Following are the names of the officers 
installed, in person or by proxy: 

Eden Grange.— L. Perham, M.; J. Chester, 
O.; J. Russell, L.; O. Dannis, S.; Milo Knox, 
ft, Mra Blackwood, T.j Josie Sharai, Sec; D. 

D. Mann, G. K.; Mrs. Flora Anway, Pomona; 
Mrs. MoDeimed, Flora; Mrs. S. E. Dennis, 
Ceres; Miss Dora Anway, L. A. S. 

Temescal Orange. —A. T. Dewey, M. ; Wal- 
ter Renwick, O ; Sster S. H. Dewey, L.; W. 
G. Klee, S ; S. W. Prothero, A. S ; Sister E. 

E. Kelsey, C: L. Frink, T ; Sister N.G- Bib- 
cook, Sec; E. Kelsey, G. K.; Sister S. A. 
Whidden, Ceres; E. W. Brooks, Pomona; C. 
D. Maclise. Flora; If. A. R-iUwick, L A. S.; 
C'hristiau Bagge, Trustee. 

Immediately upon the completion of the 
ceremonies, Bro. A. T. Dewey, of Temescal 
Gnnge, stepped forward and proposed a further 
and extra ceremony — that of presenting a Past 
Master's jewel to Bro. Christian Bagge, 
the retiring Master of Temescal (irange. 

Bro. Dewey made a very appropriate speech, 
in which he recounted, at some length, the cir- 
cumstances connected with the early organiza- 
tion of the (irange in this State and the manner 
in which the way for such a movement was pro 
posed by the farmers' club orgauiz ition. Bro. 
Bagge had taken quite an active interest in both 
movements, and had been one of the most con- 
stant and energetic members of Temescal 
Grange from its first organizUion to its present 
time. He had filled all the principal chairs in 
the Grange and had been repeatedly elected as 
Master. 

He had not only given bis own time, but he 
had also introduced to the work five other mem- 
bers of the family. It was particularly fitting 
that one who had given so much of his time and 
money to the cause should be made the recipi- 
ent ot such an appropriate testimonial. It was 
hoped that he would wear it with pleasure to 
himself, as he most assuredly would with honor 
to the (irange. 

Mr. B'gge was taken completely by surprise, 
and it was with no little ditfi-ult/ that he 
could be persuaded to take the floor to become 
the recipient of the honor intended him. He 
replied with a few heartfelt words of thanks. 

After the conclusion of this interesting cere- 
mony, members were called upon to speak for the 
good of the Order. Q lit • a number responded, 
among whom were Bros. Perham, Bagge, 
Dewey, Dennis, Kelsey, Adams and othe s. 
Recitations were given by Misses D -nnis and 
Anway; subject 1 , "R>ckof Ages" and "Trials 
of an Inventor's Wife." Both recitations were 
well rendered, and were received with much 
applause. 

The question of taxation, left over for dis- 
cussion from the last meeting ot K len (irange, 
after explanation by Bro. Chester, was again 
postponed. 

While the meeting was yet in progress the 
announcement was made that all who depended 
upon the railroad for return to Oakland, must 
hasten their departure. Quite a number now 
appeared to leave. The occision was one of 
much interest. These occasions are always very 
pleasant and profitable seasons; but few we opine 
has been more so than the one of Saturday, 
January 9th. 

(Jar reporter being one of the unfortunate 
ones who was compelled to leave, cannot speak 
of the balance of the pleasant things that were 
undoubtedly said and done after he left. E. 

Danville Grange will hold a regular meet- 
ing at 10 a. M , Saturday, January Kith, for in- 
stallation and f> a-t, to which all members of the 
Order are cordially invited and a special invita- 
tion is extended to Walnut Creek, Valley and 
Alhambra Granges. 



Pomona Grange, Sonoma county, has within 
the last three years taken seven medals from 
the different fairs of the counties and State, in- 
cluding the Mechanics' Fair at San Francisco, 
two of them gold and five silver, and has also 
been granted four diplomas. 



Stockton Notes. 

[Written for Kiral Phssn by Mrs. W. D. Ashi.kt.) 

The new year made a startling solution of 
the weather question, leaving no doubt of the 
cold. We oh'd, for the frosted pastures, frozen 
faucets and pumps and fretwork of frost and 
icicles on the boughs, rattled down by songless 
birds. Ah'd, for the cold in our toes and the 
chill in our bones, and the great billowy lines 
of snow on the Sierras. Keen wind howled till 
six o'clock, tax time was out, leaving $15,400 
delinquent; then came the first great frost, and 
the young year was here with its augury of 
better times. This has been a week of prayer 
with much interest in the meetings, also a good 
week to put in grain, except a few mornings 
when the ground was too much frozen to har- 
row. Some think that the freezing will kill the 
grasshopper eggs. 

Early grain grew finely, and is only nipped 
by the freezing. 

Many farmers who bought land with swamp 
and overflowed titles are harrassed by jumpers 
building cabins and trying to file on lands 
listed over to the State in September, 1850, as 
swamp and ovei flowed. These lands, bought in 
good faith, could not be cropped without levy- 
ing. Jumpers claim that if they prove the title 
fraudulent they have the first right to file. 

The Children's Aid Society, organized by 
Mrs. C. Dorhmann, with 80 members, gave 
dinner Christmas eve to 150 children and dis- 
tributed 970 presents from the Christmas trees; 
clothing and useful articles were all served by 
the children of the society. Candies and 
luxuries were distributed. 

The anniversary of Marshall's discovery of 
gold, January 18, 184S, will be celebrated by 
the Society of San Joaquin County Pioneers ou 
the 18th. 

Stockton Grange installed her officers on 
January 7th. The first young Master we have 
had takes the place of tried and faithful General 
Ketchum. J. L. Beecher and the uew officers 
have the confidence of the (irange. We expect 
a lot of fun and many a round leeture from our 
lecturer, Dr. Grattan. Ojr members treat the 
(irange to fruit and nuts as each one has them 
to spare. 

This is the first day without fog in a week but 
the freez ; ng helps to dry the ground and a 
large extent of black land is too wet to put in. 
Ten days of dry weathe" will make it fit to 
-ow. Tne rank barley and wheat is the b-tter 
for the cold. It will prevent lodging. Peas 
and other vegetables stand the cold which 
keeps back the fruit buds. Altogether the 
season is very promising. Wheat is still very 
low, worth SI. 82 per cental. 

Stockton, Cat., January 7th. 

Grange Elections. 

Florin Orange.— Elected Dec. 26th: C. 
Towle, M ; I). Reeie, O.; [. A. Casey, L.; J. 
Reese, S.; M. A. Casey, A. S. ; Jos. .1 ickson. T.; 
Preston W. Smith, Sec ; Wm, Johnston. O. K.; 
H. A. Anderson, C. ; M. E. McAllister, Pomana; 
Kate Jackson, Flora; Mira Rees.-, Geres; A. 
Donovan, L. A. S. ; T. G. Casey, Trustee. 

Franklin Grange. — Elected January 21: 
Lake Freeman, M.; Will Johnston, ().: Alfred 
Biker, S.; P. R. B-ckley, A S.; M s. H. Flex- 
man, L.j Mrs. I. F. Freeman, C.j I. F. Freeman, 
T.; Sherry Bradford, Sec; J. B. Bradford, O. K.; 
Mrs. P. B. Bradford, L. A. S.; Mattie Johnston, 
Flora; Fannie Bradford, Cans; Maggie Utter, 
Pomona. 

Grand Island Grange.— Elected Jan. 9:h: 
J. R. Totoian, M ; H. D. Strauther, () ; Wm. 
Wright, L.;Rich'd. Browning, S.; Mrs. Mattie 
Strauther, A. S.; Mrs. H. Davis, C; H. Davis. 
T. ; E. G. Morton, Jr., S-c; P. A. Eirp, G. K ; 
Mrs. Wright, Pomona; Mrs. Eirp, Flora; Mrs. 
J. R Totman, L. A. S. 

Plyhoutb Grange.— Elected Dec 12th and 
26 h: W. M. McMillen, M. ; Sister S. J. Wor- 
ley, 0.; M. E. Wheeler, L.; Sister M. 0. Mi- 
Milieu, C; E. S. Potter, S ; S. C. Wheeler, A. 
S.; J. F. Gregg, Sec; Jonathan Sillee, T.; Be 
linda Moor, O. K.; L. Gregg, Pomona; C'ara 
Sillee, Flora; Eleanor Eistou, Ceres; Eda 
Wheel ;r, L. A. S. ; Bro. Jelmina, Trustee. 

Sebastoi-ol Grange. — Elected: James Gan- 
non, M. ; Bro. M. Litchfield, O.; Sister M. E. 
Corn, L.; K Hathaway, S ; C. A. Spangler, A. 
S ; Sister Morse, C; C. Wightman, T.j H. B. 
Morris, Sec; Sister V. Litchfield, Pomona; Sis- 
ter G. W. Huniley, Flora; Sitter Hithaway, 
Geres; Sister L. Litchfield, L. A. S. 

Sorni Sitter Grange. — E'ected D>c 26th: 
John W. Jones, M.; R. S. Algeo, O.; Alex. 
Donaldson. L. ; W. W. Monroe, S. : James 
Jones, A. S.; Mary Donaldson, C; Homer San- 
key, T.; Ella M. Jones, Sec; Wm. E. Roberts, 
(i. K.; Bessie Algeo, Ceres; Mary Dyer, Pomo- 
na; Belle Curry, Flora; Abneda Monroe, L, A. 
S.; J. J. Grunewaldt, Trustee. 

WASHINGTON Grange. — Elected Dec. 19th : 
A. A. Van Zindt, M.; S. W. Sollans, O ; Sister 
A. E. Blyther, L.; J. W. Giles, S. ; Chas. Child, 
A. S.; S. C. Watters, C; Chap. Blyther, Treas. ; 
('has Bamert, Sec; C. H. Little, O. K.; Leah 
Bimert. Pomona; Silvia Northup, Flora; Min- 
erva Holman, Ceres; Jennie Child, L. A. S. 



J. W. A. Wright, author of the declaration 
of purposes of the National (irange, is conduct- 
ing the Oreensboro' Boys' School, ( ireensboro', 
Alabama. His name is recommended by a 
number of Southern newspapers for U. S. Com- 
missioner of Education. 



Florin Grange Installation. 

Editors Press:— At the regular meeting of 
Florin Grange, on the day appointed for in- 
stallation, all the officers elect were on hand, 
together with many Patrons. No unusual 
demonstration had been anticipated, but some 
good sisters had provided a complete surprise 
in the shape of a bounteous feast. 

The installing oliicer, Bro. L. H. Fasset, P. 
M., was detained by some county matters un- 
til almost 3 p. m ., but on his arrival imme- 
diately opened the Grange in due form, dis- 
posed of the busiuess up to the special order, 
and after some appropriate remarks, proceeded 
rapidly and efficiently to pledge the officers 
elect to a faithful performance of their duties. 

When suggestions for the good of the Order 
were reached. Sister Johnston — one of the unre- 
mitting and invincible — suggested that there 
was in the hall below, not only something 
interesting, but actual work to be done, and it 
was late. So speeches were postponed, the 
Grange closed, and all went down, to find the 
long table spread with many good things to 
tempt the appetite. We deem further com- 
ment unnecessary. 

The crop prospects, while not so flattering as 
we could wish, are not discouraging. Early 
sown grain and pasturage never looked better ; 
and although the rapid succession of rains has 
prevented the planting of a full acreage, the 
plows are starting again, and if the weather re 
mains favorable, the quantity of land put in 
may be increased to nearly the usual amount. 

Florin. Geo. Wilson. 



The Grangers' Bank. 

The annual meeting of the stockholders of 
the ( Irangers' Bank of California was held in 
the rooms of the Chamber of Commerce at 1 
o'clock P. M. , Tuesday, Jan. 12. A. D. Logan, 
of Colusa, president, Frank McMulleu, of San 
Francisco, secretary. There was a large repre- 
sent ition of stockholders: over four-tifths of 
the stock being represented. From the report 
tit the cashier and manager, Albert Montpellier, 
the following items of general interest are taken: 

Net earnings for year 1885 $55,192 36 

11th dividend paid (7 per cent on paid up 

stock) 42.688 00 

Leaving hilance (cirried to surplus lund) . 12.504.00 
Eleven dividends paid since opening of 

"th: bank 42500000 

The following directors were elected by 
unanimous vote: A. D. Logan, T. K. Tynan, 
H. M. Li Rue, C. J. Cressey, Uriah Wood, 
Seneca Kwer, Thomas McGonnell, I. C Steele, 
J. EL Oardiner, Daniel Meyer, and H. J. L ;w- 
elling. The officers were re-elected unanimously 
as follows: A. D. Logan, president; I. C. Steele, 
vice-president; A. Montpellier, oshier and 
manager; F'rank McMullen, secretary. 

The following resolutions, presented by H. M. 
Larue, were adopt -d by a unanimous vote, the 
members standing to show the fullest expression 
of approval: 

Whi-.ki.as. Judge J. C. Merryf'Hd, a director of 
the Grangers Bank of C tlifornia from its organic. 1- 
I ton up to the present lime, a period ol 11 years, 
finds it necessary to decline a re-election at this time 
in consequence of other business relations outside 
the State, therefore, 

Resolved. By the stockholders of fa : d bank in their 
annu il meeting in Sao Francisco on January I2ih, 
1886, that his long and f.ii hful devotion to the in- 
terests of the bank and i s enstormr* in the position 
of director and member of the Auditing ( ommiitee. 
entitle him to continued confidence; and lo their ex- 
pression of sincere thanks for his eminent services. 

An amendment was also adopted that the 
resolutions be published in the Pacific Rcral 
Press and California Patron, and a copy be 
handed to Jjdge Merrj field. 

Installation Notes. 

PLYMOUTH Grande installed a full set of of- 
ficers 00 New Year's Diy, W. D , S. C. Wheeler 
performing the ceremony, and had a feast and 
informal good time with a few visiting friends. 

Pescadero Grange's new officers were in- 
stalled, January 2 I, by P. M. Weeks and Sis 
ter llayward. Refreshments and social inter 
changes followed the ceremony. Rsv. Mr. 
Duncan spoke acceptably 011 "Organ'za ion 
Necessary to Improvement in Agriculture," 
and music, vocal and instrumental, was re- 
ceived with applause. 

San Jose Grande held its installation exer- 
cises, felicitously, on tho day after New Year, 
and considers itself well-oliicered for the com- 
ing year. Bro. Kingsbury, the retiring Master, 
delivered an address breathing loyalty to the 
Order and faith in its beneficent mission. 

We condense the foregoing notes from more 
lengthy reports to the /'a'ron. 

Enterprise Grange. — Worthy Master 
Johnston was at Enterprise (irange, the 21 inst., 
and, with Bro. H ancock to assist him, installed 
the officers. He reports this as one of the 
strongest Granges in Sacramento county. They 
own their hall and are free from debt. A nice 
harvest feast was provided by the matrons, and 
speeches w<>re made by the W. M. and by 
Bros. Hull, Hancock, Hack, Wilson and others. 

Bro. W. B. Stamper, Overseer of Washing- 
ton Orange having recently passed away, his 
fellow-members, in resolutions adopted at their 
regular meeting, Jan. 21, expressed their sense 
of his worth as a Patron, a devoted father and 
an upright, able citizen, and the loss sustained 
by his Grange, his family and his country, 



jflGFvJCULTURAL I^OTES. 



CALIFORNIA. 
Alameda. 

The Tidl Land Project.— Chronicle: Alex- 
ander P. Grogan, Jonn L. Beard, John L. Hunt, 
James M. Livingston and J. D. Fry have 
brought an action against the California Land 
Investment Company (limited), in which they 
ask that a receiver of the property of the corpo- 
ration shall be appointed, the property sold 
and the proceeds, after the payment ot all debts 
and expenses, be distributed among the stock- 
holders. According to the complaint the com- 
pany is a foreign corporation, organized and 
having its office in London, England, with a 
capitil of t'300,000, divided in 29,950 shares of 
the par value of £10 each and 500 shares of t'l 
each. Of these only 9000 sbareB have been 
issued, and the plaintiffs are stockholders in 
the following proportions: Grogan 100 shares, 
Beard 1000, Hunt 100, Livingston 200 and Fry 
100. The company was formed to reclaim salt 
marsh and tide lands in this State by means of 
drains and levees, and selling the reclaimed 
lands at a profit. For this purpose, in Novem- 
ber, 1874, the company purchased 20,020 acres 
of tide lands on the eastern shores ot the hiv of 
Sin Francisco, and between that time and 1880 
expended (20,000 in the reclamation of about 
3000 acres. Since that time, however, all work 
has been abandoned, the levees have been al- 
lowed to go to ruin, portions of the property 
have been sold for delinquent taxes, other por- 
tions have been sold by the directors to the 
South Pacific Coast Railroad aud others, and 
the proceeds applied by the directors to the 
payment of their own salaries. The directors, 
who are all in England, have refused advan- 
tageous offers for the property and have refused 
to allow the plaintiffs to protect their own 
interests by purchasing the property. There 
has been no election of directors for several 
years, and the present board hold over and 
refuse to carry out the purposes of the company 
or to perform any act pertaining to their office, 
"except to draw their salaries with great 
promptness and regularity." [The land referred 
to is in the lower part of Aiameda county. — 
Ens. Press.] 

Contra Costa. 

The Pouti gi ese Farmers.— Cor. Bulletin: 
One remarkable feature of the county is the 
bight to which plowing is carried. The highest 
hills are plowed all over, not by Americans gen- 
erally, but by Swiss and Portuguese lessees. I 
was told that they would plow wherever a goat 
Cjuld climb. Tnis, of course, was jocular ex- 
agger ition ; but it is surprising t> what a bight 
these people will go, aud what an ambi ious in- 
strum nt the ride- bill plow becomes in their 
hands. Th • Poi tuguese are honorably conspicu- 
ous as very hard-working farmers, and the poor- 
est of them will have a fine team of work 
horses, even if he has but the suggestion of a 
shirt on his back, and but the b i n fluttering 
mills of a K issuth hat on his head. With these 
horses, generally thoroughly broken, t >o, these 
patient plodders and mott useful citizens, plow 
over the highest hills, not one of which, as a 
ru e, they own. They are all, or nearly all, 
lessees, the owners being parties who secured 
the land in early d lys at nominal prices. 
Much of the county was grabbed up, t >o, in 
the way known to grabbers, while — and this is 
the chit f landed black eye toe country suffers 
from— the Sobrante grant has the much-loved 
Cirpentier perched on its shoulder), not to 
speak at all of the Sin Pablo ranch, in which a 
district judge took the case "under advisement" 
for a apace of some fifteen years, while widows 
suffered, orphans cried and ordinary citizens 
uttered curses (not loud, but deep), from the 
earliei-t alpha to the very latest omega, of the 
bitterest profanity. 

Mcced, 

Progress of the Canal — Dispatch from 
Merced Jan. 8t'l : The great enterprise at 
this place at this t'me u the Merced irri- 
gating canal, now rapidly approaching com- 
pletion. Yesterday evening the tunnel be- 
ing bored through the backbone of the ridge 
dividing the Merced river from Bear 
creek had advanced 870 feet. Double shifts 
of men are kept at work night and day, includ- 
ing Sundays, pushing the bore through from 
each side to meet in the center. The progress 
is from 10 to 12 feet per day, and the tunnel 
will be completed ready to let the water through 
in April. Work upon the canal, which was sus- 
pended at the begiuuing of the severe winter 
storms, will be resumed as early as the condi- 
tion of the weather will permit. About one 
mile of the canal and the large reservoir are yet 
to be constructed, when the upper Bear creek 
branch of the canal will be completed ready to 
supply the valley, including this town, with 
water for irrigation. Thus we look for good 
times and lively business in the coming season. 

Placer. 

Foothill Oranges. — Auburn Herald: Up to 
the 2 I of January, the shipments of oranges 
this year from Newcastle amounted to 53,378. 
These included one carload shipped by the Co- 
operative Fruit Company to Denver. Of the 
cirload Mrs. Rice, from her place in the town 
of Newcastle, furuimed 10 000, for which she 
was paid two cents a piece, or §200. This was 
virtually picking g dd from her trees at Christ- 
mas. The first shipment of oranges was made 
by the Newcastle Fruit Association on the 21st 
of November, The beat price realized was by 



Jan. 16, 1816.] 



f ACIFI6 f^URAlo p RESS. 



5 



Norgood, of near Penryn, whose first shipment 
brought $13.50 per 100. Mrs. J. B. Finch of 
Evansville, 111., under date of December 26th, 
in acknowledging the receipt of a box sent her 
by George D. Kellogg of Newcastle, says: We 
all pronounce it the freshest and most delic- 
ious California fruit that we ever tasted. Perry 
& Co., fruit dealers of Denver, write to the Co- 
operative Fruit Co. under date of December 
20th: "Sample box oranges received yesterday, 
and we wired you last eve. The oranges are a 
complete surprise, and we are in ecstacies over 
them. Why didn't we know they were so fine 
before? People were not ready for California 
oranges, and smiled at the idea of fruit from 
there that was any account at this time of the 
year; but sample is beautiful, and we can sell 
them for anything a person wants." The wir- 
ing was for a carload, which was sent to them 
a few days later. 

Penryn Fruit- Growers. — P. W. Butler, in 
Placer Anjm: In consequence of fruit-shipping 
houses being established at Newcastle a large 
portion of the fruit grown in Penryn has been 
taken to that place for shipment. Penryn not 
having proper shipping facitities, although the 
assessor's books of the year show that the area 
the town has planted to fruit is double that of 
Newcastle, her citizens believe it is time for 
them to organize for the purpose of doing their 
own shipping. The C. P. R. R. have already 
agreed to lay a side track on which to build a 
fruit-house, and at the meeting of fruit-growers 
to be held on the 5th inst. it is proposed to take 
such action as will secure to them the necessary 
facilities for shipping before the opening of the 
next fruit season. 

Growing Tea. — Republican: The tea plants 
on Mr. Gould's place have grown from a few 
seeds received six years ago from the Patent 
Office at Washington by Mrs. C. C. Ames. That 
lady gave the seeds to Mr. Gould to experiment 
with. Early in the spring he planted them in 
a box of moist sand which he kept warm in the 
house until May. The seeds had been planted 
about two and one-half inches deep in the sand 
and were slow in sprouting. After they had 
sprouted he transplanted them in May to a high 
and dry spot near his house. In transplanting 
them the sprouts were covered over with light 
soil an inch or two deep. All of them grew and 
they afterwards received moderate cultivation 
and a little irrigation. Mr. Gould says he cared 
for them about as he would cultivate corn. The 
largest of them are now about 30 inches in 
hight, although they have been once or twice 
eaten downj by stock. Mr. Gould thinks that 
they will grow larger if they are pruned and re- 
ceive a little more careful attention. From this 
it does not seem that it is difficult to success- 
fully raise tea plants. There is nothing peculiar 
in the soil in which they grow. It is ordinary 
good ground with a Southern exposure, but the 
plants appear to be uncommonly hardy. 

Santa Barbara. 

Carpinteria. — Editors Press : Theindica- 
tions tor a prosperous season were never better 
at this time of year. Up to date 12^ inches of 
rain have fallen and in some parts of the 
county, the fall has been heavier. Much grain 
has been put in and is still being sown in the 
west end of the county and in the east end more 
hay ground has been put in than usual. Lima 
beans, the staple product of the east end and 
especially of Carpinteria will likely prove a 
profitable crop since about all of the beans 
which have been on are disposed of, leaving the 
market open for next season. The selling of so 
many beans has lightened the burdens of many 
farmers, and brightened the prospects all around . 
A great deal of fruit is raised in the county and 
much of it has been going to waste in the last 
two years, because there is no cannery or large 
drier in operation to use up the surplus, and the 
markets are too remote elsewhere for the 
limited transportation facilities. Conse 
quently, the fruit interest is languishing 
and unprofitable. Considerable substantial 
improvements have been made in the city of 
Santa Barbara during the past year as also in 
the country surrounding. The large influx of 
Eastern people every winter to Santa Birbara 
is what helps tokesp things moving. Here, as 
in other parts of the State, many of those who 
expect to spend only the winter, are so charmed 
with the climate that they stay permanently. 
— L. B. Cadwell, Carpinteria. 

Rainfall Studies. — Press : The review of 
the rainfall from 1870 to date establishes thus 
far one unvarying rule, and this is, that in all 
our rain seasons where there has been more 
than half our winter average of rain before 
January 1st, we have had less atter January 1st, 
in the ratio or proportion as the amount bjfore 
was greater. For example : 

Before Jan. ist. After Jan. ist. Total. 

1871-1872 8 8-16 in. 7 7-16 in 15 14-16 

1878-1879 8 216 " 6 6-16 " 14 8-16 

1880-1881 13 8-16 " 3 1-16 " 16 9-16 

1884-1885 9 2-16 •' 3 716 " 12 9-16 

1885 13 7-16 " 

While I do not pretend to know, or to pre- 
dict how much more rain we will have before 
the end of spring, the above table should warn 
every farmer and fruit-grower of the necessity 
of preparing their work with the expectation of 
having but little more. The season thus far 
for the cultivator is the best we have had in 16 
years, and any failure in crops will be the re- 
sult of neglect on the part of the farmer.— El 
wood Cooper. 

Santa Clara. - 

Mr. Geiger's Wash. — Leonard Coates in 
Napa Register:— Mr. Wm. Geiger of the Wil- 



lows, San Jose, gives me the following wash as 
the result of years of experimenting in en- 
deavoring to rid his orchard of the scale : 

Six pounds lye, four pounds sulphur, six gallons 
water, boiled together, some pebbles being thrown 
in to keep the sulphur down. Then add nine gallons 
water, and three gallons whale oil. When these are 
thoroughly mixed and boiled together, add three 
pounds saltpeter, previously dissolved in 15 gallons 
water; the whole to be applied as near boiling hot as 
possible. 

If nothing else would drive the insects away 
one would think the odor would. I was through 
Mr. Geiger's orchard in September; he had 
washed and sprayed his trees in February, yet 
the trees smelt as if the wash had been applied 
the day before. Mr. G. thinks it is the ad- 
dition of the saltpeter that produces such re- 
sults, and the consequence is that he is much 
encouraged, believing this remedy to be ef- 
fectual, although he has grubbed up many rows 
of fine trees which were too far gone. 

Stanislaus. 

Large Hogs — News: William Dale, one of 
our prominent farmers of Salidad, killed a small 
sized three year old shoat that when cleaned, 
tipped the scales at the enormous weight of 900 
pounds. When on foot he must have been a 
perfect Jumbo of the swine species. In a back 
issue we gave account of one brought to Brown's 
butcher shop that netted 603 pounds. These 
monsters and other large specimens that we 
have seen, clearly show that Stanislaus county 
is well adapted to hog raising.- 

Sutter. 

County Figures. — Yuba City Farmer: In 
the Record Union of January 1st appears an 
excellent review of central and northern coun- 
ties, in which our own county cuts an important 
figure; and we dare say, without exaggeration, 
that the exhibit is scarcely equalled anywhere. 
The total assessment of all prooerty is $7,963,- 
465; this sum divided to our 580 farmers gives 
an average of $25,000 to each; the average 
product per year to each farm is over $3,000. 
In San Luis Obispo county the average produc; 
is $1,113; San Mateo, $1,670; Los Angeles 
$961; San Bernardino, $606. The total va ue 
divided to the voters gives each $5,700, and to 
each inhabitant $1,543.00. All the figures given 
are exact, and cannot be swelled by an over- 
estimate or exaggeration except to total valuation, 
which is probably not over 80 per cent of the 
real value in coin, which, if true, would increase 
the apportionment all around to that extent. A 
few weeks ago we published a list of 41 coun- 
ties, showing their rate of taxation for the year 
1885, of which but one (San Joaquin) had a 
lower rate than Sutter — that being $1.10 while 
ours was $1.15. One bridge built in Sutter 
the past year (the long bridge) costing about 
$15,000, prevents our county from having the 
lowest tax rate of any county in the State so far 
as known. 

Tulare. 

Small Farms. — Visalia Delta, Jan. 7 : There 
is a tendency at present (and it is noted with 
pleasure) among the owners of large tracts of 
land to divide them into small holdings, for 
sale to settlers who cultivate them thoroughly, 
thus increasing the population, the amount of 
taxable property and making one acre yield 
what five or ten acres were formerly expected 
to produce. Several colonies have been sur- 
veyed, and considerable land has been pur- 
chased in them by immigrants. These are situ- 
ated in the '76 country, in the region east of 
Visalia, and in the artesian belt. The nnmber 
will be increased during J1886. Among other 
buyers of extensive tracts of lands in Tulare 
county are people from the southern part of the 
State, who have witnessed and participated in 
the development of that section from a wild 
pasture land into an area of the best Jcultivated 
and productive small farms on tho Pacific 
Coast. This valley and adjacent foothill region 
has all the advantages possessed by the (at pres- 
ent) more prosperous country further south, 
and their assistance, experience and example, 
will doubtless lend material aid in bringing 
Tulare county to the same improved condition. 



The Hyde Ranch. 

By the invitation of Messrs. Hyde & Schneider 
a representative of the Press lately visited their 
stock farm, located near Cornwall station, 
Contra Costa county. The farm embraces 3400 
acres, and is devoted to the raising of Percheron 
horses for draft purposes. They have about 70 
colts, from their thoroughbred stallion Nor- 
mandy II., which compare favorably with any 
of similar stock that we have seen. The ranch 
is highly improved, and great care has been be- 
stowed upon everything requisite for the com- 
fort and convenience of the young stock. The 
mares were selected from Kentucky and heavy 
draft stock, making an excellent cross with the 
Norman blood, and the result is a class of colts 
of fine size and action. The yearlings are es- 
pecially good, and in a few years the Hyde 
ranch will supply some of our best draft stock. 

China Silk. — One of the largest shipments of 
raw silk ever sent overland is on its way from 
this city to New York. It consists of 15 car- 
loads, valued at $1,000,000. The silk is direct 
from China, and is being taken through to the 
East on fast freight time. Another large ship- 
ment will follow soon, 



Fruit-Growers' Convention. 

In accordance with a resolution adopted at 
the December meeting of the State Horticul- 
tural Society, a general convention of fruit- 
growers is called to meet on Thursday, January 
21, at 1 o'clock, p. m., at the Grand hotel 
(Music hall), Market and Montgomery streets, 
Sin Francisco. 

The object of the convention is to afford fruit- 
growers an opportunity for discussion of all 
matters connected with injurious insects and 
the use cf insecticides. The law says all 
orchards infested with insects on April 1, 1886, 
may be proceeded against, and all orchard own- 
ers should assemble to compare experience, and 
disseminate trustworthy information on this im- 
portant matter. The convention will follow 
the meeting of the Fruit Union. All interested 
in the welfare of the fruit interest of California 
are invited to attend . 



The Poultry Show. 

The aristocracy of feathered live btock is duly 
installed in St. Ignatius Hall opposite the Bald- 
win Hotel, the occasion being the third annual 
show of the California Poultry Asscciation, 
which has been mentioned from time to time in 
the Rural. The hall is found admirably 
adopted forshowpurposes and the fine collection 
of high class poultry is shown in most approved 
style. The exhibition will remain open until 
Saturday evening, January 16th, and should be 
visited by all who enjoy study of high art in 
productive efforts. The following is the official 
catalogue of exhibits arranged so as to class each 
exhibitor's stock by itself: 

The Entries. 

George B. Bayley, Oakland.— Light brahmas, 
dark brahmas, partridge cochins, white cochins, 
buff cochins, langshans, silver spangled hamburgs, 
golden spangled hamburgs, white leghorns, brown 
leghorns, houdans, bearded silver polish, bearded 
golden polish, w hite crested b ack polish, B. B. R. 
games, red pile games, minoshkis, B. B. R. game 
bantams, golden Sebright bantams. Plymouth 
Rocks, wyandottes, bronze turkeys, pearl guineas, 
white guineas, 1'ekin ducks, rouen ducks, homing 
Antwerps, fancy pigeons, performing tumblers, 
magpies, fantails, owls, short-faced tumblers. 

Cutting & Robinson, Stockton. — Black Javas, 
silver penciled hamburgs, black hamburgs, black 
Spanish, white leghorns, rose-comb white leghorns, 
brown leghorns, houdans, white crested black polish, 
black Sumatra game, wyandottes, black Cayuga 
ducks. 

JOHN McFarling, Oakland. — Light brahmas, 
partridge cochins, buff cochins, langshans, brown 
leghorns, white crested black polish, Plymouth Rocks, 
dominiques, wyandottes. 

J. N. Lund, Oakland.— Light brahmas, lang- 
shans, brown leghorns, pit games, B. B. R. game 
bantams, Plymouth Rocks, wyandottes, pearl guin- 
eas, homing Antwerps, basket eggs. 

O. J. Albee, Santa Clara. — Partridge cochins, 
langshans, brown leghorns, white crested black pol- 
ish, B. B. R. game bantams, Tlymouth Rocks, 
wyandottes. 

Mrs. M. E. Newiiall, San Jose.— Langshan, 
black Spanish, white leghorn, brown leghorn, beard- 
ed silver polish, Japanese bantams, Muscovy ducks. 

Jasper J. Jones, Martinez. — Light brahmas, 
lingslnns, white leghorns, houdans, crevecceurs, 
Plymouth Rocks, wyandottes, bronze turkeys. 

T. D. Morris, Sonoma.— Wyandottes, bronze 
turkeys, white Holland turkeys, Embden geese, Tou- 
louse geese, pea fowls. 

C. H. Neal, Lodi. — Leghorns, bearded golden 
spangled polish, white crested black polish, Pekin 
ducks. 

Edward Darby, S. F. — English carriers, arch- 
angels, Copenhagen highflyers, yellow tumblers. 

Will Taylor, Oakland. — Fancy pigeons, arch- 
angels, turbits, tumblers, pouters, jacobins. 

A. C. Robison, S. F. — Angora cats, maltesecats, 
English pug dogs, List India talking parrot. 

Fred E. Magee, S. F. — Fancy pigeons, tum- 
blers, fantails, owls. 

Arnold Becker, Berkeley. — Silver spangled 
hamburgs, leghorns. 

H. K. Swett, Santa Rosa. — Light brahmas, 
red jacobins. 

Jesse W. Bryan, S. F. — Homing Antwerps, 
archangels. 

Geo. T. Marsh, S. F. — Fancy pigeons, pouters, 
jacobins. 

E. I. Robinson, Sacramento. — White-faced black 
Spanish. 

Thos. C. Stewart, Denvertown. — Brown leg- 
horns. 

B. Rohler, Oakland.— B. B. R. games, Chinese 
geese. 

Otto Brandt, S. F. — Golden polish pheasants. 

D. H. Everett, S. F. — Langshans, wyandottes. 
Western Poultry Co.. Stcge. — Rouen ducks. 
J. F. S tewart, Bird's Landi.ig— Brown leghorns. 
H. G. Keesling, San Jose — Basket eggs. 

M. K. Cady, Sonoma. — White guineas. 

C. N. Cousens, S. F. — Brown leghorns. 
G. R. Presson, S. F. — Brown leghorns. 
W. H. Loring, S. F. — Brown leghorns. 

Incubators. 

G. B. Bayley, Oakland.— The Pacific Incubator 
and Brooder. 

J. M. Halstead, Oakland. — Halstead's improv- 
ed Incubator. 

Douglas & Little, Oakland.— Oakland Hot 
Water Self-Regulating Incubator, 



M. L. Denny's agency for this paper has 
been discontinued. 



Napa County Notes. 

[From Our Special Correspondent.] 
Certainly this must be the "winter of 
our discontent," at least it is cold enough 
to be so. On New Year's day the wind came 
howling down from the home of old Bor- 
eas with frost upon its breath, and ever since it 
has been cold — very cold, in fact, for this 
country. But when we read the late news of 
the blizzards and snowstorms which have just 
visited the whole country East of the Rocky 
mountains, we stop our shivering and thank 
the Lord that our lines have fallen in such 
pleasant places. 

The Napa cannery is now out of its swad- 
dling clothes, and has become a certainty be- 
yond peradventure. A building lot has been 
purchased, an order for lumber given, a super- 
intendent employed, and the first assessment 
has been'levied. The building will be 50x100, 
and two stories high, with a shed addition of 
24x46 for boilers, etc. Operations on it will 
begin at once. Mr. J. J. Groom, of Los Gatos, 
has been engaged as superintendent. He has 
had extended experience in the business, and 
his goods have a reputation in the market 
which is unexcelled. The building lot is most 
admirably situated, one side of it fronting on 
the railroadjtraok and the other nearly touching 
the river. 

At a meeting of the Napa Horticultural So- 
ciety last Saturday, the question of fruit pests 
was discussed at length. The remedies found 
to be most efficacious for the wooly aphis is an 
application of lime or lime and ashes mixed. 
The roots of the trees are exposed and the rem- 
edy applied directly to them. It was conceded 
by all that it was about useless to attempt to 
destroy the pests on the limbs. Mr. De Moss, 
west of Napa a couple of miles, has used that 
remedy with eminent success. It was stated 
that if the aphis is killed at the roots it will 
disappear from the branches. The scale bug 
was then discussed for some time, and its prev- 
alence admitted in certain orchards. Mr. 
Coates stated that the best winter remedy he 
knew of was a wash made of one-half pound of 
caustic soda, and one-half pound of commercial 
(crude) potash, dissolved in lj gallons of water. 
This must be applied boiling hot with a brush 
to the main part of the tree. 

Prof. Husmann called attention to something 
that might prove a greater pest than those they 
had been talking about, viz., the attempted 
amendment of the bylaws of the State 
Fruit Uuiou in a way that would counteract the 
benefits expected to be attained by the Union. 
He read paragraphs in the Rural Press, set- 
ting forth amendments it is proposed to intro- 
duce at the meeting in San Francisco, Jan. 20th, 
which he hoped the Napa Association would 
as one man oppose. 

A considerable interest is being manifested 
by our people in regard to the oncoming citrus 
fair to be held in Sacramento. Napa county 
can make a very creditable display if the mat- 
ter is properly attended to. 

The wine product of Napa county, and the 
number of cellars for the past six years are rep- 
resented by the following figures: 
Years. Cellars. Gallons. 

1880 49 2,910,750 

1881 54 2,016,000 

1882 61 2,643,800 

1883 63 2,300,150 

1884 97 4937,090 

188$ 104 2,679,550 

In October last Dr. Smith, of Calistoga, 
planted potatoes on his lot in town, and they 
are now large enough for use, the first of the 
new crop being dug January 1st. People in 
this vicinity might raise a great many more 
potatoes than they do if a little time were de- 
voted to the work. At the asylum, near Napa, 
ripe raspberrries and strawberries may be seen, 
and fresh tomatoes are in the market in Napa. 

The prospect of a good year has caused Napa 
real estate to be in great demand again, and 
many strangers are now to be seen on our 
streets spying out the land. 

Debris Fines Paid. — Marysville Appeal: 
Sheriff Lord, of Nevada county, has notified 
the attorney of the Anti-Debris Association of 
this city that the Eureka Lake and Yuba Ca- 
nal Company has paid the last fine of $500, 
which was imposed on the company for con- 
tempt of court in disobeying the injunction re- 
straining the company from further mining by 
the hydraulic process. This is the fourth fine 
of a similar nature. The other three are now 
before the United States Supreme Court on 
writs of error from the Supreme Court of the 
State. The plaintiffs have moved to have the 
writs dismissed. 



Potatoes for Shasta County". — A corres- 
pondent in the Bully Choop region says they 
find the Peach-Blows do the best of all potatoes 
there. "The land is a black, sandy soil." The 
Early Kings proved very unsatisfactory — ■ 
"rooted in the ground for us" — and in future 
they will plant only Peach-Blows, Early Rose 
and Peerless. 



Our Work.— The Rural Press started on a 
new volume last week. Agricultural and hor- 
ticultural California owes the Rural Press a 
debt of gratitude for its labors in their behalf, 
that they should not be slow in repaying. 
Agriculture has grown up with the Press and 
under its fostering care. — Tulare Register, 



54 



pACIFie RURAb fRESS. 



[Jan. 16, 1886 




Invocation. 



[Written for Rural Press by Sarah K. S»xr.1 

Thou who lightest suns and stars, 
And bloomest in the rose, 
Cpheavest mountains fiom the plain 
Whither the streamlet flows, 
Before whom angels how their face, 
Shading that glory bright, 

Which decks the earth in majesty, 

And clothes the heavens in light, 

Fixes Thy mandate on the sea, 

Ever to be obeyed: 

"Thus far— no farther— abaft thou go, 

Here let thy waves be stayed." 

Mute Nature looking up to thee, 

Invokes Thy mighty power; 

The tiny floweret lifts its head, 

And asks for sun and shower. 

Thus we Thy favored children come, 

Bringing .into Thy shrine 

All thoughts of goodness, faith and love, 

And on Thine altar twine 

These precious gems, from Thy dear hand 

Entrusted to our care; 

And while we offer dare to lift 

Our humble hearts in prayer; 

Grant us, O God, that we may be 

Ever approximating Thee, 

In Nature's lab'ratory grand. 

Controlled by Thy synthetic hand. 

We read the earth, the sea, the skies. 

But Thee we cannot analyze! 

In our great ignorance we cry 

And ask for wisdom from on high — 

Wisdom to comprehend thy way, 

To grow in grace from day to day; 

In deeds of mercy to extend 

The helping hand to foe and friend; 

Enshrining all impurity 

In the chaste robes of charily. 

We ask for wisdom, Lord, to see 

Thy hand in every mystery: 

1 o feel the grief our heart so tries, 
Is thy great mercy in disguise. 

And grant us faith, most gracious Lord, 
1 hat when the silver loosed cord 
And broken bowl attest the hour 
Of thy great analytic power. 
Set free from sin and glorified, 
We shall the mystic storm outride — 
Attracted to that blissful shore, 
Peopled wiih loved ones gone before. 
Graciously grant our pn.yer — and then 
The glory will be Thine! Amen. 

January r, 1SS6. 



Our Door-Plate. 

[Written for Rural Press by Elsie Auoe.) 

I come across it occasionally at those times of 
family tribulation known as house cleanings. 
It is stored away with articles that are no bet- 
ter than rubbish, but whi-;h we think we can 
turn to account sometime, and put away again 
with fresh accumulations. Ninety-nine out of 
a hundred housekeepers will understood from 
their own experience how necessary an attic is 
for these precious yet useless articles. • 

But my door-plate is condemned to dust, 
darkness and perpetual uselessness, so far as I 
am concerned, and I am content to have it so. 
For five years it graced my street door. It did 
its work, and that suffices for all time. It is 
just as effectually dead and buried as though it 
Jay a hundred feet under ground and was sur- 
mounted with a tablet bearing the inscription, 
Hequiexrnt en jxice. 

In the beginning of my housekeeping days, it 
was a tri il to me not to possess a door-plate. 
I was proud of my new name, which was a 
pretty one, and I thought a door-plate added 
vastly to the appearance of a home, but my 
husband failed to agree with me, and although 
I could not understand why he should so strenu- 
ously object to such an adornment, I yielded to 
his judgment in the matter, and tried to be 
happy without one. 

In the course of time, we had for neighbors a 
family, of which the paternal head was a silver- 
plater. The son, a beautiful and interesting 
boy, was dying of consumption. It was my 
privilege to help to make his last days comfort- 
able. A short time after he was laid to rest, I 
was surprised by his father bringing me a door- 
plate. It had been Charlie's wish. 

"But I couldn't get it ready before he went, 
although I tried," Mr. 0. explained. 

Of course, my husband could not object then, 
and my door plate is not without its hallowed 
associations. 

Well, I had no peace from that time. Here- 
tofore, when people were u hered into my par- 
lor, I knew that they were friends or acquaint- 
ances. It was rather startling, at first, to have 
the smile of welcome freeze upon my lips as I 
found myself confronted by a stranger. Per- 
haps a well dressed, gentlemanly man greeted 
me with an easy "Good morning, Mrs. Per- 
cival." Before I could respond, he had plunged 
glibly into his subject. Sometimes his knowl- 
edge of me and my affairs was wonderful, es- 
pecially if he were collecting money for charity, 



or some debt-burdened church. He knew that 
I was a member of Dr. Blank's church; he had 
met my husband; he was acquainted with 
many of my friends, and so on. 

Need I say that he always left the picture of 
smiling urbanity, while I, with a sinking heart, 
put away my empty purse or groaned in spirit 
as I thought of my name swelling the list of 
those who would contribute shortly. Where 
was I to get the money? How could I tell 
John? 

Oh, those ready talkers that gained admit- 
tance on the strength of our door plate! Among 
the mementoes may be found a sewing ma- 
chine that I was glad to give away, worthless 
household articles, trashy pictures that I was 
ashamed of as soon as they were left, books that 
have hampered my shelves — dry, obsolete, un- 
read. 

Then the terrible uncertainty that p< ssessed 
my soul! A gentleman or lady wishing to see 
me filled me with misgivings. 

"Canvassei?" would issue in an ominous 
whisper from my lips. 

"No, ma'am; some one that knows you, I'm 
sure; so nice and pleasant spoken!" 

A hurried toilet would ensue, and I would 
find myself face to face with some smiling indi- 
vidual I had never seen before. One of these 
persons I remember particularly well. After 
an affable salutation, he produced a piece of 
frame work, somewhat resembling a trellis, 
composed of wire, covered with white cotton 
cloth. 

"Now, Mrs. Percival," said he, with a hu- 
morous twinkle in his frank blue eyes, "I am 
sure you will never guess what this is used 

for!" 

I stared at it, and acknowledged my ignor- 
ance. Then he tapped his shirt bostm jauntily. 

"Mrs. Percival, how long to you suppose I've 
worn this shirt?" 

I fixed my eyes on a very white, prominent 
and highly polished Bhirt bosom; but I was 
speechless. How could I be otherwise ? 

"Now, you would suppose that I had put on 
that shirt fresh this morning, wouldn't you? 
But I've traveled all over the city in that shirt 
for nearly a week. Here is the secret, madam. 
I wear one of these frames inside my shirt 
bosom. Mrs. Percival, I have two sons can- 
vasing these articles in other States. They 
clear from five to ten thousand dollars wher- 
ever they go. Now, you like the rest of the 
ladies, would like to buy one for your husband. 
It would be the most useful present he ever re- 
ceived. It will last him his lifetime, and will 
cost you only 75 cents." 

That evening I met John with my sweetest 
smile together with the gift which was to de- 
velop his hollow chest into more rotund pro- 
portions. 

"A miserable fraud !" he exclaimed. "Why, 
I have just kicked one from under my feet out- 
side. 1 have seen at least half a do/en lying 
about the street and wondered what the blamed 
things were. Just throw it in the fire." 

It would take volumes to recount half my ex- 
perieneek. They were so varied, and whatever 
their character, always attended with annoy- 
ance. Often these unwelcome visitors would 
llounce out in high indignation because I could 
sometimes be firm in resisting their demands. 
But what were my feelings when on several oc- 
casions an esteemed friend has been left in the 
hall, while 1 have made my appearance with a 
ses - erely contracted brow, ready to freeze the 
intruder from the threshold." 

These vexations were hard to bear, when I 
was supposed to have no family cares; but they 
became almost insupportable in the days Oj 
early and inexperienced motherhood. 

One day I had fallen asleep, my rest hav- 
ing been broken through the night by the 
baby's sickness, when I was aroused by the 
intelligence that a visitor awaited me. 

"The name? ' I inquired. 

"Mrs. Captain Smith, of Oakland." 

As I knew several ladies of that name, I tried 
to overcome my languor, and went in to meet a 
stranger, She was an elderly woman, shabbily 
dressed in black. 

"Mrs. Percival," she said mournfully, "you 
will excuse me for coming in; but I have been 
house hunting and I am very tired. I was 
going by when I saw the name on the door. I 
am acquainted with your husband, and he has 
always been so kind to me, that I felt that I 
could come in here and rest." 

I assured her that she was perfectly welcome. 

"Thank you, Mrs. Percival, I am living in 
Oakland, bnt it does not agree with me there, 
The water contains too much sulphur. I want 
to move to this city and open a private school. 
Can you tell me where I can find a nice com- 
fortable cottage in this neighborhood?" 

I told her that there were no houses to let. 
Then she asked my advice about opening a 
school. I pointed from my windows to two 
l.i. public schools, and also to a kindergar- 
ten near at hand. She stayed over an hour, and 
thanked me profusely when she left. 

When my husband came home I learned 
that Mrs. Cjptain Smith was a bore and a 
sponge, and that she was continually hounding 
people for help. His statement wan verified, 
when some years later she died in apparent 
poverty; but it was found that she was a miser 
and had several thousand dollars hidden about 
her wretched apartments. 

Another time, a card was brought to me 
bearing the name of Miss Collins. That name 
acted like a tonic upon my spirits. She was at 
one time a fellow teacher, and many a confiden- 
tial word and mutual giggle we had enjoyed at 
recess time, the better to stimulate us for duty 



when the bell rung us in again to an atmos- 
phere heavily impregnated with oders from sa- 
liva-cleansed slates and dirty jackets. The 
smile with which I had received the oard inten- 
sified itself into a jubilant chuckle and culmi 
nated into one of my old-time uproarious shouts 
of laughter as I burst in upon my visitor with: 

"Maggie, friend of my pedagogue days, wel 
come to my heart and home ! 

The lady, who had been leisurely walking 
around the room, turned, and was not my 
friend. While I looked at her in dumb sur- 
prise she laughed lightly. 

"I perceive you are mistaken, Mrs. Percival. 
By the way, what a number of premium pic- 
tures you have!" 

Premium pictures, indeed! But one could 
be so specified, and that was a lovely scene in 
Switzerland, and had been one of my wedding 
presents. 

In the meantime I was trying to place my 
visitor. Had I ever met her before, and where? 
"I am quite well acquainted with Mr. Per- 
cival. Indeed, I am one of his customers," she 
explained, "and as I was passing I recognized 
the name at once. Now, Mrs. Percival, I want 
to show you something you will admire." 

She slipped the cover off what I had sup- 
posed was her parasol, and unfurled a highly- 
colored chromo. 

Then came the usual glib talk of a work of 
great literary and artistic merit, price from 
-'i 1' to >'-"'. according to the binding, to be paid 
for in monthly installments, with the picture 
as a gift. 

But those unpleasant words concerning my 
pictures were rankling in my mind, and I ob- 
durately refused to subscribe. When Miss 
Collins found that she was wasting breath to no 
purpose, she asked if I would refer her to some 
of my neighbors. In my anxiety to get rid of 
her I complied with her request, and found 
afterwards that she had met with success, at 
least in one place, where the stalwart form of 
Sirah, the Princess, sppealed loudly (but in- 
effectually), iu colors of red and blue and yel- 
low fur a frame and a place on the wall. 

But to return to my caller. On our way to 
the hall dnor she paused, and completely stag- 
gered me by asking: 

"How is that law suit of your husband's pro 
gressing?" 

Of course, I lost no time in describing the 
lady to Mr. Percival. He recognized in her a 
frequent visitor to his store, where she was in 
the habit of consulting the directory. Some 
times she pestered him with questions, and if 
she withdrew her patronage he hardly feared 
that his business would fall through. But she 
had borrowed his umbrella, and as she seemed 
in no hurry to return it, he hoped that he was 
at last happily rid of her. 

I could fill a volume with such incidents. 
For certain reasons we gave up housekeeping 
for a time. Oh, the peace and freedom I then 
enjoyed ! No more unwelcome visitors and 
luckless investments. I fairly reveled in my 
seclusion behind another person's doorplate. 
After a while we rented a house again, but 
never since have I had the courage to label our 
street door with the name of Percival. I shud- 
der at the thought. My experience has led me 
to make a stndy of the subject. I notice gen- 
erally, the infrequency of doorplates, and I ask: 
What is the reai>on ? Are they out of fashion, 
or are people afraid to use them ? 

At all events, if some expectant bride should 
come to me for advice, I would say to her: " My 
dear, there are a great many things you can dis- 
pense with, and the most unnecessary of all 
household articles is a doorplate." 



Parential Education by Sympathy. 

Perhaps in no other part of his work does 
Goethe show more clearly his keen and careful 
observation of character than in the description 
of the change produced in Wilhelm Meister by 
his association with his child. He represents 
Wilhelm as viewing his farms and buildings 
with new interest, and as zealously contemplat- 
ing repair of what had long been neglected. 
"He no longer looked on the world with the 
eyes of a bird of passage; everything that he 
proposed commencing was to be completed for 
his boy. In this sense his apprenticeship was 
ended; with the feeling of a father he had ac- 
quired all the virtues of a citizen." To Wil- 
helm it seemed as if the obfervation of bis child 
gave him his first clear view of human nature: 
the questions little Felix asked of him stimu 
lated him to further achievements. Thus the 
best part of true education resulted from studies 
begun in the interest of the child. The new 
world which opens before all parents was to 
him the subject for the deepest thought, and 
his life was broadened and brightened by close 
study of the child. 

It is a thought full of suggestiveness that the 
experiences and benefits which came to Wilhelm 
through the child might come to all parents, 
and that just in proportion as they are in sym 
pathy with the children are their own lives 
made richer. If every father felt the duties of 
good citizenship in relation to his sons and 
daughters, then the world might truly be better 
for each child born into it. — From the ''Mothers' 
Note-Book" in Babyhood. 



Preference in Colors. — Many kindergarten 
teachers agree that the first choice among colors 
of all children under seven years is yellow. 
This admits of few exceptions. 



Unselfishness. 

[Written for Rural Press by Pioneer.] 

They who think there is more darkness than 
light in the world, more good than bad, would 
do well to try to remember that it is sunrise 
somewhere all the time, that there is never a 
moment but that the "pure gold boils o'er the 
cloud-cup brim" for some soul. Kvery hour in 
every day hears the reverberation of the sun- 
rise gun on some parapet, which relieves some 
weary sentinel from his duty. Kvery moment 
of every day brings the cheering radiance of 4 
rising run to some sick bed, and there never is 
a sunset gloom and dreaded chill of darkness 
but that literally gives somewhere the fresh 
light that secures safety to the hunted 
soul, and shows the bewildered traveler on sea 
or land where he is and which way to go. 

When we put away selfishness and rejoice in 
the prosperity of others we can know the true 
happiness that comes from following the Gospel 
rule to "love our neighbor as ourselves." The 
happiest children we have ever seen were those 
taught from earliest years to seek not only 
their own good in little things but the good of 
others, and the most delightful Christmas we 
ever passed was spent with a dozen little ones 
who bad no gifts for themselves but had saved 
every penny to purchase materials for toys to 
be given to some poor children round the 
corner. The joy in both places and the happi- 
ness gained by making those others happy is 
something we can never forget. We have seen 
hundreds of dollars expended for one Christmas 
tree that did not cause half the delight that 
shone in the faces of the little ones who re- 
ceived the simple gifts we Bpeak of, and noth- 
ing could have been furnished the givers that 
would have made them rejoice as they did on 
witnessing the happiness conferred. 

Try the experiment one year and learn what 
you will never forget, that it is "more blessed 
to give than to receive.'' 

"Father," said a small boy in our hearing, 
"Jim Smith can't come to school any more; 
he has no boots and his father is sick and can't 
buy him any. May I give him my old ones?" 

"Bring them here and let me see them," 
replied the wise father. After au inspection 
and a moment's thought he asked, "Have you 
any money of your own, Walter ?" 

"Yes, fifty cents I'm saving for Christmas". 

"Well, I think that is enough to pay for 
mending these old boots nicely, and if you 
choose to use it for the purpose they will last 
you three months at least, and you may give 
your new ones to Jim, but remember, I can't 
afford another new pair for yon for at l-a-t 
three months, so you will have to wear them 
perhaps till they are quite shabby." 

Such light as shone in Walter's face as he 
seized the old boots and his money and ran to 
tell Jim about the gift, and such a happy pair 
as they were next day when the patched boots 
were on Walter's feet, and he proudly eave a 
boy's greatest joy — his new boots — to his com- 
panion and friend. 

"A poor way to give a boy business ideas," 
you gay. Perhaps; but we are talking now of 
happiness, and the way to make children es- 
pecially happy, to teach them to rejoice in the 
sunshine, if it does not shine on them; to wel- 
come the rain, even if it disappoints them in 
their holiday, because another needs the shower; 
to sacrifice a little, in order to give great joy to 
some other heart. 

These are lessons we older ones are very 
slow to learn; but as we would have our chil- 
dren happier and better than we are, let us 
teach them to look "not everyone on his own 
things but each one on another's." 

In our hearts, as in outward things, "There 
is that scattereth, and yet increasetb; and 
there is that withholdeth more than is meet, 
and it tendeth to poverty." 



Friendship. 

To have really loved one friend through life 
is to have been strengthened — -unconsciously, 
perhaps, to ourselves — in every grace of charac 
ter which we possess — self-denial and self for- 
getfulness, patience, endurance and forbearance, 
faith and trust and tenderness. To have failed 
in love is to carry a life long burden of regret; 
to be conscious of a shadow which dims the 
pure sunlight of life. The love of a faithful 
friend — how powerful it is to plead with us, 
though silently, in our wrong doing; how grate- 
ful in our weakness! 

The clear eye that knows no shadow of deceit 
or double-dealing; the firm hand that grasps 
our own, sending assurance of help through 
every nerve; the strong heart which knows no 
wavering; which has loved us and we know will 
love us to the end. How empty life would be 
without the knowledge and the memory of snch 
as these! Along the shilting quicksands of 
ordinary social life they make a firm foothold 
whereon we need not fear to tread ; which can- 
not fail us. 

We know, alas, too well how rare are such 
friends. We, who use the language of friend- 
ship so glibly, and yet fail in charity one to an- 
other so systematically; we, whoso easily speak 
ill of one another, and are ever ready to resent a 
fancied slight or a hasty word. 

Oh, for one spark of that Divine love which 
bears with us in our waywardness and loves u« 



Jan. 16, 1886.] 



fACIFie RURAL, pRESS. 



still; which giveth liberty and unbraideth not; 
that love ^which flows in ever-widening chan- 
nels to bless all who need ? It is this narrowing 
of interest and affection, this giving of meas- 
ure, this asking and seeking always for a re- 
turn, which keeps our lives stunted and dwarfs 
our whole nature. 

Ah, how many ruins of friendship lie behind 
us as we journey on ! Those who trusted us, 
and to whom we failed to be true; those whom 
we professed to love, and have forsaken in im- 
patience as some fault has been revealed to our 
critical sense, which demands perfection in all 
but ourselves; those who needed us, and whom, 
for our selfish ease or pleasure, we have neg- 
lected, as well as the many to whom we might 
have ministered, who day by day and year by 
year have called to us through the manifold op- 
portunities of life, and whom we have disre- 
garded. 

And if these thoughts bring poignant regret, 
what shall those nearer and with far greater 
claims upon our forgiveness and forbearance 
testify against us? Let the many wayward, 
hopeless souls, faithless in all love, human or 
Divine, bear witness. What, then, is the love 
which we should bear those whom we call 
friends ? No foolish sentiment, no temporary 
gush of feeling, no hasty, unconsidered impulse, 
no fancy of the hour, born of some charm of 
manner or some expressed preference foi us. 
Not one or all rf these, but an earnest, un- 
selfish principle of affection going out with 
yearning tenderness and strong helpfulness to- 
ward that in a fellow being which is noblest and 
highest. 

Recognizing the possibilities for all good, 
which every soul possesses, love is not daunted 
by faults and weaknesses or by sins, but look- 
ing often more to what might have been, and 
to what yet may be, than to what is — strives to 
raise and strengthen. A friend is born for ad- 
versity; and it is in the hour of trial, in what- 
ever shape it may come, that a true friend is 
most sorely needed. A truce, then, to easy pro- 
fessions which have no foundation in the reali- 
ties. Lit us "lie not to one another." Better 
caresses, no protestations, if they are not ac- 
companit d by that concentrated, crystallized es- 
sence of feeling — deeds. 

L°t us think well and seriously of all that 
word "friend" might come to me in bstween us 
and those who need us. And then having stt 
our seal to this, let us know how to be faithful. 
Whatever of failure or shortcoming the past 
may have known, in the future " let us love 
not in word, neither in tongue, but in deed and 
and in truth." — I. C. Hatch, in Santa Cruz Sen- 
Unci. 



Jock and His Lessons. 

A reader of the Rural whom we judge hails 
from "bcnnie Scotland," sends us a clipping 
from one of his home papers, which contains a 
satire upon the too prevalent cramming system 
in schools, and does it in a very quaint fashion. 
It is supposed to be a letter from one sister to 
another, concerning the educational progress of 
the son of the latter: 

My Dear Jenny: — I'm unco proud tae let ye 
ken that yer son Jock is gettin' on maist awfu' 
at the skule. He's ducks i' the noo, an' the 
Maister says he'll be drakes neist week! 
There's no ane can haud the can'le tae him at 
coontin', no ane! an' as for writin', he just gars 
the pen gang, swish, swirl, back an' forrit, up 
an' doon, by a' the world like an angry worm 
when ye tramp on its tail. But oh, Jenny, 
while yer laddie is bi-ord'nar clever, ye wid be 
sairly vexed gin ye saw hoo he's loaded wi' 
books, bags an' slates. Every day he plods 
awa' thro' the snaw, pechin' like a cannachie 
cock, with a bundle on his back about as big as 
a d. um, but an awfu' lot heavier. He's growin' 
perfectly roond shouthered wi' the weicht o't, 
an' I doot ye'll ha'e tae sen' him doon a bar-ow 
tae hurl them back and forrit to the skule. 
He's in what they ca' the 5th Standard, though 
I think he should be in the 15th, considerin' 
the number o' his books. I'll just tak them oot 
o' his bag an' tell ye what he has. Weel, the 
fin-t is a Royal Reader (No. 5), an' it's fraethis 
it's ca'ed Standard Five. Then, there's the 
History o' Great Britain, an' the S. S. B' A. 
Premier — though what's the use o' thae' letters 
I canna think, unless it be to mean that it's a 
sad, sad book a'.hegither. Then, here's the 
Jo graphy o' Fife an' Kinross, the Jo-graphy 
o' Scotland, Ootlines o' the History o' Great 
Britain. I canna see the use o' this yin, when 
he has already a full history o'd. What's this.? 
English Liqueriture, Blackie; 'Rithmetic, 
the Catekism. Could they no ca' io the Car- 
ritches or Questions, an' th'en folk wid under- 
stand it! I wis beginnin' tae think there wisna 
a Bible, but here it is, an' gie weel thumbed 
tae. Then here's the Dictioner. That's whaur 
they gf t a' the lang-nebbit words frae. Here's 
what Jock wrote the ither nicht, declarin' it 
wis English, as if I didna ken better, "Oana- 
maneatoats." I lookit a' the Dictioner thro' an' 
cudna find it. Parson's Exercise Book, an At- 
las — this is a book fu' o' maps an' bonnie- 
coloured pictures — Ravenscraig Exercise Book, 
Dick-Tation Copy — Dick, I suppose, is ane o' 
the teachers — a Writin' Copy, a Sing Book 
ca'ed Musikal Star — back numbers ther are tae. 
Jock says it's a job lot that's been bought cheap 
and sold at the full price, tho' I canna see what 
Job in edit wi' sang books in his day. Am near 
the end noo; here's the last markin' book an' 
slate. Noo, I'll leave ye tae guess hoe the bit 
laddie can carry a' this on his back, far less in 
his head. Eighteen books an' a slate, what a 



havr! In my young days there wis nane o' 
that new-fangled nonsense; but noo it's just 
jum'le yer brains wi' as muckle useless trash as 
they can. Nae doot they're makin' graund 
scholars, but they're no a year awa' frae the 
skule than they forget the maist o't. Thae 
laddies, Jock wi' the rest, can talk aboot the 
sun or moon as glibly as if they had been there; 
but ask them tae ca' a kirn and they're lost. I 
doot muckle if they ken whaur the milk comes 
frae. But the lassies are waur than the lad- 
dies; they learn to croshie, tambour, work 
samplers, an' a' nic nacs o' that kind; but ask 
them tae darn a stockin', clout a pair o' breeks, 
wash a sark, or mak' a patfu' o' kail, an' they 
canna for their life. But I maun close i' the 
noo, an' if ye send me yer address I will wrete 
ye neist time thro' the post, an' no thro' a 
newspaper. I am, dear Jenny, yer loving sis- 
ter, Annie. 



*Y*OU^G JE[0LKS' QOLUJVIN. 



. Who Was Brave ? 

[Written for Rural Prrss by Auklatdh Samson. 1 

"I'll be an Indian," said Charlie, "and when 
Robbie comes down stairs all dressed for dinner 
I'll scream 'boo-oo.' " 

"It will frighten him half to death," laughed 
Ted, jumping up and down, " he's such a little 
scarecrow; say it deep down like this 'boo 
hoo,' " and naughty Ted put his two hands to 
his mouth, in the shape of a horn, roaring as 
loud as he could. 

" I'll lend you my red shawl," chimed in 
Mabel, who ought to have known better. " It 
will cover you all over; gracious you'll look ter- 
rible! Can't you just hear him scream 'mamma, 
mamma,' like a big baby." 

Now would you believe it Robbie was a 
poor little lame boy, who had come to the 
mountains for his health. He couldn't run 
around the porches and halls like the other chil- 
dren from early sunrise until almost every star 
had twinkled into its place. He generally sat 
right close to his mamma with his crutch rest- 
ing against the side of his chair; that poor litt'e 
worn crutch, so tiny, so silent, yet telling in its 
own pathetic way, such a pitiful tale of sickness 
and pain. One could well imagine that it) owner 
had drawn cheeks, hollow eyes, and the saddest, 
saddest of smiles, almost a sob. 

Do you blame Robbie, when the big dog came 
leaping up, with the children tearing after him, 
do you blame Robbie, if he looked around 
tremblingly crying, "Oh, mamma, mamma!" For 
you see great rough Carlo could have knocked 
him down with one stroke of his mighty paws. 
Well the boys and girls thought it a fine joke. 
They would laugh when nobody was around, 
calling him "Miss Nancy" and Mollie Coddles;" 
once even they made him a rag doll. And now 
on this beautiful sunshiny afternoon, when the 
very air seemed singing with joy, here were 
these strong, healthy boys and girls plotting 
against poor little lame Robbie. 

" Here he comes," whispered bright-eyed 
Dave excitedly. 

" No it isn't," said Mabel, peeping around the 
corner, "it's only Dada." 

Dada was the sweetest, dearest little maid 
who had ever found a resting place on the sum- 
mit of these rugged mountains, with the bluest 
eyes and the goldenest hair. 

"Look here, Dada," said Charlie, who kind 
of owned Dada when mamma wasn't around, be- 
cause he was her big brother, "you go over and 
sit quietly in the corner, like a good girl; we're 
big Indians and we're going to frighten Rob- 
bie." 

Dada opened her blue eyes wide. "You'a 
not going to hurt Wobbie, is yon?" she asked. 

"No, you little foolish," said Charlie, "how 
can saying 'boo' hurt any one; does it hurt you? 
Listen, boo — oo." 

"Yef; no, it do," lisped Dada, half fright- 
ened. 

"Oh, you're only a mite of a girl," answered 
Charlie, contemptuously; "ycu are'nt good for 
much; now boys, like me and Ted and Dave, 
why, why we could shoot a gun, couldn't we; 
and there isn't a dog or an Indian within ten 
miles that could frighten us, iR there, now?'' 

"No — o" came from Ted, Dave and Mable, 
too. 

"You see what we're like, don't you, Dada?" 
asked Charlie, triumphantly. 

"Yef," answend Dada, rather doubtfully, as 
she walked slowly to the end of the porch. 
Something was wrong, she knew; something 
about Robbie, who was always so kind and 
gentle to her. 

"Here he comes, sure, this time," said Dave; 
I hear his crutch go pit, pat." 

"Hide, quick, behind the door," whispered 
Mable. "He's got on his velvet suit, too; 
won't he get it dirty if he tumbles !" 

"Umph, if his hair isn't all curled just like a 
girl's," remarked Ted, disgusted. "Now, mind 
you say 'boo' at the right time, Charley." 

"Jimmy, can't I just hear him scream?'' 
chuckled Bob. "Sh-h h, here he is." 

Down limped poor Robbie, such an innocent, 
delicate looking little ftllow, with big wistful 
eyes, seeming too big to be filled by anything 
this earth could give them, unless it were pain, 
and surely it had found a resting place in those 
sad vearning eyes. 

"Boo, ha, yah, he-e 1" yelled half a dozen 
shrill voices, and out jump'd a figure 'all in red 
from behind the door. 



"Mamma, mamma," cried the piteous voice, 
and down fell Robbie, crutch and all, a little 
shivering, moaning heap of velvet and brown 
curls. ' Mamma, where's my mamma ?" 

"Oh get up, Robbie, we're only fooling," 
said Mable, feeling ashamed. 

"Ho, ho I Miss Nancy's frightened at a red 
shawl and an old hat," laughed Charley, dancing 
around. "Where's my mamma?" he continued, 
trying to imitate Robbie's weak voice. "Here, 
listen to my new song." 

" I know a boy just like a girl, 

Fiddle dee, dee, dee dee; 
He wears his hair in one big curl, 

Fiddle dee dee, dee dee; 
He cries Mamma, when he sees a shawl, 

Fiddle dee dee, dee dee; 
And then — then its nothing at all, 
Fiddle dee dee, dee dee." 

The other boys and girls began to laugh at 
this nonsense, and Charlie felt so proud that he 
ran all around the porch singing it as loud as he 
could, with the other children running behind 
shouting, " Fiddle dee dee, dee dee." 

At last Charlie's Uncle Phil shook his finger 
at them from a window, and off they scampered 
out of sight. 

It was Dada who handed Robbie his crutch 
and helped him up, saying soothingly, 

" Don't cry Wobbie, dey is naughty boys, 
oo won't be scared when the right time comes." 

Well, the "right time" did come, and very 
soon too. It was the next night after dinner, 
when the veranda of the hotel was filled with 
ladies and gentlemen all enjoying the beautiful 
sunset and the cool breeze from the mountains. 

Dada was there too, sitting as quiet as a 
mouse next to mamma. Shehadaspick-spannew 
dress, of creamy lace, and pink ribbon, which 
mamma had finished just one minute before din- 
der — not exactly finished either, for one of the 
tiny pink bows was pinned (but this is a secret, 
so don't tell). She looked so sweet and demure, 
perched in a chair, dangling her little slippers, 
that Charlie ran up saying, 

" M inima, can't I take Dada for a walk ? I'll 
take good care of her." * 

" Very well, dear," said mamma. "Just as far 
as the willow tree. I'll trust you." And taking 
a crepe fiohu she tied it, "gypsy fashion," 
over Dada's golden curls, making her look for 
all the world like a morsel of the sunset sky. 

Charlie took one hand and Dada held out the 
other, saying, " Oo too, Wobbie. Now Char- 
lie'll take care of one-half of me, and Wobbie 
the other,'' she continued, laughing gleefully as 
they walked off. 

"Oh, Rob's Dot worth anything," said 
thoughtless Charlie. "I'll take care of all of 
you; he's a Miss Nancy. " Dada gave Robbie's 
hand a little squeeze — she wanted to show she 
didn't believe that. Robbie understood, too, 
for instead of getting angry he only smiled. I 
think that little shadow of a smile meant more 
than all Master Charlie's big words. They had 
just got to the willow tree, out of eight of the 
hotel, when up sprang a figure from behind the 
bushes — a real Indian this time, with long 
black hair and ferocious looking eyes. 

"Yab, yab," he said, waving a big stick, as 
he saw the children. 

"Mamma! mamma!" screamed Charlie, drop 
ping little Dada's hand and running off as fast 
as he could, "where's my mamma?" 

"Don't be frightened, Dada," whispered 
Robbie, throwing his arm around her. "He 
can't hurt you when I'm here. I'll take care of 
you with my crutch." 

And all the time they could hear Master 
Charlie scampering off, crying, "Mamma! 
mamma!" Then mamma came running down 
the road with Uncle Phil and lots of other peo- 
ple from the hotel, Charlie in the midst, his 
face white and scared, holding tight to mamma's 
hand, crying "Don't go near him, mamma, he's 
a real Indian — oh, he'll kill me — don't go, 
mamma," He never once thought of Dada. 

When the crowd came in sight of the willow 
tree, there was the big black Indian, and there 
stood little Robbie, his arm still around Dada, 
his tiny crutch uplifted, faithful as a soldier to 
his post. 

"Why, Charlie," exclaimed Uncle Phil, 
laughing as they came up, "that's Santiago; 
don't you know him? He wouldn't hurt a flea; 
he's trying to make friends with Dada." 

True, it was only Santiago, the old Indian, 
who picked vegetables and helped around the 
hotel, as harmless as any good old faithful dog. 

"But Robbie's a brave boy, all the same," said 
mamma kissing him. 

"Oh, Charlie, Charlie," laughed Uncle Phil, 
"where is all your courage now? Come, Rob 
bie, give me a hand-shake; you've got the right 
stuff in you; though you do look such a meek 
little fellow, there's more of a man in you than 
in this big romping boy." 

Didn't Charlie feel ashamed as he walked 
home, unnoticed and alone, behind the others. 
He had received a severe lesson. "I don't 
care," he said, shaking his head, as though 
that would keep the tears back; "I'm a coward. 
Robbie's the brave one, and I'll tell him so the 
first chance I get." 

That night, as Robbie was in the hall, on his 
way to bed, Charlie, his face very red, and his 
voice a little shaky, came up 'to him, saying: 
"Rob, I'm sorry for making fun of you. I'm 
downright ashamed of myself. I'm a Mis' 
Nancy, there," and the chubby brown hand 
and the little thin one held each other for a 
moment. Robbie had forgiven Charlie. 

Now, I can't help thinUng that after all 
Charlie was a brave boy, too. I wonder who 
understands what I mean. 

Alameda, Cal. 



X)0MESTI6 G[eOfJOMY. 

Economical Housekeeping. 

[Wr'tten for Rural Prebs by I. H.] 
Under this heading there appeared in a late 
number of the Evening Bulletin a very interest- 
ing letter. It purported to come from a lady 
who has herself solved the problem of reducing 
household expenditure to a minimum, and gave 
the memorandum of the cost of a week's provi- 
sions and fuel for two persons, the total repre- 
sented by the very small sum of $2.50. 

I had the curiosity to take out an old account 
book kept in San Francisco 12 years ago, and 
to compare its figures with those above, and 
although the expenditure there recorded greatly 
exceeded hers, I felt that I had no reason to be 
ashamed. The cost of many articles of food has 
greatly diminished within these years, although 
even at that time in San Francisco one could 
live more cheaply than in any Eastern city. 
As it may interest other women to see the de- 
tails of this economical housekeeper, I will 
copy from her letter: 



Breadstuff's $°-3S 

Potatoes 20 

Meat i, oo 

Cracked wheat, rice, etc io 

Sugar io 

Apples 20 

Onions 05 

Fuel 50 



$2.50 

The two most puzzling items in the list are 
meat and fuel. In regard to the former she ex- 
plains that she purchased her supply in the 
great market? below Montgomery street, where, 
of course, the charges are less than in the small 
retail shops. But, after all, it remains a mys- 
tery how she can have meat on the table twice 
a day, without exceeding the outlay of f 1 a 
week. I find in my list the cost of fuel for one 
month to be $3.95, double the amount she 
gives; but there are no little children in her 
house as there were in mine, making a fire nec- 
essary at times when older persons do not need 
it. Lest any one inexperienced in such matters 
should accept her figures as representing the en- 
tire cost (rent excepted) for the household ex- 
penses of a man and his wife, it is as well to 
say that there are some necessary items not in- 
cluded. Salt and pepper, soap and matches, 
kerosene oil and candles I find in my list; and I 
must confess that the tea and coffee and the 
butter which I counted as necessaries served 
to increase my figures considerably. 

It does one good sometimes to see what are 
the self-denials of other people and to measure 
them with our own. There is undoubtedly a 
great pleasure to a conscientious woman, in fo 
regulating her expenditures as to keep within 
the bounds of her income, however small. But 
when she does this week after week and month 
after month, there is no denying the fact that 
the effort grows wearing. The constant counting 
of the cost, the ever-repeated struggle to save 
every cent, exhaust the energies far more than 
twice as much physical work with less anxiety 
and care. 

We country housekeepers may well realize 
that the lines have fallen to us in pleasant 
places when we read such facts as these. Fuel 
that costs us nothing beyond the labor of cut- 
ting, milk and butter, eggs and fowls, the game 
the boys delight to bring in, all ready to our 
hand, and to be used without the dread of ex- 
ceeding our income. Only one who has tried 
both modes of living can thoroughly understand 
the relief and the rest there is in this. 

Poverty in the city and poverty in the coun- 
try are two very different things, and though 
we may talk of hard times, and feel that we are 
obliged to deny ourselves in many ways, yet it 
is a very atmosphere of abundance we are living 
in when compared with that which surrounds 
many of our sisters in the city. 

Sympathy for them ani contentment with 
our own lot seem to be the lessons taught us by 
such glimpses into the dmiestic details of an 
economical housekeeper. 
Walnut Creek. 



Mince Griddle Cakes. — Chop all the cold 
bi 8 of meat you have, of whatever kind, cooked 
of course; season with salt and pepper, make a 
griddle batter as for pancakes, lay a spoonful 
on the well-buttered griddle, then a spoonful of 
the chopped meat and part of a spoonful of bit- 
ter over the mea' ; when cooked on one side turn, 
and when done serve as hot as possible. 



Graham Gems. — One and a half pints of 
graham meal, three teaspoonfuls of baking-pow- 
der, one tablespoonful of batter, one egg, one- 
half cup of sugar, one teaspoonful of salt. Stir 
together with sweet milk or milk and water, or 
use water alone, to a batter not much stiffer 
than pancake batter. Bake in a hot oven. 
Have your gem pans well greased. 



A Sweet Disn. — Boil some rice quite soft, 
and when it is dry mix it with a boiled custard 
of three eggs and a pint of milk, flavored with 
vanilla; maraschino may be added. Add a little 
stewed fruit or jam and half a pint of whipped 
cream. Mix thoroughly, pour it into a mould, 
set in the ice until quite firm and then turn 
I into a dish and serve. 



56 



pACIFie RURAb fRESS. 



[Jan. 16, 1886 




A. T. DEWEY. W. B. EWER. 

Published by DEWEY & CO. 



Offize.SSS Market St., N. E.cor. Front Sl.,S. F. 
tr Take the Elevator, No. It Front St. -» 



address all literary and buaiuess correspondence »nd 
1> aftB for this paper In the uarue of the tirm. 

Our Subscription Rates. 
Otm Subscription Katks are three dollars a year, 
i i advanoe. If continued subscriptions are not prepaid in 
advance, for any reason, fifty cents extra will be charged 
for each year or fraction of a year. IS" No new names 
placed on the list without cash in advanoe. Aicents wanted. 



Advertising Rates. 

I Wetk. 1 Month. 3 Months. 1 Year. 

$ .80 $ 2.20 9 5 00 
4.00 10.00 24.00 
6.00 1 4.00 46.00 
Large advertisements at favorable rates. Special or read 
log notices, legal advertisements, notices appearing in extra 
ordinary type, or in particular parts of the paper, at special 
rates, wan tllSUl Skull are ratod in a month. 



Per Line (agate). .. 9 25 
Half inch (1 square). 1.50 
One Inch 2.00 



Our latent form* go to press Wednesday evening. 
Regis'*ired at S P. Post Office as second-class mail matter 



SCIENTIFIC PRESS PATENT AGENCY. 
DEWEY ft CO., Patent Solicitors. 

i.T. niWET W. E. EWER. G. H. STRONG. 



SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, January j6, 1886. 
TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



EDITORIALS.— Beaufort; Ruinous Frost in Florida, 
49. The Week; Silver and Wheat; Fruit Growers' 
Convention; Imported E^ifs; The F-uit Union; Cement- 
ing Ditches, 56. Professor George Dav'eson; Drain- 
age and House Buil ■Mug; The Lott-ry Robbery, 57. 

ILLUSTRATIONS.- Norman Stallion "Beaufort," 
Imported b] Theodore Skillman, Petaluma, Cal., 49 
Portrait of Professor George Davidson. 57. 

COR WES FO N DKN CE. —Note* from a Novice-No. 
I, 50 

FORESTRY. -The Fruit Growers ard the Fore.ts 
50 

THE GARDEN —A Stravberry Pitch, 50. 
HORTICULTURE. — The English Sj.arrow and 

Fruit Buds, 50. F'reneh Prune Curing; The orange 

Union and the ». P. Trade, 51. 
SERICULTURE.— ilk Culture Society Meeting; 

Silkworms or Fowls, 51. 
POULTRY YARD.— The Sex of Eggs; Color of Kggs 

in Boston, 51 ■ 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY J<nnt Granee 
Installation; Sto~kton Notes; Grange Flections; Flo* in 
Grange Election: Granger^' Bank; installation Notes, 
52. 

PUBLIC AFFAIRS — The Release from Corporate 
Greed, 53 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES— From the various 

counties of Cali ornia, 52-8- 

THE HOME CIRCLE - Invocation; Our D"or- 
Plate; Parentis Education by S ui;>athv; Unselfish- 
ness; Fiieudsbip, 54. Jock and His Lessons. 55 

YOUNQ FOLKS' COLUMN. -Who Was Brave'/ 
55. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY. — Economical House- 
keeping; Mince Griddle Cakes; Graham Gems; A Sweet 
Dish 55. 

GOOD HEALTH.— White of Egg in Obstinate Diar- 
rhoea; Treatment of a Felon; Effects of Lighting on 
the Human Body; Vaccination; How to Us ■ Milk ns 
Food; To Relieve Toothache; Stopping Hi .cough, 62 

Business Announcements. 

Agricultural Implements— Gloster & Davis Imp. Co. 

Carbon Bi-ulphide- John H Wheeler. 

Dairy Appliances— G. *•• Wickson & Co. 

Taylor Pub ishmg Co. — Chambersburg Pa. 

Patent Fence— Judson Manufacturing Co. 

Poultry— John McFarling. Oakland, Cal. 

Grape Seed— C. Idottier, Middlttown, Cal. 

San Diego Lands — Pacific Coast Land Bureau. 

Pr vate Detective— C. M. Richards. 

Caustic Soda— T. W. Jackson. 

stark Nurseries— Louisiana, Mo. 

Disbrow Manufacturing Co.— Rochester, N. Y. 

Poultry— Jasper J Jones, Martinez, Cal. 

Jacks for Sa.e — Sylvester Scott, Cloverda'c, Cal. 

Johnson's Force Pump— Wiester& Co., S. K. 

US' See Advertising Columns. 



The Week. 

The great event of the week is the Northern 
Citrus Fruit Fair at Sacramento. All reports 
agree as to the creditable extent and quality of 
the exhibition asa whole, the taste and exoellence 
of its setting forth, the surprising elegance, 
beauty and desirabity of the fruit shown, and 
the cordial spirit and genial manner which per- 
vades the whole und itaking. While the fair 
is iu progress and before we have had a sight of 
it, we do not desire to particularize but we 
would sound a general note of satisfaction over 
the success, and urge all who receive this notice 
in time, to take a day in Sacramento, as we ex- 
pect to do ourselves as soon as this week's 
Press goes out from under our hands. It is 
rather a startling idea to rind semi tropic Cali- 
fornia stretching upward so as to take in a 
sight of Mt. Shasta, and give us oranges and 
lemons at that latitude, but the surprise is only 
a return for former surprises which came to 
light in the fact that the king of northern 
fruits, the apple would grow to perfection in 
the extreme South. California seems to be fast 



approaching the orator's ideal of the Union — 
no north; nosoath; no east; no west; and may 
we add those other eloquent words — now and 
forever: one and inseparable. 

Silver and Wheat. 

We recently alluded briefly to the fact that 
the silver question and the price of wheat were 
very closely allied. Whatever may be the 
great and general effects of the settlement of 
the great monetary question one way or the 
other, the effect upon the value of our wheat of 
any movement which accomplishes degradation 
of silver, can be clearly foreseen. The fact of 
the matter is that we are now in a much more 
uncomfortable competition with India in the 
matter of wheat supply than we could desire. 
It makes one fidgety to look over Beerbohm's 
list of steamers due at British ports from day 
to day. There is au almost monotonous array 
of ships from Kuruchee and Bombay, ports 
on the west of India, which, by way of the 
Suez Canal, are pouring wheat into English 
store houses. The Government is appropriat 
ing almost fabulous sums in developing 
means of transportation by rail, improvement 
of harbors, etc., not to speak of the expendi- 
ture for extending the magnificent irrigation 
system. All these things are tending to make 
India a most formidable competitor of ours, 
and how much we shall feel it in the future can 
only be imagined. This being the case it will 
only be giving points to our rival to do any- 
thing iu the way of monetary matters which 
debases her popular medium of exchange in our 
markets. India is a silver country, and while 
plenty of wheat can be had there for silver, it 
must of course depress the price of ours if it 
should come upon a gold basis. In a pamphlet we 
recently received froiii Henry Carey Baird of 
Philadelphia, this view is presented in a pointed 
manner, as follows: 

The real and most immediate "silver danger" 
is that which impends over the American 
farmer, and grows out of the competition of the 
wheat of India, now looming up in the near 
future. Stop the coinage of the silver dollar, 
and the price of silver immediately and rapidly 
talis, and with it the rupee of India in sterling 
exchange. The normal price of the rupee iu 
sterling is Is. 10.J I., or 45 cents; but the aver- 
age per rupee produced by the Government 
bills drawn in Loudon on India for four month", 
ending August loth, was but Is. (i 7 SI., or 38 
cents, indicating a discount of 15 per cent. 
This is just 15 per cent premium on the export 
of Indiau wheat, and precisely the same disad 
van age tc the American farmer. Let those 
who consider themselves as not "hopelessly 
ignorant of ordinary economic laws " drive the 
price of silver down still further, under the im- 
pression that they are damaging no one but 
"those who are interested in selling silver to 
the Government," and this premium or bounty 
may be increased to 30 per cent. 

That this is not an imaginary danger will be 
made more manifest when it is stated that, 
while the expoit of wheat from India in 1S77- 
78 was but 4,150,000 bushels, in 1884-85 it was 
30,000,000 bushels, or more than one third of 
the export from the United States during 
the same year, the latter bsing 84,653.714 
bushels. Within the last five years 1,000,000 
acres have been added to the wheat acreage of 
India, without a particle of interference with 
the quantities of other crops raised. 

As we said before, we do not intend to speak 
upon the metal question as a broad one, and all 
that is involved in it, but the matter of Iudian 
wheat is just now becoming so oppressive and 
the connection between it and the silver coin- 
age so obvious, that we can but mention it as 
worthy of the most careful consideration by all 
interested in the great cereal industry of the 
State and the nation. 



The Fruit Union. 

One page of this issue, devoted to the recent 
phases of the Fruit Union discussion, will be 
found interesting reading. Our readers in 
other regions do not seem to take kindly to the 
Sacramento theory of what the Union should 
be, and what it should do. The idea of the ad- 
mission of the dealers naturally excites much 
opposition, because the whole essence of the 
movement has been to give producers the whip 
hand for the future, and though there is no 
idea, as we have understood it, to rule the deal- 
ers out of the business, it has been planned to 
let them act under the growers' regulation. 
The Sacramento proposition is therefore taken 
as revolutionary, and naturally excites opposi- 
tion. Some of the letters which we print this 
week bring out this point quite forcibly enough. 

There is another thing, which, it has seemed 
to us, our Sacramento friends have laid too 



much s'ress upon, and that is in regard to the 
Uoion buying the fruit, and thus becoming a 
monopoly, etc. It was no part of the orignal 
plan to have the Union buy fruit at all, and 
this provision was put in, as we remember it, 
to meet suggestions made by Mr. Murphy, of 
Sacramento county (in a letter which was 
printed in the Kural), and by others, to meet 
the needs of small growers who might like to 
sell their fruit outright. If there is a general 
desire that the clause about buying fruit be 
omitted, we do not anticipate any objection. 

This week we publish the full report of the 
last Sacramento meeting held Jan. 8. The figures 
given as the possible amount of business to be 
done by the Union are pretty highly drawn. 
The figures are upon a basis of a full train 
every other day which is more than has been 
expected at first. It also puts the price of the 
fruit pretty high, and it calculates that all the 
amount of money gained by this multiplication 
shall remain in the hands of the Unionfor the 
full month. There is no reason to expect such a 
storage of money, and of course people would 
not like it. We see no reason why returns from 
sales should not reach growers' hands, if de- 
sired, in about ten days from date of shipment. 
If desirable, the money can be returned here by 
telegraphic order. Thus, at the end of the 
month, there would be two-thirds, perhaps, of 
the month's money in the producers' hands. 
This, of course, has a bearing upon the legal 
opinions upon the liability of the stockholders 
as'given at the Sacramento meeting and printed 
in another column. 

As we have said before the future of the 
Union will be marked out at the stockholders' 
meeting next Wednesday (January "JO. hi at 
Music hall, Grand hotel, in this city. Only 
those who subscribed for stock and duly quali- 
fied thereon can take part in the meeting. It 
is now a purely business proposition, and though 
we have published all which has been offered on 
the subject, for the information of stockholders, 
we can see that there will be no chance for the 
enforcement of views or policies by anyone but 
a stockholder. We and others who have had 
much to say, and whose names do not appear 
as owners of the stock, are much in the position 
of minding other people 'd business, but as the 
general question is of vital importance to the 
whole fruit interest, all may be pardoned for 
their solicitude and anxiety that the business 
should be done in the best possible way. 

Imported Eggs. 

Last week we gave the receipts of eggs in 
this city from various California sources, and 
in connection therewith promised a statement 
of the aggregate amounts of eggs brought in by 
rail from the Western States and Territories, 
and which have a marked iutluence in determin- 
ing the market value of the California product. 
Those who have eggs to sell are painfully con 
gcious of the interference of "railroad eggs," 
but few, we imagine, really have any idea of 
the proportion which the imported bear to the 
home product in this market. We have ob- 
tained from the statistical bureau of the Cen- 
tral 1'acific Railway the amount of eggs brought 
over its lines during each month of )8S4and 
during the first eleven months of 1SS5, as fol 
lows: 

1884. 1885. 

Bbls. Cases. Bbls. Cases. 

January 189 33 .... 

February 

March 343 228 « 

Ap-il 63 7083 30 7163 

May 12 10,908 1 6524 

June 3 6 45 4155 

|uly 75 3814 40 4<3 8 

August 51 499° 433' 

Septeniljer 5410 4205 

October 14 3 02 5 7« 8 7 

November 99 4°°9 95 397' 

December 669 

Totals 314 44.68s 199 43 965 

The table shows that nearly all the eggs came 
in the patent cases or carriers, which hold 30 
dozens each. Part of the few outside packages 
were barrels. Reducing the whole receipts by 
package to dozens and we find the number of 
ejjgs brought in during the whole year 1884 was 
1.356,260 dozen, and in the first II months of 
1885, 1,328,920 dozen. 

The amounts of eggs received in San Fran- 
cisco from California sources as reported in 
last week's Prkss, were as follows: 

1884 1885 (11 mos.) 

California 2.980.254 2,778,281 

Western eggs by rail. . .1,356,250 1,328,920 

These statistics show a total egg arrival in 
San Francisco of four and one-quarter million 
dozens annually. 



Cementing Ditches. 

The question of a water supply for irrigation 
is becoming a very important one in California 
in every point of view. Among other matters 
the loss by seepage is beginning to attract much 
attention. This loss in some localities U very 
large — sometimes exceeding one-half, even 
within a moderate distance. According to the 
Orange Tribune the water in one of the ditches 
in that vicinity, which received 820 inches at 
the head gate of the main canal, delivered only 
400 inches a few miles distant; the loss exceed- 
ing one half. At the selling price this seepage 
represents a loss to the ditch company of $012 
per month. Another ditch in that vicinity was 
considered almost worthless a few years ago by 
reason of the Io9s through seepage. Resort 
may be had to "piping," and it is now a valu- 
able property, with water " enough and to 
spare." 

There are some who think that cement- 
ing a ditch is too expensive to be 
thought of — that it would bankrupt most 
companies. The Tribune furnishes a few 
figures as applicable to the ditch first al- 
luded to. These figures can easily be applicable 
to other ditches. We quote as follows : 

The company had a piece of ditch cemented a 
few weeks ago, which cost 50 cts. a square yard, 
two inches thick, one-fourth cement. They 
paid 95 50 per barrel for their cement, and at 
that rate the lower ditch can be cemented for 
50 cents per running foot, from the tunnel to 
the divide "oetween Sinta Ana and Tnstin, a 
distance of four miles, for §10,500, and that 
would give a nine-foot surface, four-foot bottom, 
two and a half-foot sides, and greatly increase 
its capacity. 

The main canal above the tunnel, having a 
surface of 'JO feet, 10 foot bottom, five-foot 
sides, could be cement'd for S1.12.J per run- 
ning foot, or 953,400 lor the whole distance 
of nine miles. 

From the head of the upper ditch to the San- 
tiago creek, a distance of three and a half miles, 
with a surface of l.'U feet, three and a half foot 
bottom, and five-foot sides, would cost 75 cents 
per running foot, or 913,860 for the whole dis- 
tance, making a total for the three canals of 
877,880. The smaller ditches could be piped 
or cemented at much less expense, according to 
their relative capacity for carrying water. 

One barrel of cement will m.ike 1!) yards of 
cement mortar, and at 96.50 per barrel the cost 
per yard of the cement alone is "20 cents, but if 
bought in large quantities the price would be 
greatly reduced; at even 83 per barrel the cost 
per yard for cement would be 15j cents. 

If all the ditches were piped or cemented the 
cost of running them would be trilling compared 
with the present expense. There would be no 
breaks from gophers and squirrels, no seepage, 
110 cleaning of ditches, no repairing of gates, no 
decayed vegetation to run into our cisterns. It 
would stop sickness from impure water (a very 
important item), and who would not rather 
have the ditch through or by his place piped or 
ce men ted than to have it a jungle of weeds? 

Some of the ditches in the lower San Joaquin 
valley lose so much water by seepage, that as 
we are informed, the land below them for half 
a mile receives all the moisture needed without 
any special irrigation. So long as the water 
supply is abundant, such loss may not be seri- 
ously felt; but the time will surely come when 
every loss of that kind will have to be avoided 
by cementing. 

Perhaps there is no locality in the State 
where the system of cement :d ditches and close 
pipe supply has been more thoroughly carried 
out than in the recently established colony at 
Badlands, in San Bernardino county. The 
first cost has b -en considerable, bat the saving 
from seepage and the complete control of the 
water thereby secured is considerable more than 
ample benefit for the expense. 

The above facts are only a few of the 
many which must b; presented of the benefits 
to be derived from pipes and cemented ditches, 
but they are considered quite sufficient to call 
for careful consideration of all engaged in sup- 
plying water for irrigation. 

As Orscon Pro.!»it.— It is telegraphed 
from Washington that Herman, of Oregon, 
is drawing a bill to make Crater lake, with 
about four townships of land, a national park. 
Crater lake is in southeastern Oregon, and is 
said to be a place of great natural beauty. 
Prof. Powell says that it surpasses in loveliness 
the Yellowstone Park. The lake is located in 
the mouth of an extinct crater. It is about 
eight miles long and one mile wide. In the 
center of the lake is an island which was once 
the mouth of a crater, and in the center of 
this island is another lake. It is stated that 
these bodies of water are fathomless and as 
pure and clear as crystal. The surrounding 
scenery is said to be of marvelous beauty. 
There is an enormous petition of Oregon's best 
names for this measure. 



Jan. 16, 1886.] 



fACIFie f^URAls PRESS 



Professor George Davidson. 

Probably no name is better known in the sci- 
entific world of the Pacific Coast than that of 
Professor George Davidson, of the U. S. Coast 
and Geodetic Survey, who was last week re- 
elected for the fifteenth time president of the 
California Academy of Sciences. His active 
and untiring effort?, extending over a long 
period of time in advancing the interests of 
science on this coa9t, are well known; ard the 
work he has accomplished in the service in 
which he holds high rank has earned for him a 
name and reputa'ion which might be envied by 
any man. A brief sketch of his life and ser- 
vices will be of interest to very many. 

George Davidson is at the head of the Field 
Assistants of the U. S. Coast and Geodetic 
Survey. He was GO years of age in May last, 
and has been on the Survey over 40 years on 
consecutive duty, serving from Newfoundland 
to Texas and from Panama to Alaska. 

He came to the Pacific Coast early in 18.">0, 
when it was a new and difficult field, having 
been chosen for this special duty by Superin- 
tendent Bache. He served five consecutive 
years, winter and summer, on the Atlantic and 
Gulf Coasts before that, and afterward during 
the rebellion, and has been again upon the Pa 
cific Coast since 1807. 

Professor Davidson has made himself 
thoroughly familiar with the currents on the 
Pacific Coast and discovered the existence of 
the inshore eddy current which affects all bars 
and influences all improvements for harbors of 
refuge. He has given great attention to all 
hydraulic problems, to the water supply of 
large cities, the sewerage of the large cities 
of Europe and America, and the drainage of 
great districts (E^ypt, Italy, Holland etc.). 
Most of these studies were directly connected 
with the work of the Coast and Geodetic 
Survey. 

Beyond these he has been an active member 
of the California Academy of Sciences and 
president since 1ST I, and has published original 
investigations in geometry, in the devising of 
new instruments of precision, in the physical 
appearance of Saturn, Jupiter and Mars; on the 
constitution or the t lils of comets, the plateau 
of the Pacific off the California, etc. He has 
produced papers upon methods of determining 
the solar parallax, the introduction of science in 
our public schools, the endowment of scientific 
research by the State, the necessity for a physi- 
cal survey of this State, etc. To the Geograph. 
ical Society of the Pacific he has presented 
papers upon the ascent of the Makushin volcano, 
the eruptions of Bogoslov and other volcanoes, 
on the shoaling of the bar of San Francisco 
bay, the dangers of future shoaling, etc. 

After Prof. Peirce's appointment as superin- 
tendent of the coast survey, in 1807, Prof. 
Davidson was placed in charge of the work on 
the Pacific Coast, and laid out all the schemes 
of work for all the land parties from 1SG8 to 
1873, and inspected all the fields of work. An 
appeal to the records will show greater general 
progress and more system in that period than 
at any other. He made telegraphic connec- 
tions for longitude with all the different centers 
of triangulation and topography, and in the 
telegraphic longitude work between Sin Fran 
cisco and Cambridge, determined directly the 
signal time over 7,200 miles of line. He deter- 
mined the eastern boundary, 120th meridian, of 
California, in 1873. 

In 1881 he measured the longest base line yet 
attempted in trigonometrical operations, and 
with the greatest accuracy. In acknowledg- 
ment of the character of the system of trian- 
gulation developed from the Yolo base-line to 
the Sierra Nevada and the Coast range, and the 
high standard of the observations, the superin- 
tendent has designated it by the name of 
"Davidson Quadrilaterals." 

Prof. Davidson holds the position of Honor- 
ary Professor of Geodesy and Astronomy in the 
University of California (1873), made at the 
suggestion of Prof. Peirce, and was a regent of 
the same institution from 1S77 to 1884. At his 
own expense he has maintained the first astro- 
nomical observatory on the Pacific Coast of 
North America, and has given the use of his 
equatorial to the survey when special observa- 
tions demanded it. 

In 1873 he was appoiuted by the President of 
the United States one of the three U. S, Com- 
missioners of Irrigition of California, with Gen- 
eral B. S. Alexander and Col. G. H. Mendell. 



The report made by these Commissioners was 
published by the Government. Prof. Davidson 
afterwards went officially through India, Egypt, 
Italy, etc., to study the same subject, and to 
examine and report upon harbors of refuge, etc. 

The accompanying engraving, made from a 
photograph by Taber, is a very faithful like- 
ness of Professor Davidson. Aside from his 
scientific attainments in special branches, the 
subject of this sketch is an exceptionally well- 
informed man on general topics. Traveled and 
well read, there are few subjects which have 
escaped his attention. His social qualities are 
such as to have endeared him to a large circle 
of friends, and his conversational powers of a 
character to make him one of the most agree- 
able of companions. Few men are so fre- 
quently consulted for advice or information. 
It is one of his peculiarities that he takes the 
greatest interest in young men, and is always 
ready to assist them in any possible way, a 
fact to which many he has helped can testify. 
Having grown sons of his own, he appreciates 
the thoughts and feelings of youcg men better 
than most men in his position are apt to do. 



Pursuing Government Timber.— It is tele- 
graphed from Washington that reports re 
ceived at the General Land Office state that the 
Northern Pacific Railroad Company is making 



Drainage and House-Building. 

We alluded recently to the need of drainage 
where the soil was saturated by excessive irri- 
gation, or where conditions favored the gather- 
ing of water from rainfall or seepage from 
natural sources. We would enforce this idea 
in every way possible, in order that it may be 
shown that irrigated lands need not be un 
healthy, and in this way some prejudice which 
seems to be gaining a hold against irrigation 
may be removed. We would enforce it also for 
the health and comfort of our readers whose 
habitations may be unhealthy because of their 
neglect of obscure conditions underlying them. 
We find in a report of an Eastern convention of 
tile-makers, that Prof. Kedzie, of Michigan, 
gave some very forcible illustrations of the ne- 
cessity of dry situations for house-building, if 
the health of the inmates is to be conserved. 
The facts are so suggestive that we give them 
as follows : 

Two brothers in Vermont, of strong and 
vigorous stock, and giving equal promise of a 
long and active life, married wives correspond- 
ing in promise of future activity. They had 
both chosen the healthiest of all callings — 
farming. One of the brothers built his house 
in an open and sunny spot where the 
soil aud subsoil were dry ; shade trees and em- 
bowering plants had a hard time of it, but the 
cellar was dry enough for a powder magazine. 




PKOFESSOR GEORGE DAVIDSON. 



extensive sales of timber on public lands in | 
Washington Territory which are claimed as in- 
demnity lands, but which have not been ap- j 
proved to the company. Commissioner Sparks 
has recommended the suit to recover 4,000,000 
feet of spruce and fir logs cut by one party in 
Chehalis county, W. T., under cover of a rail- 
road claim. It, of course, does not matter much 
how good the title is. The timber cutters have 
a show of a claim in the railroad title, and be- 
fore the matter can be settled they are careful 
to get away with as much lumber as possible. 
If Uncle Sam proposes to chase up that kind of 
lumber, it is hard to tell whose house he may 
have to take possession of. 



Examining our Citrus Fauna. — We have 
long been engaged in examining imported fruit 
and fruit products from all parts of the world 
to see how our own would compare with those 
no'.v popular in the markets. It seems that 
foreigu producers are getting curious about our 
products, for it is cabled from Rome that the 
Ministry of Commerce has received a consign- 
ment of American oranges and lemons from the 
Italian Consul at New York, and has be^ us imp- 
ling the fruit with a view to ascertaining the 
chances of America competing in the exporta- 
tion of oranges and lemons from Italy. We 
hope they obtained good samples. As it is so 
early it is unlikely that California contributed 
to the sample. Perhaps some of our producers 
would like to gratify Italian interest by .send- 
ing the consul some of our best Cilifcrnia fruit. 



The population of Stockton is about l.">,000, 
exclusive of 800 Chinese. 



The house in all its par's was free from overy 
trace of dampness ann mould ; there was a crisp 
ami elastic feel in the air of the dwelling; the 
fanner and all his family had that vigorous 
elasticity that reminds one of the spring and 
strength of steel ; health and sprightly vigor 
were the rule, and sickness the rare exception. 
The farmer and his wife, though past threescore, 
have yet the look aud vigor of middle life. 

The other brother built his house in a beauti- 
ful shady nook, where the trees seemed to 
stretch their protecting arms in benediction 
over the modest home. Springs fed by the 
neighboring hills burst forth near his house, 
aud others hy his barns; his yard was always 
green even in driest time, for the life blood of 
the hills seemed to burst out all about him in 
springs and tiny rivulets. But the ground was 
always wet, the cellar never dry, the walls of 
the rooms often had a clammy feel, the clothes 
mildewed in the closet?, and tlie bread moulded 
in the pantry. For a time their vigor enabled 
them to bear up against these depressing influ- 
ences ; children were born of apparent vigor 
and promise, but these, one by one, passed 
away under the touch of diphtheria, croup, and 
pneumonia; the mother went into a decline and 
died of consumption before her fiftieth birth- 
day, and the father still lives, but is tortured 
aud crippled by rheumatism. 

These two pictures should carry an impressive 
lesson. It is the more useful because it is so 
easy generally to realize the better conditions. 
Where drainage is possible by individual effort 
it should not be delayed. Where there must 
be systematic action in a region it should be 
agitated and carried forward. While this is 
being done immediate relief can bo found in 
most California location?, by raising the floor 
of the house well above the soil, doing away 
entirely with the cellar but opening the space 
to the free access of the dry air which is fortun- 
ately plentiful in this State. Better have a 



house high on piers, even at the risk of un- 
sightleness, than to gain symmetry by bring- 
ing it too near the ground. There are many 
things which can be done to make our habita- 
tions more healthful, and no one can long afford 
to neglect them. 

The Lottery Robbery. 

We recently had a paragraph as emphatic as 
we could make it in denunciation of the rob- 
bery of foolish California people by the Louisi- 
ana lottery. It is disgraceful to find that the 
nefarious work is aided and abetted by publica- 
tions in California papers, which are likely to 
attract purchasers for the tickets. In spite of 
all that can be said or written, there will 
probably always be fools and money which will 
be parted by the Louisiana swindle. No news- 
paper devoted to the well being of the people 
can, however, refrain from warning its readers 
of the character of the "ventures" which is 
weekly taking out of the State thousands of 
dollars, which can be illy spared by those who 
fall prey to the ubiquitous lottery ticket 
vendors. Of course, it is understood that the 
business is against the laws of California, and 
that the vendor is liable at any moment to be 
pounced upon by the police. Buyers of tickets 
should reflect that there must be great induce- 
ments to lead sellers to dare the law in this 
way. They should refleci' that a large share of 
the money they pay in »oes at once to the 
seller and what is left gi into the pockets of 
the conscienceless manipulators at New Or- 
leans. It is a scheme of robbery throughout 
and is utterly demoralizing to all engaged 
therein. 

Once in a while it seems that some foolish 
person who has long contributed to tne support 
of the lottery swindlers, gets his eyes open and 
speaks for the warning of others. A reporter 
of the San Francisco Daily Report found such 
a one, and gained the following declaration: 

"I have been buying lottery tickets for years, 
keeping account of each number — here they 
are," turning leaf after leaf over until he had 
shown each page of an account book filled with 
numbers. "Well, do you know how much all 
these drew — not one cent, and I guess I have 
spent thousands of dollars on them. Yes, I am 
disgusted. I wish I knew as much as I do 
now and I wouldn't have spent one cent on the 
thing. Why the whole thing is a big swindle. 
Talk about the name of an army general en- 
dorsing the drawings! All bosh! He gets 
si 0, 000 a year for the use of his name. They 
can't sell their tickets at home; the people 
there won't bite. Ten times as many coupons 
are sold in San Francisco as there are sold in 
Louisiana. 

"Prizes? I think few go farther than the 
company. Of course a few are dropped here 
and there to keep up the excitement. But 
when they do give a prize they know where it 
goes and make it well known. Some day there 
will be a big kick on the inside, and a great 
expoxc will be the result. Then the public will 
find that they have been badiy duped. The 
genuine tickets are worthless enough," resumed 
the deluded fortune seeker, "but there are as 
many bogus tickets sold as good ones." 

This shows clearly how large is the draft 
made upon California money by the New 
Orleans concern. Our people are no doubt 
more venturesome and credulous than Eastern 
people. Many who have been demoralized by 
the wretched system of stock gambling, which 
fortunately has nearly fallen to pieces, are now 
wasting their money and ruining themselves 
for any useful work, and robbing themselves 
and children of the very comfort of life by their 
ministering to the profits of lottery agents, 
managers and figureheads. Our anti-lottery 
laws are good, but they should be extended 
and supplemented by some sort of an enact- 
ment which will meet the evil in its present 
form. 

Must State What They Want. — It is tele- 
graphed from the Land Office at Washington 
that in the case of the application of a man 
who had relenquished a land entry to make a 
second entry, where no specific tract is speci- 
fied, the Secretary of the Interior decides that 
such an application amounts simply to a request 
for a decision as to whether it would be allow- 
able to make such an entry, if it should at any 
time hereafter be desired, and that it is there- 
fore a hypothetical question which the Depart- 
ment has refused to answer. The Commissioner 
of the General Land Office is directed to refuse 
hereafter to consider applications for a restor- 
ation of the righ". to make a pre-emptory filing 
of homestead or timber culture entries, except 
when accompanied by an application to make 
a filing or entry for some specified tract. 



58 



fACIFie f^URAb fRESS. 



[Jan. 16 1886 



The Fruit Union. 

Conflicting Views About the Organization. 

As mentioned in last week's Rural, the Sac- 
ramento growers who believe that the funda- 
mental principles of the Fruit Union, as pro- 
posed by the trustees, should be materially 
changed, have held meetings since the date of 
our last issue and have stated more fully their 
ideas on the subject. Of course all plans sub- 
mitted must come up for final adoption or re- 
jection before the stockholders, as the project 
has gone beyond the popular meeting stage. 
Those who have subscribed for the stock must 
be the judges of the best way to conduct their 
own business. We desire, however, to place 
before our readers, who come within that classi- 
fication, as full information of the various plans 
and ideas as possible, that they may well con- 
sider beforehand the propositions which will be 
advanced, and be enabled to act speedily and 
intelligently. Last week's Rural contained 
the leading features of the Sacramento proposi- 
tion. At their meeting, held January 8th, 
there was a full discussion, and some new ideas 
brought forward. We give the Record- Union's 
report in full as follows: 

The adjourned meeting of fruit-growers was 
held at Grangers' Hall, in this city, yesterday, 
to further consider the amendments to the by- 
laws of the California Fruit Union, proposed at 
the meeting of last Saturday. Dr. W. A 
Hughson presided, and \V. L. Willis acted as 
secretary. The proposed amendments and re 
vision of by-laws were taken up and discussed 
During the remarks, R. D. Stephens stated, as 
showing the risk to stockholders irnder the plan 
of the Union purchasing and shipping the fruit, 
that the obligations of the Union would thus 
amount to from 1220,000 to 9600,000 per month 
during the busy shipping season, and that in 
case of loss each stockholder would be liable to 
such portion of the debts and liabilities as the 
amount of stock he'd bears to the whole amount 
of the capital stock subscribed. He showed 
the actual cost of 15 carloads shipped last year 
and purchased at diuVrent times during the sea- 
son, to have been $10,095. This fact, he said, 
would serve as a basis frcm which a fair esti- 
mate of the amount of business rnight be placed 
within the power of the corporation to transact. 
His estimate was as follows: 

Fifteen carloads cost § 10,095 

Freight, $900 a car 4,500 



Total cost of train § 14,505 

Fifteen trains per month 218,9:25 

And for five months in the season 

would make a total of 1,004, 025 

This, said the speaker, it must be remem- 
bered, is a minimum estimate, since it is claimed 
and believed that not to exceed one half of the 
marketable fruit was last season disposed of, 
and that which was sold, by reason of a lack of 
demand, was sold at ruinous prices. If then, 
only about one-half was sold, the transactions 
per month would reach nearly half a million 
dollars, or say, upwards of two million dollars 
for the season. 

These formidable figures caused considerable sur- 
prise as to the extent of business and values proposed 
by the Union to be entrusted to the board of direc- 
tors, or more properly, in the hands of the manager; 
and after some further consideration of the matter, 
in which J. II. Kutter and other prominent growers 
took part, it was ordered by unanimous vole of the 
assemblage, that a committee be appointed to take 
counsel with attorneys as to the extent of stock- 
holders' liability under the State laws of incorpora- 
tion, and to report to an afternoon session of the 
convention. The chair appointed as the committee 
R. D. Stevens, Jos. Routier, J. H. Rutter and Mr. 
Plate; and, on motion of Mr. Stevens, the president 
was added. 

Afternoon Session. 

At the afternoon session the committee appointed 
to take legal advice presented the following written 
opinions of A. P. Catlin and Judge Armstrong upon 
liability of stockholders: 

Opinion of Hon. A. P. Catlin. 

Sacramento, January 8, 1886. 

R. D. Stephens and others: With respect to the 
liability of stockholders, the law of this State is that 
each owner of stock in a corporation organized under 
the laws of this State is liable for his proportion of 
the debts of the corporation incurred during the time 
that he holds the stock as owner thereof. 

This portion, or proportion, for which he is liable, 
is defined by the statute to be such portion of the 
debts and liabilities as the amount of stock so owned 
bears to the full amount of subscribed capital stock, 
and for a like proportion only of each debt or claim 
against the corporation. For example, suppose ihe 
capital stock provided for by the articles of incor- 
poration is the sum of $100,000, and suppose $50,000 
of it is taken or subscribed; and suppose further that 
A has subscribed for $sooo of the stock, or has by 
purchase become the owner of that amount of stock, 
and suppose further that he was the owner of such 
stock for the period of six months. Then he would 
be liable for the one-tenth part of each and every 
debt incurred by the corporation during the said 
period of six months. 

He is not liable for any debt incurred before he 
subscribed, or became owner; nor is he liable for 
any debt which may be incurred after he ceases to 
be the owner. 

The other question propounded, to wit: In 
what way can a stockholder in the corporation 
known as the " California I'ruit Union" cease to be 
a stockholder therein, is not soeasily answered. The 
difficulty arises from the qualifications of a stock- 
holder in that corporation, prescribed by Section 5 
of the by-laws proposed to be adopted, and for the 
purposes of this inquiry assumed to be adopted as 
the by-laws of the corporation. 

The effect of this by-law is to make the stock ex- 



empt from the claims of creditors of the owner of 
the stock. It places a restriction upon the owner 
wholly inconsistent with the ordinary laws of trade. 
He cannot sell his stock, however much his needs 
may require it, unless he can find such a purchaser 
as this by-law requires, and this requirement practi- 
cally amounts to a prohibition. 

Section 301 of the Civil Code, a part of the law 
under which this corporation is incorporated, 
provides ■■ that every corporation formed under this 
title must, within one month after filing articles ol 
incorporation, adopt a code of by-laws for its gov- 
ernment not inconsistent w ith the laws of this State." 

I think these restrictions upon the right of the 
stockholder to alienate his stock must be inoperative. 
In other words, I do not think the corporation can 
make such by-law legal and binding. 

Yet, practically, it will prove a great embarassment, 
because the secretary is forbidden to transfer stock 
on the books of the company unless to a person 
qualified as prescribed in Section 5. 

I conclude that an owner of stock in this corpora- 
tion may cease to be such owner by a bona fide sale 
of his stock. I am sensible, at the same time, that 
it is a question upon which differences of opinion 
may exist, and that it is a question which requires 
more time to examine than has been given me. 

Respectfully, A. P. CATLW. 

Opinion of Judge J. W. Armstrong. 

Sacramento, Sanuary 8, 1886. 

Hon R, D. Stephens, Joseph Routier and others : 
The time given me to answer the questions pro- 
pounded, as to the liability of stockholders in corpo- 
rations, is too short to enable me to give an opinion 
satisfactory to myself; but, in answer to the question 
as to the liability of stockholders in private business 
corporations, it may be observed that the liability of 
such stockholders is of a two-fold character: Kirst 
As to the liability of a stockholder by purchase ol 
stock, either from another stockholder or the corpo- 
ration, at a priee paid therefor. Second— A stock- 
holder who becomes such by subscription to the 
capital of the corporation as a promoter of the cor 
poration. 

The liability of a stockholder who becomes such 
by purchase is a liability for all assessments madi 
upon the stock while he is the holder, and he is in 
dividually and personally liable for such proportion 
of all the debts and liabilities contracted or incurred 
by the corporation while or during the time he was 
a stockholder as the amount of stock or shares held 
by him bears to the whole of the subscribed capital 
stock of the corporation. If A owns stock to the 
amount of $1000, and the capital stock was $250,000 
and the debts incurred $1,000,000, the liability of A 
would be as $1000 is to $250,000. so would $1,000, 
000 (debts) be to the amount of A s liability. 

Second — The liab lity of a subscriber to the capi 
tal stock who has received his stock is the same as 
the liability of a stockholder who became such by 
purchase; but the liability of the subscriber to the 
capital stock goes further. Even though he sells his 
stock, he is liable to the corporation for the entire 
amount of his subscription; and an action may be 
brought by the corporation as upon a promissory 
note or other contract to recover the subscription or 
the amount thereof. He is not liable to the credit 
ors of the corporation to any greater or less extent 
than other stockholders, but is liable to the corpora- 
tion on his contract of subscription. 

As a stockholder by purchase, or otherwise, a per- 
son may avoid future liability by a transfer of his 
stock by consent of the corporation, but he can be 
released by the corporation from his subscription in 
the same manner as a telease from liability upon 
other contracts, and not otherwise. 

John W. Armstrong 

J. H. Rutter moved to amend the by-laws so 
as to restrict the Union from purchasing fruit, 
preparing it for shipment to consumption mar 
kets, and selling it on account of the Union. 

The motion was discussed at length and car 
ried, with but few dissenting votes. 

Senator Routier, Mr. Plate, K. F. Aiken, .1 
H. Putter and R. D. Stephens were appointed 
a committee to draft amendments to the by 
laws to carry out the action of the meeting. 

On motion, the meeting then adjourned, to 
meet on Wednesday, Jan. 13th, at 10 o'clock 
a. m., at the same place. 



The Sacramento Proposition. 

Editors Press: — I have sent check for first 
installment of my subscription to the Fruit 
Union. I don't know but it will be my last, if 
Sacramento gets in her new idea as to every 
fellow shipping for himself, and therefore in 
direct competition with every other fellow. 
Nor do I go a cent on the proposition to follow 
it up by allowing a fruit shipper to avail him 
self of our facilities. As it was before, a lead 
ing shipper had to close up shop and work for 
us, or stop. He virtually admitted as much to 
me, for he said no one could stand S4500 per 
train — the difference between a man shipping 
in carload lots and our organization shipping in 
trainload lots. Hut under this new wrinkle, 
he can come right in, ship on our rates, and 
compete us out of our boots. 

Probably this shipper has nothing to do with 
this, but it certainly seems to be inspired by 
fruit-shippers and not by fruit-growers, 
thought I was joining a union of itah-groners, 
but it seems I may not be. 

So far as shipping dried fruit, that is all 
right, for it need not be sold in any given time 
and if a glut occurs it will regulate itself. In 
deed Chicago and New York will be the store- 
houses or headquarters of dried fruit, from 
which distribution will take place to other 
points as sales are made; but such cannot be 
the case for green fruits. So far as I ship 
prunes dr'u <l, I want to ship where I please, and 
my neighbor to do the same, for we cannot 
hurt each other by so doing, But so far as I 
ship them green, I do not want to ship them to 
a glutted market, where they will ba in direct 
competition with my neighbor whose orchard is 
just across the fence from mine. 

San Jose. S. F. Leih 



Sacramento and the Fruit Union. 

Editors Press :— Under this heading I see 
in the last number of your valued paper a synop- 
sis of meetings held at Sacramento, which, if 
these views prevailed at the next meeting of 
the stockholders of the Union, would in my 
opinion, defeat the objects we hoped to gain 
by founding it. I have carefully considered all 
the by laws passed, and cannot find in them 
anything which could be objectionable to any 
fruit-grower or shipper with honest intentions. 
Hut 1 do see in the changes proposed, another 
outcropping of the many headed monster, — 
a monster of a thousand smaller companies of 
shippers, all shipping whenever and wherever 
they pleased, only iu this instance it would be 
the shippers who would form a company to 
purchase from the growers, and, of course,"at 
prices to suit themselves. It is the reduced 
freight rate which is l/ieir object, so that they 
could have the fruit growers at their mercy, and 
make what terms they pleased with them. And 
of course they want no malinger, as each one 
thinks he can manage this part of the business 
satisfactorily to him** If at least. 

The strongest points in the Union (and it 
has many such), are, iu my opinion, first, the 
equality with which the interests of even the 
smalLst fruit-grower is furthered and protected 
by it. Any one having even five acres of fruit 
has the privilege of shipping direct, or selling 
to the Union, if he preferB. 1 a9k the many 
thousand small fruit growers of the State, men 
who have staked their all upon a small fruit 
farm, whose bread ami butter for themselves 
and their family depend upon the home they 
have labored hard to make, which they guard 
as the apple of their eye, and from which they 
expect those returns, after careful nursing and 
incessant labor of years, which will enable them 
and their loved ones to live in comfort, with all 
the blessings of a peaceful home around them, 
whether they would not rather trust them to a 
manager chosen by themselves than to the 
tender mercies of a hundred shippers, who will 
buy at the lowest figures they can possibly get 
the results of their labor, and sell them at the 
highest price they can obtain? Do the Sicra- 
mento men propose anything else, when they 
want to substitute the shipper as a buyer for 
the Union as such? The rr.les of trade, of which 
we have heard 80 much, are consummated in 
buying as cheap as possible, and selling as 
high as possible, so as to make the most 
money to the dealer. He does not care 
how the grower fares, as long as he sees the 
dollars coming to him. The Union makes it 
optional to the grower, whether he will ship 
direct, at the same freight rates as the dealer, 
or sell at ruling prices to the Union. Need I 
point out where his true interes's would be fur- 
thered and protected best? 

Second. Another, and in my opinion the 
strongest argument in favor of the Union, is in 
its concentration under one head: a board of 
directors chosen by the stockholders them- 
selves, who agaiu choose a manager whom they 
consider the most capable and efficient — a man 
who is thoroughly posted on the markets East, 
and also on the supplies he can obtain here; who 
knows at a moment's glance where he can ob- 
tain the earliest as well as the latest fruits, so 
aa to utilize all that is grown here, aud not 
disappoint any customers East, when they send 
in their orders. On the wise selection of such a 
man, who has the necessary organizing talent 
to set this machine up aud to keep it running 
smoothly, who is in sympathy with its success, 
and whose whole ambition and aim is to make 
it successful, depend in a certain measure the 
Buccess or failure of the fruit interest of Cali- 
fornia, and if they find him, they can afford to 
pay him well; in fact, the "right man iu the 
right place," would be cheap at any price. Let 
us try if we can find him, try him, and if found 
wanting, the remedy rests within ourselves. 
Hut we can better, much better afford to try, 
than Bell out to the dealers, and let them man- 
age as they please. If we do not find the right 
man at once, we can discharge him and elect 
another, always bearing in mind, however, that 
it will take time and a good deal of experimental 
work, until all can run smoothly. 

Third. Another strong point in favor of the 
Union and its present constitution and by laws 
is, that we will avoid, as much as possible, all 
gluts in the Eastern markets. Even admitting 
that these shippers were all honest men, that 
they were willing to pay fair prices, treat the 
growers justly and give all they can afford, yet 
each would want to ship where he thought 
best, and without an advisory and directing 
head they would come into competition with 
each other, and gluts in Eastern markets would 
be the unavoidable consequence. Under the 
present by-laws the shippers have already the 
privilege of consigning their fruit to whom 
they please, provided the manager does not 
thiuk that it will cause gluts, and thus act 
acainst their own interests. That he should 
thus have some control, would seem necessary 
for their own protection against such contin- 
gencies, and I do not see how they could object 
to a provision so eminently just to all parties, 
and for the interest of all. There is nothing in 
the constitution and by-law, that I know of to 
prevent shippers in buying from the Union, and 
it is certainly to our interest to have them do 
so, provided they will pay fair prices, as they 
would then have to take the risk of trade, and 
very likely they would make as good terms 
with the manager, with a certainty to get what 
they wanted, than to buy from the growers. 



But for anyone not a grower being permitted to 
enter the Union and secure its rates of freight, 
would be to counteract the very prinoiple at 
the root and foundation of it, viz.: "That it 
should be controlled by the fruit-growers and 
in their interest." I am for giving shippers and 
wholesale buyers all the advantages they can 
desire— I have not the least doubt that the 
management will do so, and am willing to leave 
this in their hands as well as all other business 
matters. Hut I protest against anyone, not a 
grower, owning stock or having control of a 
Union formed for the benefit of, and to protect 
the interests of the growers, and I trust that 
the growers will awake from their lethargy, to 
present in full force at the meeting of the stock- 
holders, and give full expression to their views. 
Let us not leave this great movement, which 
can alone save, if rightly managed and con- 
trolled, the most important interest of Califor- 
nia, to go by default. Now is the time to put 
our shoulders to the wheel, and push it along 
to a successful issue. 

Hoping that these few thoughts, expressed 
by one who does not desire anything better 
tha/i to see every industrious fruit-grower in 
the State reap the just reward of his labors, 
may serve to draw the attention of my brother 
fruit growers to the full importance of partici- 
pation, both by taking stock and presence at 
the meeting. Ueo. Hlsmann. 

Talcoa Vineyards, Napa, Cat. 



Are the Dealers Needed Inside? 

Editors Press:— Does the California Fruit 
Union need the assistance of the former shippers 
of tliis State in placing their fruits on the 
Kastern markets? Let us present the facts as 
to the manner of handling fruit, from the pick- 
ing in the orchard, through all its devious 
courses until it reaches the consumer in the 
East, and see if such is the case. 

Their services are not needed in the orchard, 
for the grower that is not competent to pick 
and pack fruit can readily find instructors in 
any neighborhood. 

Their services are no longer needed in load- 
ing cars, for the methods adopted by them last 
season were closely observed by the growers, 
who are now familiar with every detail of the 
business. 

Their services are certainly not needed after 
the car is attached to the California Fruit 
Union's train while in transit to its point of 
destination. 

Their services are not needed in determining 
the point of destination of such cars, for they 
have Bent bo little fruit beyond Denver that 
they are almost wholly without the experience 
in the Eastern markets of which they boast, 
and the trade in this great field has yet to be 
developed by the California Fruit Union. 

Where, then, are their services needed ? Not 
in any place. Without them the fruit- 
producers will be their own masters, and can 
employ agents to sell their products as readily 
as can the agents of any other company, 
thereby saving to themselves all the profits 
from which the middlemen would make a 
living. 

Neither should they relinquish any of their 
righ s or lessen their control of the business by 
allowing any individual or company to direct 
the disposition of cars or any portion of their 
contents. At the election of officers on the 
'20th inat. only men who have business ability 
and unblemished reputations should be selected. 
Eich large fruit producing section of the State 
should be represented by one or more directors, 
recommended by the citizens of such districts, 
and elected only because of their fitness to fill 
the position. Then let the fruit-growers choose 
between whom they will entrust the sale of 
their hard-earned products — the men elected 
by themselves, and whose every act they have 
the right to examine — or the men who elect 
themselves to that position and over whom 
they practically have no control. 

P. W. Bl'TLER. 

Penryn, Placer Co., Jan 11. 



The Proposed Change in the Union. 

Editors Press ^ — In looking over the Record- 
Union this morning, I see that the "Sacra- 
mento fruit-growers" have held a meeting to 
make changes in the proposed by-laws of the 
State Union. The change does not meet with 
my idea of what a co -operative fruit union 
should be. Without a manager, with everyone 
packing and shipping his own fruit — as this 
open by-law will allow, with dealers coming 
into the field to select and buy just what they 
wish to ship, and leaving the culll for the 
Union to dispose of in a market already filled 
with the choice fruit of the dealers — I believe 
the business so managed would fall through in- 
side of six months, and the fruit interests of the 
State relapse into a wcrse condition than ever 
before. To succeed the growers must stand 
together and make a vigorous fight against the 
dealers. The business cannot be run at hap- 
hazard, with everybody doing the shipping, 
but growers must stand together and work as 
one man, and that can be done only by co-oper- 
ation. Our Newcastle company started last 
spring with 15 members; to-day we will 
incorporate with 00 members who represent 
pretty much all the fruit of this section, and 
will ship, probably, about 300 carloads this 



Jan. 16, 1886.] 



pACIFie rural> press. 



Reduction in Railroad Fares. 

A comparison made by the Call between the 
old and new overland passenger rates, the lat- 
ter going into effect to-day, shows that con- 
siderable reductions have been made. Follow- 
ing is the schedule: 

New York, .1113.25, old rate, $126 75; Boa- 
ton, $115.25, old, 128.15; Chicago, $95.50, old 
$103.50; St. Louis, $89, old $100; Omaha, $84, 
old, $95; Philadelphia, $111.75, old, $120.75; 
Quebec, $115.50, old, $128 50; Buffalo, $107.25 
old, $117.50; Cincinnati, $99, old $110; Cleve- 
land, $i04.25, old, $113.50; Richmond, $110, 
old, $i26; St. Paul, $90.65, old, $107.65; Learl- 
ville, $72, old, $97.50; Kansas City, $84, old, 
$95; Denver, 72, old, $85.30; Portland, Me., 
$118.25, old, $131.65; Topeka, 84, old, $95; 
New Orleans, $89, old, $97.45; Galveston, 
$85.50, old $86.35; Houston, $84, old, $S5 50. 

From Missouri River common points to Colton, 
Los Angeles and Mojave, via southern routes, 
first-class, unlimited, $84; via Ogden routes, 
unlimited, $90; to San Francisco, San Jose, La 
throp, Stockton, Sacramento, Marysville and 
Redding, via all routes, unlimited, $90; via all 
routes, limited, $84; rates from St. Louis to be 
made $5 higher in each case. Rates to Ban 
Diego will be made by the addition of locals 
from Colton. From the Missouri river or St. 
Paul to Portland, first-class, limited, $S4; un- 
limited, $93.35. The same rates hold good for 
travel eastward. 

With a limited ticket the passenger has about 
six days in which to stop over between San 
Francisco and Omaha, thirteen days being 
allowed to New York, with continuous passage 
from the Missouri river east. 



WORTHY 

Of Confidence. 



AYER'Sdir ,|K,nlhi 



IS 



THE 



medicine that, 
ring nearly 40 years, in 
parts of Iho world, lias proved its elli- 
cncy as the best blood alterative known 
to medical science. 

SARSAPAR1LLA &TlZtil Y0 Z 

genuine Honduras Sarsaparilla) i> its 
b«sc, and its powers are enhanced by 
the extracts of Yellow Dock and Stit 
liugia, the Iodides of Potassium and 
Iron, :iiul other potent ingredients, 
your blood vitiated by derangements 
of the digestive and assimilatory func- 
tions? is it tainted by Scrofula? or 
does it contain the poison of Mercury 
or Contagious Disease? 

leading physicians of the United 
States, who know the composition 
of Aykh'S SARSAPARLLLA, say that 
nothing else so good for the purifica- 
tion of the blood is within the range of 
pharmacy, 

flNI V the use of this remedy is it 
UllLT possible for a person who has 
corrupted blood to attain sound health 
and prevent transmission of tlr; de- 
structive taint to posterity! 
TUHDniirui V effective renovation 
InUnUUbULY ofthesystem must 
include not only the removal of cor* 
ruption from the blood, but its enrieh- 
■ ment and the strengthening of the 

vital organs, 
nr-l a Am r witnesses, all over the 
ntLIADLL world, testify that this 
work is better accomplished by A yf.k*S 
Sausap.uui.la than by any other 
remedy. 

di nnn t,1;lt is ('orruptcci through ais- 
bLUUU ease is made pure, and blood 
weakened through diminution of the 
red corpuscles is made strong, by 
AYER'S SAR9APARIIXA. 
nuniruiMP tlic blood and building 
rUnlrYlliU up the system require 
time in serious cases, but benefit will 
be derived from the use of AVER'S 
SarsaParilla more speedily than 
from anything else, 
■irmnitir for which like effects are 
MtUll/INt falsely claimed, is abun- 
dant in the market, under many names 
but the only preparation thathasstood 
the test of time, and proved worthy of 
the world's confidence, is 

A/er 's Sarsapar/7/a, 

PREPARED BY 

Dr. J. C. Ayer & Co., Lowell, Nlass. 

Sold by all Druggists : Price $1 ; 
Six bottles for $5. 



A. B. C. PATENT FENCE! 

33EST _A_TXT.O CUE ICIEST 

STOCK, RABBIT, CHICKEN AND H03-PR00F FENCE MADE. 

5 Double Strands Galvanized Bessemer Steel Wire. 




CUT OF STOCK FENCE NO. 5. 

All Pickets 4 feet Long unless otherwise specified. Pickets Woven in 
with the Wire- Strength, Durability and Cheapness Combined, 
f RICE LIST. 

Price per Rod without Posts. 

No. 5— Stock Fence, 16 ixli inch Pickets to the rod § 75 

No. 20— Hog-rro'.f Fence, 32 !,xU inch Pickets to the rod . . .V. 80 

No. 25 — Rabbit and Chicken-proof Fem e, 65 ixli Pickets to the rod 110 

No. 30— Rabbit-proof Fence, 60 ixlj Pickets, 2 feet long 80 



SPECIAL PRICES QUOTED 
ON APPLICATION FiR 
LARGE QUANTI- 
TIES, 




OR FOR FENCE WITH ANY 
KIND OR SIZE OF 
PICKETS. 



PUT UP IN COILS OF FIVE RODS EACH. 
tSTScretchers for Putting up Fence Loaned Free. 

JUDSON MANUFACTURING COMPANY, 

Factories, Oakland, Cal. Office and Salesroom, No. 8 Pine St., San Francisco. 



this invention £ Simple, Practical and Serviceable. 

TWO MEN AND ONE HORSE 

The Need of the Age. j| Will Bore 300 Holes 

„ PATENTED JUNE 10, 1884. IN 10 HOURS. 



NEW 

Earth BorifliAip 

BORES HOLES 

36 Inches deep and 
24 inches diameteri 

The LIGHTNING TREE PLANTER. 

The TREE PL ANTER represented on this page is a late inventi in, which was thoroughly tried last 
year, and proved to be the Simplest, Best, and Cheapest mode • <f aiding holes eit her tor Trees, Vines, or 
Hosts. It will bore a hole of any given dimensions desired in an incredibly short space of time, anil the work is all 
done by a horse, and a hole 3 feet deep and 2 feet in diameter can be du,' in two minutes. One of these machines 
used by the S. P. C. R. K. Co. PRICE, $ 1 50. 

Among our Many Testimonials we Offer the Following One: 

San Jose, Cal., June 2, I8S4. 
Dbar Sirs: -In regard to the Boring Machine I bought of you, I woul 1 say fiat I am very much pleased with it. 
It is \ery easy on the horse and is easily managed. I have bored manv thousand holes at the rata of over 200 per 
day. The holes were 2 feet deep and 2 feet in d'amcter, and were much better holes than could he made by hand. 

SAMUEL MILL1K1N. 
We have the Finest and Most Complete Line of 

BUGGIES, CARRIAGES and WAGONS on the Coast 




AGENTS FOR THE 



Celebrated HOLLOW IRON AXLE WAGON, McCORMICK MOW (Fi. I [/I 
TWINE BINDERS. JOHN DODD'S H0LLINGSW0RIH RAKE*, Etc. 



I!;c 



We have REMOVED to our new store, 421 
have the Finest Repository on the Coast. 



423, 425 and 427 Market St., where we 
Send for Catalogue. Address 



TRUMAN, ISHAM & HOOKER, 421 Market St., Sin Francisco. 



year. Members can not sell any fruit to any- 
one — it must all go through the company. 

Hoping that the meeting on the 20th will act 
in harmony and for the best good of the fruit 
growers of the State, Placer. 

Newcastle, Jan. 7. 



Not in Favor of the ChaDges. 

Editors Press : — To anyone who has 
watched the progress of the fruit question in 
California this fall and winter, and taken an in- 
terest in the development of the Fruit Union, 
it will be a matter of surprise to them to read 
the report of the proceedings of the fruit growers 
of Sacramento and vicinity last week. 

Just why they have advanced the ideas they 
have with regard to the by-laws of the Fruit 
Union I can not understand, unless they are 
wholly under the control of the shippers. 

If every man who can ship a carload names 
the destination of the fruit, the usefulness of 
the Union will be lost, and endless confusion 
will be the result. If we are to have a great 
central organization that shall meet the wants 
of the fruit growers of this State, it must not 
be hampered and restricted until its strength 
and usefulness are destroyed. 

Only those who have private ends to attain 
can advocate such a course. Most fruit- 
growers believe that unrestricted permission 
to name destination of fruit will work a hard- 
ship to all small growers, and the larger portion 
of the fruit shipped will come from the small 
growers, because the shippers will in most cases 
rob them of the best market. 

Let us give the Union entire control of the 
disposal of our fruit for this year, at least, and 
then we shall know what it is capable of doing 
with our full and united support. Let us have 
no naming of destination of fruits at all. 

Penryn, Jan. II. Small Fruit-Grower. 



Cheap Rabbit-Proof Fence. 

Editors Press: — In your issue of January 
2d, P. W. Butler tells how a cheap rabbit- 
proof fence mny be constructed. As this is 
something that a great many of us are inter- 
ested in, I would like to tell your readers what 
we are using for that purpose in this end of the 
State. It is the Patent ABC fence, composed 
of laths and wire interwoven, made in lengths 
of 100 feet, and from one to four feet in bight. 
The two-foot laths are generally used for rab- 
bits alone; but if *the fence is needed to turn 
other stock the four-foot is generally used. 
The four-foot regular stock fence costs one dol- 
lar per rod, and the two-foot fence from 50 to 
(iO cents, according to the space between the 
laths. A space of one-half inches is generally 
used. This fence is easily and quickly put up, 
and can be taken down and used some other 
place when the orchard and vineyard are 
grown up out of the way of the rabbits. If 
this fence is well stretched by a block and 
tackle, or some other means, when put up, and 
the posts well tamped and braced each 100 feet, 
it will not need a post oftenerthan 25 feet, and 
some say not oftener than 50 feet. Remember 
that I am now speaking of the two foot rabbit 
fence. The other would need posts oftener. 

The cost of 100 feet of the two foot fence 
would be as follows: Four posts at 15 cents, (iO 
cents; 100 feet of fence at 00 cents per rod of 
I6j feet, 83.60; total per 100 feet, $4.20. 

For 100 feet of 3 foot fence, at 85 cts. per 
rod: five posts at 15 cts., 75 cts. ; 100 feet fence, 
$5.70. Total, $5.85. 

For 100 feet of 4-foot fence at $1.00 per rod: 
six posts, 00 cts; 100 feet fence, $0.00. Total, 
$0.90. 

This would make the two-foot fence cost con- 
siderably less than Mr. Butler's and the four-foot 
a trifle more. But this four-foot fence is prac- 
tically indestructible, and will turn anything 
from a jack-rabbit up. The rabbit is prone to 
burrow in the ground, and I am a little afraid 
that he might scrape a hole in the loose dirt 
under Mr. B.'s bottom wire and crawl through. 
I have known them to do this under the bottom 
board of a fence where there was a little space 
to start with. 

I would like to hear from others on the sub- 
ject. C. W. McKelvey. 

Lou Angeles. 

[This fence is the same as advertised from 
time to time in the Rural by the Judson Manu- 
facturing Co., and of which, we are informed, 
large quantities have been sold. We have used 
some of it ourselves, and find it very satisfac- 
tory. As for the rabbit crawling under the 
bottom wire described by Mr. Butler, we under- 
stand that the barbs on the wire being near to- 
gether would discourage the animal in most 
places that he should attempt to crawl under. 
This is evidently Mr. Butler's design with refer- 
ence to burrowing. — Eds. Press]. 

Timber on Indian Lands. — The President 
has transmitted to Congress a draft of the 
bill formulated by the Commissioner of In- 
dian Affairs, intended to protect timber on In- 
dian lands from spoliation. In his letter of 
transmittal the President says that the subject 
is important and is commended to the early at- 
tention of Congress. 



DIVIDEND NOTICE. 
The German Savings and Loan Society. 

For the half-year ending December 31, 1885, the Board 
of Directors of the German Savings and Loan Society has 
declared a dividend at the rate of four and one-half 
percent per annum, on term deposits, and three and 
three-fourths (3^) per cent per annum, on ordinary de- 
posits, and pavable on and after the 2d dav of January, 
1886. By order. GEO. LETTE, Secretary. 



BADGES FOR ALL SOCIETIES, 

Police, firemen, etc., presentation prizes or 
charms, in gold, silver, or metal, sold at society 
prices by the agents of the Universal Badge 
Manufacturing Co., NATHAN JOSEPH & CO., 
641 Clay St. Workmen and K. of P. badges in 
gold, $1 each, sent C. O. D. Trade supplied. 



Klfil 




PIANOFORTES. 

UNEQUALLED IN 

Tone Touch Workmanship and Durability. 

WILLIAM K1VA.BE «fc CO. 
Nos. 204 and 206 West Baltimore Street, Baltimore. 
No. 112 Fifth Avenue, New Yor'% 



Anoells' Livek Pit.r.s cine rhr nmit iwn snd headache. 



MISSION ROCK DOCK 
GRAIN WAREHOUSE, 

SAN KKANCISCO, CAU 

<7c=i nnn tons capacity 7fj ooo 

I <-J,\JKJKJ storage at Lowest. Kates. • U | U,JV 

CHAS. H. SINCLAIR, Supt. 
Cal. Dry Dock Co., prop*— Office »18 Cal. St.. room 3 



Q Instaut relief. Final cure in 10 days, and 
J Hi O. never returns. No purr*, no salve, no 
suppository. Sufferers will learn of a -imp '■ r nieil.v Free, 
by addressing C. .1. MASON, 78 Nassau str. et.New \ oik. 



PI I 



GO 



fACIFie F^JRALd press. 



[Jan. 16 ; 1886 



Our Self-Dependent Girls. 

A Woman's Plea in Their Behalf. 

On the 17th ult., Mrs. Caroline E. Kinney, 
resident director of the San Francisco Girls' 
Union, gave an address in the Baptist Church 
at Stockton, under the auspices of Stockton 
<i range, which was reported in full by the 
Independent as follows : 

I fullv appreciate the kindness of your local grange, 
in arranging for this meeting with Stockton citizens- 
and this expression of interest in one that is a stran. 
ger to most of you, and in the society I representt 
We all recognize, if we have right views of life, tha- 
there is a community of interest in all questions per- 
taining to the good cf our race, that we cannot ig 
nore; and by its very isolation from the sisterhood 
of States California's duties and responsibilities to 
her people seem to be greater and more grave than 
elsewhere. Perhaps never before in the history of 
our country have philanthropic minds been more 
universally turned to the questions o( industiial and 
social life, so vital to the well-being of our nation. 
It is only a social or political quack who would ven- 
ture to prescribe, off-hand, a perfect and immediate 
specific for all the evils of our soc'al organism. But 
it we studiously seek we may find the root of our 
difficulties, and set ourselves, in all practical ways, to 
remove or destroy them. The very atmosphere of 
the times is pregnant with discontent, and to every 
'over of his country and race the present uncertainty 
of biead-w inning, the false estimates of character, of 
life's purposes and life's issues, are problems of sad 
i.nd painful perplexity. Histoiy brings us no solu- 
tion in her reformatories or penal institutions, of 

The Sin And Misery 

Which becloud lives God meant should be bright, 
heioic and beautiful. Many efforts, ill or well-advis- 
ed, have been made to assist unfortunate childhood 
and self-dependent youth, by charity organizations, 
lifting indiscriminately the burdens which it were 
better often that self should carry, or be made strong 
to throw off. Hence the enervation of manhood, of 
womanhood, the pauperism, which begets pauperism, 
generation after generation. Nowhere in the world 
are there brighter specimens of youth of both sexes, 
full of capacity, than we have in this State. Yet how 
true of us, as well as other |>ortions of our land, that 
beneath the generally fair surface of this nation of 
fifty millions, seethes a mass of criminality and dis 
soluteness, ignorance and pission that is sad beyond 
expression. Some day or other, this mass will be a 
volcano, unless something be done. This our rich 
and wise men well know. History teaches it, and 
their own common sense and knowledge of human 
nature teach it. The supply of fuel must be cut off. 
"When 

Habits of Idleness 

Are fully fixed, when disease has established itsell in 
the system, when the career of crime has been enter- 
ed upon as the only pursuit, then organized govern- 
ment, too late, brings to btar upon this class its fcr- 
ces; humanitarian societies are established to relieve 
poverty; reformatory societies, to attempt an occas- 
ional rescue; asylums and hospitals are fostered, and 
the great panderous machinery of the criminal law is 
set in motion to punish crime. A costly burden is 
this system to our industrious, provident, tax-paying 
citizens. We make an inebriate by licensing 
saloons, and then take care of him in a ' home. " We 
make an idle vagabond, and then support him in an 
almshouse. We make a ruined one, and send her to 
a Magdalen asylum. We permit (Jebased women to 
pursue vicious lives in defiance of inspection or sani 
tary precaution, and then support the victims in our 
hospitals and madhouses. We allow criminals to 
breed criminals; by our neglect we encourage them 
to grow up criminals, and then, after costly process- 
es of law, we svall them into an idle life, where we 
support them." 

Another Cause 

Is our present industrial system, which has come to 
be a factor in keeping the truly ambitious and effic- 
ient too often on the border line of poverty. The 
la* of competition in our earlier history, so product 
ive of the best civilization, has come to be so power 
ful an agent in the concentration of wealth as to in- 
juriously affect and discourage the industrial c'asses, 
and while we would now work for the greater diffu- 
sion of capital and a juster division' of the products 
of labor, we must work, too, for the better training 
and more efficient servic; in every branch of the 
world's industries, looking to a more manly and 
womanly mastery ; a more manly and womanly ser- 
vice; a fraternity of interest; of helpfulness; all along 
the line of our common humanity. My attention 
three years ago was drawn to the condition and out- 
look of the self-supporting young of my sex in city 
and State, as one phase ol this social question. The 
stigma, particularly which a false education and the 
presence of the Chinese on this coast, had put upon 
all kinds of domestic industries, the overcrowding of 
all departments of clerical or menial work, trades, 
etc., and the meager compensation usually received 
for the same; the low public sentiment on questions 
of morality and virtue, and the temptations which 
both climate and the cosmopolitan character of this 
coast intensify, all pointed to 

The Necessity 

Of some intense counter-inlluence to correct existing 
tendencies — some organization looking to strong 
moral support and legal protection, to correct also 
the impression that work is either a penalty or dis- 
cipline or repellant (only in disagreeable conditions), 
but rather labor itself is fascinating and promotive 
of health, happiness and longevity, aad shojlj be 
considered in every henest vocation so honorable 
that there shall be no dishonorable escape from it. 
A farther work needed, was subsiitution of some- 
thing better than the precarious, meagre subsistence 
of ordinary shop and fac:ory life. A love for home 
with all its safeguards, comforts, and freedom from 
anxious thoughts, its varied, peaceful and healthful 
pursuits should be fostered. The girls of our State 
should one and all feel, whatever be their financial 
condition, that no schooling is complete without 
knowledge of some practical, honest, money-winning 
education. The help required in every line of bus 
iness for which woman has natural adaptation 
should come from the homes of our ci.ies, and which 
dot our State, wherever there are members which can 



be spared; and, not till substitution of our 
youth in the industries now usurped by 



An Alien Race, 

Will the thrift, the morality, the homes of law built 
with rafters of love, of which many of us have such 
tender childhood memories, be the bulwark of our 
country, for it is its households, not its wars that 
make a nation's true history. This effort underta- 
ken in San Francisco, little more than a year ago, 
has proven this statistical fact, that three-fourths of 
the girls and young women of this State arc neither 
possessed of any bank account or probable heirs to 
one, they are to win their own bread, and be the fu- 
ture wives and mothers of this common-wealth. It 
is a sad question how many are lilted for either. Our 
union has undertaken by organizing a co-operative 
society, (the first not a charity looking to woman's 
interest on this roast) to help solve this question of 
morality, of honest bread, to bring about a better 
reco;nition of common interests, hopes, joys and 
sorrows, as members of the family universal, for 
whether we in our pride and selfishness wish it or 
not, the great system of humanity is one, and the 
discord of harmony of individual life affects the uni- 
verse of being. We establi h as 

One Feature of our Work 

A boarding home for strangers and homeless res- 
ident girls in business, or preparation therefore, and 
the saddest part of this department is, that we al- 
ready need four times the spice we have, and we are 
obliged to turn away every day those needing the 
protection of a society and atmosphere of a home. 
We have entirely outgrown the quaint old building 
opened one year ago, September last, and most earn- 
estly wish that the good Citizens of city and State 
would give this work a local habitation similar, in 
provision made for young men through the Y. M. C. 
A. Already in our cramped quarters 123 have found 
a home for the p-riod required; and our business 
bureau has found employment for nearly 150 mem- 
bers in the various vocations available to woman, 
consequently 150 employees have found required 
help; these have been sustaining members. We 
started this enterprise with the distinct understand- 
ing that we should build upon a business basis — 
that while every available aid should be given ben- 
eficiary members, to make the most of their own re- 
sources and capabilities, no compron ise of woman- 
hood, which receives that for which no equivalent is 
given, would be considered. Fees of membership 
apply to 

Expenses of the Business 

Bureau, alike helpful to the employing classes and 
employed; and w hen these memberships numerically 
outgrow the expenses of this department, we hope 
for a loan fund, providing for the temporary illness 
or misfortune of its members. The very fact that to 
this co-operative society onlv those are invited as 
members, who recognize that nobility of soul not 
born of outward circumstance wherever found; that 
the business wants of every member whether of high 
or low estate will be equally considered, thus remov- 
ing every semblance of patronage or charity. This 
fact should bring to our city and branch organiza- 
tions the mothers and daughters of our State in one 
united effort of fraternal interest and helpfulness, 
and to our moral and material support and establish- 
ment, every good citizen. Our business bureau has 
unfolded one great and imperative want. Inevitably 
come to us the educated and experienced in all cler- 
ical and skilled work, and as these ranks are so over- 
crowded, we find it very hard to give the most com- 
petent even the business assistance needed. We 
hope 

Our Country Towns. 

Will not forget us when such positions arc to be 
filled. Hut the ranks of efficient, domestic workers 
do not overflow, and the great want of the hour is 
the establishing of training classes for all kinds of 
work our homes require. Wc have many applica 
tions for house help we cannot fill, not because there 
are not plenty of unemployed applicants, but because 
of their incompetency. Our Stockton friends will 
know our efforts in their behalf have not always been 
successful. Our hope for them and the State lies in 
this direction— that we establish a well-equipped 
training school: to its privileges invite every young 
member of our home, or branch organizations (not 
specially better fitted for some other pursuit — and 
eight out of ten of our girls, we may safely say have 
more natural ability for successful domestic work 
than any other vocation). To those unable to pay 
the required tuition at time of training, we propose to 
lean the same till the course is tak-m and the posi- 
tion secured, when it is to b? refunded. We do 
not expect the middle-aged— those who have become 
stereotyped, and, perhaps, too 

Opinionated to Learn 

Anything more, to be benefited by this school, but we 
do hope, when established, that, with the encourag- 
ment and prestige of a society at their tack, the feel- 
ing that something of kindness, interest and respact 
will be granted them in the homes to which they are 
sent, and where employer and employed are mem- 
bers of the same organization, we may attract an 
ever-increasing number of the self-dependent young, 
who now feel averse to home-keeping, and who are 
eking out precarious and exposed lives, with prospec- 
tively little or no future of competency, home or h ip- 
piness. We ask friends throughout the State to form 
auxiliaries to the parent society. Memb. rs of these 
branches can unite in any local business or fraternal 
work of interest, and through the secretary be in 
regular communication with the San Francisco so- 
ciety. V\'e want this network of "unions" to encircle 
the State, so that woman may find its mor,.l and 
legal protection an incentive to live "her highest and 
best;" making her record wich her home society her 
pass-port wherever she may go. We want to so 
interest the cit'zens of our inland towns and cities 
that we shall enroll memberships of both ladies and 
gentlemen, and from our favored citizens, life-inem- 
berships of $25, which, if desired by the donner, will 
be applied to a perpetual 

Scholarship in the Training School. 

It seems to mc that these scholarships must ever be 
a most satisfactory investment— to feel that we have 
set on foot anything which brings to human life use- 
fulness, succ j ss and joy, that we have in some way- 
been a nuss mger of good to even one w ho will per- 
petuate that good when we have passed beyond the 
personal opportunity of lifting or lessening the bur- 
dens of lile's toilers and strugglers, is worthy the pen 



of a recording angel. The best religion is that which 
walks on human feet, and works for the uplifting and 
advancement of the whole race. It means some- 
thing more than a safe investment in the sk'es. The 
great waiting world is never infidel to good deeds, 
and it is only these which shall shine with fadeless 
luster in the day of final disclosure. 

Friends, may we all live again in minds made bet- 
ter by our presence; be to other souls the cup of 
strength; beget smiles that have no cruelty; then we 
shall need no lettered epitaph or chiseled marble to 
make our memory green, but far rather, in the words 
of Bonar, would we choose that 

Not ourselves, but the truth that in life we have 

spoken; 

Not ourselves, but the seed that in life we have sown, 
Shall pass on to the ages — all about us forgotten. 
Save the truth we have spoken, the det-ds "we have 

done. 

So let our living be, so bs our going; 
So let our name be — unblazoned unknown, 
L'npraised and unmissed, wc shall still be remem- 
bered ; 

Yes; but remembered by deeds we have done. 





WASH NGTON COLLEGE. 



For Ladies and Gentlemen. 



Full Course of Instruction In Classics. 
Science, Literature, Vocal and Instru- 
mental Music and Business. 



BUSINESS Cul'RSE -Book-keepini.', Banking, Ship- 
ping, Wholesale and Retail, Commission, Railroading, 
ami Telegraphy. 

Full Set of Ofll.es and Desks fur Actual 
BnslneM Transactions. 

Two Ijirge Buildings; one for boys and one for girls. 
In the country, S3 miles from San Francisco and 14 miles 
from San Jose, on San Jose branch of t > . - C. 1*. K. It. 

Location hea'thv and free from viceB and temptAtiona 
of city life. Faculty enthusiastic. 

All ages admitted and instructed in manners and 
morals. Primary, Preparatory, Academic and Business 
Departments. 

Regular hours of study of evenings, under the dircc 
supervision of t^aci.ers, preventing running out of even- 
ings and promoting the formation of good habits. 

Terms reasonable. For further infoimation, address 



HALL'S PULMONARY BALSAM, 

The best remcdv in use for COl'tillS, fOLKS, ASTHMA, 
BRONCHITIS, iNFLCENZA, ClilU'P, INCIPIENT CON- 
SUMPTION and all THROvT and Ll'NG TROUBLES. 
tS Sold by all Druggist! for 50 cents. 

J. R GATES & CO , Proprietors, 

417 Sansome St . 8. F. 



I. H. 



McCOLLOUGH. President, 
Irving, Alameda Co., Cal. 



LITTON SPRINGS COLLEGE 

Sonoma County, Cal. 

This institution has the advantages of country location 
anil of entire exemption from the temptations incident 
1 1 cities and towns. The climate is fine and the build- 
ings are large and commodious. There are 800 acres of 
land, a dairy of 20 cows, and an orchard and vineyard, to 
widt h boys hav e access at all recesses. The drainage is 
perfect, and in the 151 years of its history the school has 
not lost a boy by death— the best testimony to the ex- 
cellence of sanitary conditions ami to the care taken ol 
b iy a' health. In the great universities of the East, the 
highest honors that have been gained by California!) 
students have been won by members of this school. 

JOHN GAMBLE, B. A.. Principal. 



Sacramento 




SACRAMENTO, CAL. 



The Practical Business 
Training School of the Pa- 
cific Coast. Students in- 
structed in Actual Business 
Practice. Graduates assisted 
in obtaining employment. 
Cheapest board in the State. 
Send for Business College 
Journal. E. C. ATK1N 
SON, Principal. 

r< I 1 1 ' ■ i' <• h t Made 
Kasy, the shortest and mo I 
practical method, by mail, 
Ml cents. 



IEALD S 



BUSINESS 
COLLEGE, 

24 Post St S. F 

Send for Circular- 



Dewey & Co.'s Scientific Press 
Patent Agency. 



Send name and address 
for Sample Package 
of Rieger's powdered 
Bath Brick, for cleaning 
knives, forks, kitchen 
ware, tables, etc. For 
sale by Grocers, 5 and 
10 cents per package. 

P. Riegkr & Co. 
5 1 1 Front Street, S. F 

AN EXTRAORDINARY RAZOR 

HAS RE K.N INVENTED BY THE QUEEN'S OWN 
COMPANY, .if EiiElai.d. The «l« • m.l body is so THIN' 
mid FLEXIBLE AS NEVER To I. EorillK ORINDINU 
acd haully ever .etting. It glides nv> r the fa'« like apiece 
of velvet, making shaving unite a lulu 17 . Ik is CREATING 
A OKEAT EXCITEMENT in Eiu p among the expert-, 
who pronounce i' PERFECTION. 1 wo dull rs in buffalo 
handle; *3 iu :vo y. Every razor, to * genuine, must bear 
on the reverse Bble the name of NATHAN JOSEPH, t>41 
Clay street, San Francisco, the only place In the United 
States where they are obtained. Trade supplied; sent by 
mail 10c. extra, or C. O. D. 

WANTED- BY A MAN OF LAIttiE EXPERIENCE, 
a position as superintendent or foreman of a ranch 
(stxK-k ranch r referred); married; no children. Address 
P., care this office. 




Our U. S. and Forkiun Patent AOIMH 
presents many and important advantages as a 
Home Agency over all others, by reason of long 
establishment, great experience, thorough sys- 
tem, intimate acquaintance with the subjects of 
inventions in our own community, and our 
most extensive law and reference library, con 
taining otlicial American and foreign reports, 
tiles of scientific and mechanical publications, 
etc. All worthy inventions patented through 
our Agency will have the benefit of an illustra- 
tion or a description in the Minimi and BoiUf- 
tikic Press. We transact every brauch of 
Patent business, and obtain Patents in all coun 
tries which :;raut protection to inventors. The 
large majority of U. S. and Foreign Patents 
issued to inventors on the Pacific Coast have 
been obt lined through our Agency. We can 
give the lust and most r< Iklblt advice as to the 
patentability of new inventions. Our prices 
are as low as any first-class agencies in the 
Eastern States, while our advantages for Pacilic 
Coast inventors are far superior. Advice and 
Circulars free. 

DEWEY & CO . Patent Agents. 
No. 252 Market St. Elevator 12 Front St 

S. F. Telephone No. 658. 



A. T. DEWEY. 



W. 11. EWER. GEO. 11. STRONG 




1,300 Engines now in use. 
40,000 Horse Power now running. 
Sales 2,000 H. P. per month. 

£-S"Sei. I for stratcd Circular and Reference List 

PARKE & LACY, 

Sole Agents for Pacific Coast & Territories 
21 and 33 Fremont St., San Francisco. 



DETECTIVE, 



P R I V A T F 1 ,l "'- ct " r an( * Insurance Broker. 

The undersigned respectfully offers 
his sirv ires in any of the above 
capacities. Cor. c<| ondenee so- 
licited Addre«s C. M. RICHARDSON, ca'e "Fraterna 
Record," No. J Market St , San l'r , mis ... Cal. 

OUR BERRY BASKETS AND CLIMAX 

berry crutc are I be best 
made. Indorsed by all I 
loading berry growers." 
■ lllus'ted Catalogue free. , 
1MMIKOW M'F'U to., 
ltochcater. N. T. 




CLIMAX 



...» Hidden Rwh,*, r . r I ,i ... . .1 < >, r .1 - Prize 
'■to lUAIH.V UKO-, t Tluluavlllc, « oi.o. 



Jan. 16, 1886.] 



fACIFie RURAb PRESS. 



6L 



feapk? apd banking. 



GRANGERS' BANE 

OF CALIFORNIA, 

SAN FRANCISCO,' CAL. 

Authorized Capital, • - $1,000,OOC 

In 10,000 Shares of $100 each. 

Capital Paid up in Gold Coin, $645,360 

Reserved Cund and raid up stock, $21,178. 
OFFICERS: 

A. D. LOGAN Presidem 

L C. STEELE Vice-President 

ALBERT MONTPELLIER Cashier and Manage^ 

FRANK McMULLEN Secretarj 

DIRECTORS: 

A. D. LOGAN, President Colusa Countj 

H i LEWELLING, Napa Countj 

J. H. GARDINER Rio Vista, Ca) 

T. E. TYNAN Stanislaus Countj 

URIAH WOOD Santa Clara Countj 

J. C. MERYF1ELD Solano Countj 

H. M. LARUE Yolo Countj 

I. C. STEELE San Mateo Countj 

THOMAS McCONNELL Sacramento Countj 

C. J. CRESSKY Merced Countj 

SENECA EWER Napa Countj 

CURRENT ACCOUNTS are opened and conducted in the 

usual way, bank books balanced up, and statements o< 

accounts rendered every month. 
LOANS ON WHEAT and country produce a speoialty. 
COLLECTIONS throughout the Country are mad. 

promptly and proceeds remitted as directed. 
GOLD and SILVER deposits received. 
CERTIFICATES of DEPOSIT issued payable on demand. 
BILLS OF EXCHANGE of the Atlantic States bought 

and sold. ALBERT MONTPELLIER, 

Cashier and Manager 

San Francisco, Jan. 16, 1882. 

UNION SAVINGS BANK 

OAKLAND, CAL. 

CAPITAL $200,000 

RESERVED FUND $100,000 

ASSETS $1,931,000 

BOARD OF DIRECTORS: 
A. C. Henry, J. West Martin, G. J. Ainsworth, 

J. C. Ainsworth, S. Huff, R. S. Farrelly, 

R. W. Kirkhani, Samuel Woods, D. Henshaw Ward 

Hiram Tubbs, H. A. Palmer. 

Wkst Martin, Pres. H. A. Palmkr, V.Pres. & Treas'r 

INTEREST allowed upon all deposits remaining 
three calendar months, beginning from the first of the 
month succeeding the date of deposit. 

Remittances from the country may be made by Express 
or Check upon Banks in San Francisco, and book will 
be returned. 

LOANS made only upon Mortgage of Real 
Estate and Bonds at current rates. 



STOCKTON 

SAVINGS and LOAN SOCIETY, 

(Incorporated August, 1867.) 
STOCKTON, • - CALIFORNIA 

Paid up Capital, $500,000. 

Surplus, $152,634 

L. U. SHIPPEE, President. 
F. M. WEST, Cashier. S. S. LITTLEHALE, Ass't Cashier 

BOARD OF DIRECTORS: 



L. U. SlIll'I'KK, 

R. B. Lank, 
rii .vs. Haas, 
A. W. Simpson, 
J. H. O'Brikn, 
Wh. I.vimk, 



R. Gnerow, 
Otis Prrrin, 
H. T. Dorrancr, 
F. Arnold, 
M. L. Hewitt, 
Ohas. Grupk, 
John Duckkr. 



GREGORY'S 



Spraying Pump. 




The above represents the only Pump which has been 
adoitcd by the State Horticultural Society. It is of 
California manufacture and entirely different intern- 
ally from a light Eastern Pump which resembles it very 
closely externally. The GREGORY Pump is the only 
one which will stand the corrosive action of the alkalies 
in the various insecticide mixtures. 

H. P. GREGORY & CO., 
2 and 4 California St., San Francisco. 



COMMERCIAL HOTEL, 

A. & J. HAHN, Prop'rs, 
Noa. 273, 276, 277 aud 279 Main Street, Stockton, Cal. 
Kates, $1.25 to $2 Per Day. 
Stage offices for Collegevllle and Oakdale, Roberta and 
Union Islands, and Lane's Mineral Springs stages. The 
most desirable location in the city. Refurnished and refit 
ted in the best style for the accommodation of the public 
Free coach from all trains aud steamboats to the hotel. 





Calf Feeders 

AND 

W E -A. TJtf 33 1*. S» 

u. ^s^jSS^. For Rearing Stock by Hand. 

Both Proved Successful and Indispensable. 

Funk's Calf Nipple is just as important for calves as the nursing bot^e is for children. I ne saliva fluid is 
necessary fur proper digestion oi the food, and without the Nipj)le the calf drinks too fast, takes the milk in bulk 
and causes bloating, scours and indigestion. TheFeederwisinventedtoriiscbettercvlveswit.il less trouble. No 
air swallowed, no fingers chewed, no ears sucked. It teaches the call to feed from the pail without assistance. The 
Nipnle always connects with Hi e milk and the calf will soon wean iti-clf. Price, 75 cents; post-paid, 85 cts. 

" Rice's Patent Calf Weaner, 

AND SUCKING-COW MUZZLE, 
Prevents Calves and Cows Sucking Themselves or Each Other, 

Habits roost injurious to the animal and cost'y to the owner It is i o hind ance 
to either eating or drinking, does the animal no injury has been thoroughly tested, 
is used and endorsed by the best stock raisers in the United Stites and England, 
approved of by the Royal Sciety for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, and 
acknowledged by all to be the best thing ever made for the purpose. 
' HHD ■ PRICES. — For Calves, 50 cents; post-paid, 53 cents. Yearlings "Scents; post- 
... • ./%SbimMm paiii, so cents. Full-grown animals, SLOO; post-paid, SI. 12. 

TEBBETS' IlVtI 3 3aC>V3E:i>_TVCII J I5: TUBE, 

Has proved an entire success, for the relief and 
permanent cure of Garget, or Stoppage of Milk, or __ 
when from any cvuse the teat cannot be handled in ^ 
the usual way. Farmers are well aware that cows' 
teats are frequently injured by being stepped on in 
the stable, or torn in the pasture; they are also 
liable to be troubled with cracked teats when first turned out in the Spring, making milking a very painful opera- 
tion; and injurious experiments are too frequently resorted to, from the result of which many valuable animals are 
rendered worthless, because their owners have not the means at band to give-the needed relief. The article which 
we offer is a simple instrument and can be applied by any person. Will qui kly give relief and permanent cure in 
all cases without the slightest injury to the animal. We guarantee them to be undo of Coin SILVER. A single tube 
answers for an entire herd, and is cheap insurance against lo'S. Price, 75 cents each, post-paid 





this method 
Testers, $ 



, von would 
i .00 each 



Edson's Ci'cam Tester, 

A DAIRYMAN'S PRACTICAL INVENTION, 
Consists of a frame bidding six glass tubes graduated at the sides of the 
glass so as to show the per cent of cream in freshly-drawn milk. The 
frames are substantially made of wood, carefully graduated, and the 
glasses easily removed for cleaning. Actual tests prove that common o 
grade cows give equally as good results in ere mi aud butter, when pain 
have been taken in selection, as Jerseys, Holsteins, or other imported 
stock, but in order to have common stock do this, they must ba bred 
from deep and rich milkers, the bull as well as the heifer, and the best 
authorities place more deji -ndance on the hull than on the heifer, thus 
showing that we shoti'd take trreat care in the selection of cows to raise 
bulls irom. It is ca'culated that 20 pounds of milk wil make one pound 
of butter, hut instances have been known where 12 pounds m ule one 
of butter, thus showing that, it is not the cow that gives the largest How 
of milk that produces tlic most butter. It should be our aim to get 
large flow of v ery rich milk. How should we do this? By testing our 
milk, and only ktep : ng and raising stock from cows that give not 1 
than lfi per cent, arid it would be better to say 20 per cent of cream. By 
soon have a dairy nf cows that would be a pleasure as well as a profit to you. Price of 
; Large Si/.e, $2.00. Address 

G. G. WICKSON & CO . 38 California St.. San Francisco. 



THE 



WASHE 



KEYSTONE 

OVER 300,000 IN ACTUAL USE 

And all gl vln*j perfect satisfaction* 

AGENTS WANTED. 




Will warh ('leaner. Easier, and wi:h Less Injuryto 
Clothes than any other in the World. We challenge 
any manufacturer to produce, a better Washer. 
Evcrv lllncliinc Warranted FIVE Years, 
and Satisfaction Guaranteed. Too only 
Washer that can bo clumped to n:iy sized 
tub like aWrmcer. Made of malleable 
iron.galvanizcd, and will outlast anytwowooden 
machines. Agents wanted. Exclm ive Terri- 
tory. Our agents all over tho country aro making 
from $75 to $2011 per month. Retail price, $7. 
Sanii>lo to agents, $3. Also our celebrated 




KEYSTONE WRINGERS AT LOWEST WHOLESALE PRIDES, 

Circulars Free, liefer to editor of this paper. Address l\ F. ADADIS & CO., Erie, Pa. 



GIVEN AWAY I 

l-Wooi, French 



JERSEY CAP, 

SILK FINISH* 

One of the Latest Novelties ! 





SUITS A IX .STYLES 
AND AGES. 

A mofltftpproprittQ pre Rent id any lady or gentleman. The 
bcstchil-i it Rip made. Stands wear, and looki well until worn 
out. It is worth, ami would cost you, more at retail than the 
price oft ho piper. Given nwaj t0 every one *ho subscribes 
one year for the " Kci.kctic Rsvrgw. A live newspaper. Price, 
60 cenut, postage prepaM. S'-mi postal note, silver or postage 
■ramus, purnlshedin nil sizes andcnlors. We want live can- 
vasser* everywhere. Any lady or gentleman can make $3.00 per 
day with c jsc* Subscribe aud write tor Lerma, Address. 

TAYLOR PUBLISHING CO., 

Vjeas mention this paper. Chintontarg; Ta. 

FRESNO LAND 

At $10.00 per Acre. 

For a short tine only new Bettlers can now ohtain the 
choice of selection from the finest land in Fresno County 
for Fruit Raising or General Farming purposes. 

WATER ON THE LANK. 

Examine this land and convince yourself that it is the 
finest in the county. Just think of it, a farm of 20 acres 
for $200, with the prospect o' a railroad passing through 
the land. Any of the following parties will direct you to 
the land: Louis Einstein & Co , Fresno City; A. Bariear, 
Sclma, Fresno county; I*. D. Jones, WildHowcr, Fresno 
county; William Peaks, Kingsburg, Fresno county. 

For terms and full particulars address or c*U on 
H. MATTHEWS, 
61 1 Clay St., San Francisco. 

Or JAMES COTTLE, care of Louis Einstein & Co., 
Fresno City, Cal. 



OR. PIERCE'S 




KI.ECT R 0-M A XETICB 
BELT. A Onlvnulo iliKly-C 
Battery, entirely different / 
train n!t other applinuccn.f// fji 
It giv.ian Blectrlc Current 
with or viflioiit u> i'it. Dis- 
cos 8 or Wtjikne-sscs of tnalo 
<r female «|>.'Uilily lunl pi rrnaneiitly cured. O-rElcctriu Sil»- 
jiensory for men furnitihed free of charge. Descriptive, circular*, 
with price list, testimonials, etc., lorwaxasd to any address. 
MAGNETIC ELASTIC TRUSS COMPANY, 
704 Sacramento St., cor. Kearny, San Francisco, Cal. 

NOTICE.— ParMes wishing local agencies to represent 
our Nurseries for Uic sale of our stock, will please address 
J. Lusk & Son, Box 9, North Temescal, Oakland, Cal. 



The BUYERS' GUIDE is 
Issued March and Sept., 
eavli year. Sg' 216 pages, 
| 8%xll% indies, with over 
3,500 Illustrations — a 
whole Picture Gallery. 
GIVES Wholesale Prices 
olivet to consumers on all goods for 
personal or family use. Tells how to 
orner, and gives exact cost of every- 
thing you use, eat, drink, wear, or 
have fan with. These INVALUABLE 
BOOKS contain information gleaned 
from the markets of the world. We 
will mail a copy FREE to any ad- 
dress upon receipt of 10 cts. to defray 
expense of mailing. Let us hear from 
you. Respectfully, 

MONTGOMERY WARD & CO, 

991 «fc 229 Wabash Avenue, Chicago, 111. 



American Exchange Hotel, 

SANSOME STREET, 
Opposite Wells, Fargo & Co.'s Express, one door from 
Bank of California, SAN FRANCISCO. 

This Hotel is in the very center of the business portion 
of the city. The traveling public will find this to he the 
most convenient as well as the most cmfortable and 
respectable Family Hotel in the city. 

Board and Room, $1.00, $1.25 and $1.50 

Pkr Day, According to Room. 

£3THot and Cold Baths Free. None but most obliging 
white labor employed. Free Coach to and from 
the Hotel. 

MONTGOMERY BROS , Proprietors. 



RUPTURE 



COMPOUND. The "PERFEC- 
TION" RUPTURE REMEDY re- 
lieves every case and CURBS all 
curable <mc-. lictains s'line ruptures without a Tkuss. 
Can he uscil with any truss. A Grand Remedy! Price, 
$3.i;0. XSTSend for Circulars. 

J. H. WIDBER, Druggist, 
No. 701 Market Street. San Francisco. 



Recommended by Professors Ililgard, Cooke, etc. 

Powdered Potash & Caustic Soda 

KILLS GOPHERS, INSECTS, Etc. 

Makes a pure Soap at a cost of SI per 125 lbs. Send for 
directions to T. W. JACKSON & CO., 

304 California St., S. F. 



Commission fiiercliaiits. 

WM. T. COLEMAN & CO , 

Shipping and Commission 

MERCHANTS, 

San Francisco and New York. 

Recehe consignments of Produce for sale in San Fran- 
cisco, New York, Boston, Philadelphia, England, Aus- 
tralia, etc. U *ke advances on approved consignments. 
Fill orders for staple goods in New York and other mar- 
kets Effect fiie and marine insurance in best offices. 
Charter vetsels and engage freights for all trades. Agents 
for line clipper ships from Philadelphia, China, etc. All 
business has faithful and watchful attention. 



PORTER BROS. & CO., 

Commission Merchants, 

404 and 406 Davis St , S. F. 

£3T Special attention paid to shipping. 



PETER MEYER. LOUIS MBYBR. 

MEYER BROS. & CO., 

Importers and 

Wholesale Grocers 

And Dealers in 

>r TOBACCO AND CIGARS >a 

412 FRONT STREET. 

Front St. Block, bet. Clay & Washington, San Francisco 
<y«pecial attention given to country traders. 
P. O. Box 1940. 

MOORE, FERGUSON & CO.. 

COMMISSION MERCHANTS. 

WOOL, GRAIN, FLOUR, 

ETC., ETC. 
Members of the San Francisco Produce Exchange 

310 Calilornla St., San Francisco. 
ef Liberal advances made on consignments. 

(3eo.Mop.row. [Established 1854.] Geo. P. Morrow. 

GEORGE MORROW & CO., 

HAY and GRAIN 

COMMISSION MERCHANTS, 

39 Clay Street and 28 Commercial Street, 

San Francisco, Cal. 

X&- SHIPPING ORDERS A SPECIALTY. TEJ 



Grangers' Business Association, 

SHIPPING AND COMMISSION HOUSE, 



108 Davis Street. 



San Francisco 



Consignments of GRAIN, WOOL, DAIRY PRODUCE, 
Dried Fruit, Live Stock, etc., solicited, and liberal ad- 
vances made on the same. 

Careful and prompt attention paid to orders for the 
purchasing of Grain and Wool Sacks, Wagons, Agricult- 
ural Implements, Provisions, Merchandise, and supplies 
>f all kinds. 

Warehouse and Wharf: 

At "THE GRANGERS'," Contra Costa Co. 

Grain received on storage, for shipment, for sale on 
oonsignment. Insurance effected and liberal advances 
made at lowest rates. Farmers may rely on their grain 
being ciosely and carefully weighed, and on having their 
other interests faithfully attended to. 

RESMOVAL. 

DALTON - BROS., 

Commission Merchants 

AND DEALERS IN 

CALIFORNIA AND OREGON PRODUCE, 

GREEN AND DRIED FRUITS, 

Grain, Wool, Hides, Beans, and Potatoes. 

308 and 310 DAVIS ST., 
P. 0. Box 1936. SAN FRANCISCO. 

Kf CONSIGNMENTS SOLICITED, "d 



THE FARMER'S REMEDY FOR 
RHEUMATISM. 



A Liniment guaranteed to immediately remove RHEU- 
MATIC pain. It has been used for years and has never 
yet failed. 

For CHILBLAINS it will at once stop the irritation. 
No house should be without a bottle. 

Put up in 50c, SI. 00 and $2.00 bottles; sent on receipt 
of price by 

THE FARMER'S REMEDY CO., 
64 and 66 Broadway and 19 New Street 
New York. 



e. h. tucker, 
Land Broker, 

MAIN STREET, 
Selma, Fresno Co., - California. 



62 



pACIFie RURAb f RESS 



[Jan. 16, 1886 



(£>00D J^EALTH. 



White ok Ego in Obstinate DiabHumka. — 
From a German paper we learn that Celli has 
recently called attention to the curative proper- 
ties of the albumen of hens' eggs in severe diar 
rhteil affections. In a discussion before a med- 
ical society at Home he advocated its use, and 
related two cases of chronic enteritis and diar 
rhcea which, having resisted all treatment, 
speedily made complete recoveries under the 
use of egg albumen. The same diet is strongly 
recommended in the diarrh<i» accompaning 
febrile cachexia, and in that of phthisis. In 
two cases of diarrhu'i depi ndent upon tertiary 
syphilis, it was found of no avail. On post 
morten examination diffuse amyloid degenera- 
tion of the arterioles of the villi was found in 
these cases. The whites of Sor 10 eggs are beaten 
up and made into an emulsion with a pint of 
water. This is to be taken in divided quanti- 
ties during the day. More may be given if de- 
sired. The insipid taste can be improved with 
lemon, anise or sugar. In case of colic, a few 
drops of tincture of opium may be added. 

Treatment of a Felon. — We give the fol 
lowing for what it is worth, from a correspon- 
dent of the Michigan Farmer: "I wish to tell 
those who may sutler from that terrible scourge, 
felons, of a painless remedy that will effect a 
perfect cure in 24 hour.', as I have had occasion 
to prove within tne last three days. A lady 
came here, who had been suffering over two 
weeks, with a felon on the end of her middle 
finger. I saturated a piece of wild turnip, the 
size of a bean, with spirits of turpentiue and 
applied it to the ail'ected part. It relieved the 
pain at once. In 12 hours there was a hole to the 
bone, and the felon was destroyed. I removed 
the turnip and applied healing salve, and the 
finger i3 well." If there is any virtue in the 
above, we presume any other convenient carrier 
for the turpentine will answer as well as wild 
turnip. 

Effects of Lightning on the Hdm.an Bodv. 
— A person struck by lightuing does not know 
it — the fluid being much quicker than thought. 
The nerves which convey pain are rather slow 
in their power to convey information. Stick a 
pin in the tail of an elephant and quite a per- 
ceptible interval occurs before the noble animal 
gives his opinion of the man or boy at the end 
of the nervous system on trial. Lightning does 
its work before the victim knows anything. 
Two men were struck while taking refuge under 
a tree. Both were carried into the house and 
laid out for dead. One of the men reviyjd, and 
after weeks of suffering and infirmity, he got 
out again and is still living. He said that he 
knew no more about having been struck by 
lightning than he was conscious of having lived 
before the flood. It was all news to him when 
told of the fact. 



Vaccination. — Here is an item to which the 
attention of Mr. Bergh and those who act with 
him in opposing vaccination is invited. It 
comes from Montreal, Canada, in the form of a 
telegram, dated December 2lith : Yesterday, 
for the first time since smallpox became epi- 
demic, there were no new cases of the disease 
reported. It is a remarkable fact that, although 
there have been over 300 persons employed by 
the health depart nent as sanitary police, iso- 
lated police, hospital nurses, and in other ca- 
pacities, not one of them contracted the disease. 
As a matter of course, they were all vaccinated. 

How to cse Mii.k as Food. — Milk when 
swallowed rapidly by the glassful is very un- 
wholesome. A quantity entering the stomach 
at once is changed from a fluid, by the acid 
juices of that organ, into a hard, cheesy curd, 
through which the gastric juices cannot pass; 
it is turned over and over, and as its surface only 
can be reached, it digests very slowly. It is 
sometimes fatal to a weak stomach. It should 
be taken slowly, eaten with something else, or 
sipped by the spoonful. 



To Relieve Toothache.— Dr. J. R. Irwin 
says that one of the best and most pleasant 
things that can be used to relieve toothache is 
chewing cinnamon bark. It destroys the sensi- 
bility of the nerves and suspends the pain im 
mediately, if the bark is of good quality. 

Stopping Hiccough. — A Brazilian physician, 
Dr. Kamo8 (Oen. Therap), states that refrig- 
eration of the lobe of the ear will stop fiiccough, 
whatever its cause may be. Very slight refrig- 
eration will answer, the application of cold 
water, or even saliva, being sufficient. 



Our Agents. 

Oi'R Frikxds can Jo much in aiil of our | a] er and the 
cause of practical knowledge and science, by assisting 
Agents in their labors of canvassing, by lending their in- 
fluence and encouraging favors. We intend to send none 
but worthy men. 

Jared C Hoao— California. 

J. J. Bartrll - Amador ami Calaveras Co's. 

O. \V. Doai.ls— Arizona. 

E. L. Richards— San Diego Co. 

R. U.Hi'STox— Idaho an I Montana. 

Gbo. McDowuLb— Santa Clara and Santa Cruz Co's. 

Hi'OH Elias — Nevada Co. 

J . WiKKbKR, Alameda Co. 

M. L. Ds infra, Yuba and Nevada Co's. 

J. B. PATOH, Nevada and Utah. 

L. D. Clark, Tehama and Shasta Co's. 



Fine school sets, drawing instruments for 
boys at Muller's optical depot, 135 Montgomery 
street, opposite Occidental Hotel. x 



An Edenic's Christmas. 

Editors Press :— Whilst the mass of our 
fellow citizens are just preparing to regale 
themselves on turkey and the various side 
dishes, on which much labor, or its represen- 
tative, money, has been expended in too many 
cases, followed by no very favorable results, 1 
am enjoying a quiet Christmas at home, with 
oranges and pure wheat to fully satisfy all the 
demands of the physical man, and take a little 
of the time to report for your readers a li tie of 
our progress in the edenic work, and give a 
short account of our trip to Santa Clara, to ex- 
plain to friends there, that to adopt the edenic 
life is the secret of health, as we have proved 
by a four-year trial. A temporary return to 
cooked food for three weeks in November of 
this year for the sake of experiment gave 
enough unfavorable symptoms in the way of 
impure blood, with a tendency to inflammation 
of cuts, and to make me well satisfied to get 
back to the simple, safe and pleasant way, 
where one is sure no woman's life is being 
worried away over a cook stove, or money use- 
lessly expended for a Chinese cook, or oppor- 
tunity afforded for adulteration. The system 
is winning converts every diy. No less than 
three families agreed to adopt it while we were 
in Santa Clara — one permanently, two on trial — 
and in San Fraucisco, as well a3 over the 
country, there are many more who love it than 
one could well get the track of, so long as it is 
not fashionable, for it is not uncommon for 
people to tell me of their experience in that 
line, with the advantage they have gained, but 
do not want their names made public. So one 
part of the world does not get an idea what 
another part is doing, except when some crank 
turns the other side to view. How would we 
ever get on without a crank to give us a turn 
now and tnen, we simple cog-wheels? Well, if 
people like roast turkey and can afford to pay 
all the expenses, including doctor bills, we do 
not condemn them, only we would hold up the 
banner of a healthier and happier life found 
after 48 years' trial of the old. 

Let me say beside the other pleasant parts of 
my visit to Santa Clara, I enj lyed a look 
through the improved and promising orchard 
of Mr. Pierce, who, no doubt, by his thorough 
work, will be able to supply some good edenic 
living. We also called on Mr. Block, whose 
bai n the anti Chinaman and anti-monopoly 
fonatic burned nearly a year ago. We found 
Mr. B. a genial gentleman, full of fruit enter- 
prise, and as we used to delight in pear culture, 
it was a pleasure to go with him through the 
long rows of pear trees, and hear him tell how 
they showed peculiarities; also, of his enter- 
prise in the way of sending fresh fruit to the 
Eastern States. May he live long to push the 
work of supplying fruits to take the place of 
meat. 

Orr next call was on our old friends, I. A. 
Wilcox and wife. They are nicely situated in 
a comfortable home on some 00 acres of land, 
that keeps quite a stream of strawberries and 
onions flowing to our market during the sum- 
mer. His sons are old enough to oversee the 
work, so our fiiend is devoting a large portion 
of his time to building up the (Jrange and other 
public enterprises, such as his trip to New Or- 
leans as Commissioner for California. He is not 
ambitious, but we often hear of him at the front, 
called there by his fellow Patrons. May they 
not let him dropotf from inaction, as gray hairs 
come upon him. We vouch for him. 

So much for a Christmas pen lunch. Now, 
Mr. Editor, a Merry Christmas and Happy New- 
Year to you and all your readers, and may it be 
fuller of light and truth than any year of r,he 
past. Isaac B. Rumford. 

Oakland, Cal., Dec. 85th. 



The Value ok the Perc hekon Stud Book of 
France. — It contains the pedigrees and brief des- 
criptions of about 5,000 of the best bred Percherons, 
and none but the produce of recorded sire and dam 
are now eligible to entry. Every one is familiar with 
the old breeding axiom, "Like begets like or the 
likeness of some of its ancestors." From this alone 
the most obtuse mind will readily perceive that a 
knowledge of those ancestors is as necessary to the 
successful breedei as the perfection of the animal him- 
self. Stud books are histories of the individuals of a 
breed, and are, therefore, ihe only means by which 
the value of any animal for breeding purposes can be 
measured; while the worth of animals of unknown 
ancestry, however fine they may be, individually, can 
only be ascertained by experiment. This is the reas- 
on why animals of established pedigrees, tracing 
through a line of excellent ancestry, always command 
higher prices. In this advanced age of scientific 
breeding any person attempting to disparage the 
value of pedigrees, or opposing improvement through 
the means of stud books, must be actuated by selfish 
motives and should be r egarded with suspicion. 
There are many horses being imported from France, 
of whose origin nothing is known. 



Complimentary Samples. 

Persons receiving this paper marked are re- 
quested to examine its contents, terms of sub- 
scription, and give it their own patronage, and, 
as far as practicable, aid in circulating the jour- 
nal, and making it:s value more widely known 
to others, and extending its influence in the 
cause it faithfully serves. Subscription rate, 
S3 a year. Extra copies mailed for 10 cents, if 
ordered soon enough. If already a subscriber 
please show the paper to others. 



Lapd? tor Sale and Jo Let. i tuurejouhty. 



For Lease and for Sale, 

40,000 ACRES 

Of good land in Fresno, near the County 
Sear. Some of this land is already irri- 
gated, and all can be easily irrigated. It 
is adapted not only to Grain, but also to 
Alfalfa, Fruit and Vines. 

1000 ACRES 
Of the above land for sale at the low price 
of $20 ner acre. 

Apply to 

E. B. PERRIN, 
402 Kearny St., San Francisco. 



Mexican Colonization Co. 

(LIMITED.) 

506 Battery Street, San Francisco, Cal 



(STSknd for Circulars and Testimonials giving full 
information. 

Cheap Lands. 
Fine Climate, 

Plenty of Water, 

Easy Terms, 

Regular Seasons. 

No Import or Export Duties. 

and No Taxes for 10 years. 

In 12 Best Californian Counties. 



For descriptive price list of desirable Ranches, Farms, 
Vineyards and Californian Ileal Estate generally, applj 
to 

HENKY MEYKICK, Real Estate Exchange and Marl, 
Santa Cruz, Cal. 



The ARTESIAN " FRUIT BELT COLONY," 

In the celebrated Paige k Morton Tract, two miles west 

of Tulare City, is now offered for sale in nibdlvillont of 
TWENTY A< IKES and upwards. One-third e<sh, balance 
annual installment*. Water rights go with each lot. 
Land rich, black alluvial boil, equal to iuna mould. 
Ready for immediate occupation and planting. Also 
lands improved with orchards, vineyards, and clfalfa 
in the same tract. Purchasers supplied with voung trees 
and vines grown on the place at. one-half ordinary p-ice*. 
Also choice alfalfa lands, from $7.00 per acre upwards, in 
Artesian Belt. 

For maps anil full particulars apply to PACIFIC 
COAST LAND BUREAU. '22 Montgomery Street, 
-San Francisco, and WALTER TUR.NBULL, Tulare Citv, 
Tulare County, Cal. 

RARE BARGAIN 

FOR 

IMPROVED FARM IN FR'SNO 
COUNTY. 

1«0 acres No. 1 Level ttml, 120 acres wet, 7 acres 
Orchard, 17 of Alfalfa; plenty of wood and water. Near 
good school. Pries, $.tiOO, part on time. 

Also several other flue tracts, unproved or unimproved. 
E. M MORGAN, Real Estate Agent, 
Kingsburg, Fresno Co., Cal. 



ELSINORE. 

THE LAKE colony. 

Twenty miles south of Ki . crside, Southern California, 
has 4''0 residents, ninety improved farms, two townsites, 
two schools, pottery, mines of coal, fire-clay, gypsum, 
etc, etc. Fine hunting an I scenery on lake and mount- 
ains. Healthful climate. Best of fruit and farm lands 
$25 to $50 per acre. Send for maps and cinalars to 
GRAHAM to COLLIER, 

Pasadena, or Elslnore, Cal. 

$500 to $50,000. 

BARGAINS in ORCHARDS and VINEYARDS, STOCK 
and Grain Ranches in every County in the State. Send 
Stamp for Catalogue. We can find quick sale for your 
farm, large or small, if.it is cheap and you will send us 
full description. If you want to buy, tell us what you 
want, and we can suit you. 

GAM AN & CO.. 
5 J Kearny St., San Francisco. 



San Disgo County! El Cajon Rancho! 

16,500 acres, known as the Jarvisj Tract, situated 18 miles from San Diego, surrounded by 
high hills, protected from winds and fogs — the most cquahle climate in the world — rich soil and 
lovely surroundings. Will be offered as a whole or in subdivisions, from 10 acres upward, at 
prices according to desirability, from slO to $7."> per acre, part cash, balance on time. The 
wonderful Kaisius and Olives grown in this valley command the admiration of every one. Water 
from (i to 12 feet. No irrigation, and Fruit and Raisins cured by solar heat. All the Semi- 
Tropical Fruits raised to perfection. 

6617 acres adjoining, known as the Benedict Tract. The San Diego River traverses the 
land. Large lake and springs. All well watered. Grow to perfection Alfalfa, Fruit, Vines and 
Grain. This property is offered as a whole, at a great bargiin, part cash; now occupied by Mr 
Ben Hill. The climate, soil and location cannot be excelled in the State. Must be examined to 
be appreciated. 

Also 1000 acres, the Smith Tract, adjoining, now in grain. 

G. W. FRINK, R. j. PENNELL, 

Gen Manager Pacific Coast. Land Bureau, _ _ T ,_. T ___ 

22 Montgomery St., San Francisco. J. H. BENEDICT, 

DR. JOSEPH v JARVIS, ifornia Sixth Street, San Diego, CM. 

SAN LUI S OBISPO COUNTY! 

Stocls. Rancti for Sale. 

One Mile from the Town of San Luis Obispo, called the 

FILLMORE RANCH. 

THE BEST WAT Ell ED 2500 ACRES IN THE STATE; fenced; 2 houses thoreon; 130 head of Stock go with 
the property. Free range on adjacent Government Lauds of about 8000 acres, accessible only through this ranch. 

Th»- above-mentioned 2500 acres of titled land, together with five to six thousand cords of wood worth *4.nn per 
cord, to be sold for 115.00 per aero, Stock, Wood, and Kanch privilege included. Terms, part cash— oalancc credit, 

2, 3, 4, 5, an! years. 

Apply to <;. w. PRINK, PACIFIC COAST LAND BUREAU, 

22 Montgomery Street, Sa Francisco. 
Or J. M. FILLMORE, San Luis Obispo, Cal. 



PURE SWEET CftEAM. MORE CREAM. BETTER BUTTER. 



GREATEST 



DAIRY 



IMPROVEMENT 



Of the Age. 




DAIRYMEN 

Lose Money 

EVERY DAY 
SETTING MILK 



Dc Laval CREAM SEPARATOR. 

1000 in Successful operation in the United States. Over 25 on the Pacific Coast. 



And all giving unbounded satisfaction. Our customers write: "Decided 
bringl o\er the highest market quotation*;' "Separator pays for itself ov 
labor;" "Needed in every dairy of twenty cows;" "If we had to go back to i 



Decided increase in yield of butter;" "Butter 
ver and over again;" "Great saying of 
setting milk we would giv<j up dairying," 
etc"" Come aiid visit several Separators in operation near this city, tr send for information where ihey are used in 
\oiir vicinity. Don't neglect to send for descriptive circulars at once of this and other l-ate^t Improved Dairy Ap 
iiliances for which we are headquarter*. 

1 G. G. WICKSON Sc CO., REMOVED to 38 California St., San Francisco. 



DEWEY & CO i^^iW^^PATENT AGENTS. 



Jan. 16, 1886.] 



f ACIFie f^URAb p> RESS. 



63 



Trees! Trees!! 




WE (JAN SUPPLY 



Fruit, 
Ornamental, 

and Shade 
TREES 

At Wholesale and Retail. 

Our Prices for Fruit Trees are as 
Low as the Lowest! 

While our Prices for Ornamental 
and Shade Trees are Lower 
than ever offered 
before. 

NURSERYMEN as well as GROWERS 

Will find it to their advantage to send for our 
Catalogue. We are net surrounded by Insect- 
riden orchards. 

WE WARRANT OUR STOCK FREE FROM 
ALL INJECT PESTS, AND SU- 
PERIOR TO ANY IN 
THE STATE. 

"lite Adriatic " 

FIG! 

Do not be duped on the subject of this valu- 
able Fig. Our Mr. Milco was the man that 
named it, and the first to present it to the 
notice of fruit-growers in its ripe and dried 
condition. 

We grow and propagate the trees on a large 
scale, and are ready to fill all orders with the 
genuine article. Parties claiming to ho intro- 
ducing this Fig, all got their first supply from 
us. 

Every Tree Sold by us Warranted Genuine! 

While we claim that our WHITE ADRI- 
ATIC FIG is the best Fig to plant for profit, 
we woald not advise planters to plant but a few 
to start in with, to find out how the tree will 
do with them. This rule, however, applies 
only to localities where other Fig trees have 
not been a success. 

We shall be glad to answer any question on 
the subject, and wc do not know of any person 
that is more competent to tell the growers what 
the Fig is I han our Mr. Milco, who has intro 
duced the Fig, which is grown very extensively 
in his Dalmatian home on the Adriatic. 

NURSERY: 

ATWATER, MERCED CO., CAL. 

Depot for the Sale of Trees and Principal 
Office of the 

Buhach Producing andMTg Co., 

STOCKTON, CAL. 



TO SEEK ERS FOR HOMES! 

DON'T WASTE TIME AND MONEY in useless traveling. 
DON'T WASTE YOUR LIFE AND ENERGY on far-away wild land. 
DON'T DOOM YOUR FAMILY to unnecessary hardship and solitude by settling in 
the mountains. 

DON'T BOY A $5000 improved farm and then spend the rest of your life struggling to 
get out of debt. 

DON'T PAY WEALTHY PEOPLE for improvements that they have made by their 
labor, when you can make the same by your own. 

— 33 UT — 



Settle in a New and Prosperous Locality and Grow 

Wealthy With It! 

Buy a twenty or Forty- Acre Farm IN A PROSPEROUS COLONY. You will have 

near ana good neighbors. Your children will have good schools. Your family will have com- 
panionship. One cow and fifty hens will afford a small family a living from the start. From 
tf.">00 to .s 1 000 will be sufficient to give an intelligent family a better start for a living now, and 
prosperity in the future, than $.5000 on an ordinary farm. You can obtain the fullest and most 
reliable information concerning Colony Life from 

Mr. B. MARKS, Manager of the Sierra Park Colony, 

Who is now at our office; Mr. Marks is the founder of the celebrated CENTRAL COLONY, 
and of the large and succes.sful CALIFORNIA COLONY, both of Fresno, on which he settled 
several hundred families. He himself resided as farmer and dairyman among the set'lers and 
can furnish the most complete information from his own experience. 

The smillest outlay of cash necessary to secure title to land, to build a house, etc., to buy 
horses, cows, poultry, etc., when and what to plant, and all desirable informition will be cheer- 
fully given. Seekers for homes are cordially invited to investigate for themselves at our < ffice. 

BOVEE, TOY & CO, 

19 Montgomery St., San Francisco, Cal. 



HOBBY, SMITH & YOUNG 

No. 415 *T St., Sacramento, Cal. 

DEALEKS IN 




Crockery, Glass 1 Pottery Ware, 

TERRA CO TTA, SEWER PIPE, Etc. 

The attention of Farmers is called to the uniformly superior quality of our SEWER PIPE, 
CHIMNEY and DRAIN TILE. Drain your land and increase your crops and value of 
your lands. 

*©'Send for Prices and Further Information. 

Ask Your Dealer for the Celebrated PEORIA POTTERY WARE. 



"THE PRACTICAL" 

Orchard and Vineyard Plow. 

The superior qualities of this Plow 
Center Draft, Pivotc I Beam and Adj 
able Handles. Can plow close to Tree or 
Vine with ONE or TWO HORSE*, 
and not touch them with anything! hut 
the mold board or landsidc. The beam 
can be set to any desired angle, to or 
from the land. Handles adjustable to 
height or si'iewise. The Stan lard is the 
usual height, and by being in the center 
of the Plow is not as liable to Cloi> in 
HijrH Weeds as an ordinary field plcw. I use a standard bottom of hardened steel with slip share. The e si ares 
can be duplicated at any Agricultural Hi use. The Plow is light, strong, easily adjusted, and is warranted to do 
good work. PRICE— 8-i'ch,$'6.50. Otner sizes made to order. Patented duly 1, 1S84, by C. B. STEANE, Pleas- 
anton, Cal. tSTThe Plow will be shipped by Express, C. O. D., if desired. 

HAWLEY BROS. HARDWARE CO., Agents, cor. Market & Beale Sts , San Francisco. 




Send now if yon are interested 
n Farming, Gardening, or Trucking, 
for uur 1K8<> Catalogue, which 
fully dcHcrUies our Seed-Drills, 




S. L. ALLEN & 

127 and 12!) 
Catharine Street, V» 
PHILADELPHIA, FA. 



?eeds, Maiits, ttc. 



GRAPE CUTTINGS. 
15,000 VERDELH0. 

"This is rar excellence the finest of the Madeira varie- 
ties. It also enters into the Sherries of Spain and the 
finest liqueur wines, it is also found in the State in 
very email lots."— Report of Chief Executive Viticultu- 
re! I fleer, 

15,000 BLACK BURGUNDY. 

A valuable gr ipe, good bearer, ripening with Zinfandel ■ 
pronounced by Mr. Crabb, of Napa, a rare variety. 

Tne above kinds and qualities of Cuttings, twenty 
inches long, are for sale at *10 per thousand by 

THE PACIFIC MUTUAL LIFE INS. CO. 
418 California St., S. P. 

Buy No Grafted or Budd d 
LE C0NTE PEAR TREES, 

When you can get them on 

Genuine i_. Conte Roots. 



The most prolific pear grown. For description see 
Riuhl Press, Jan. 3, 1885, pp. 13 and '10. 
43TSend for Circulars and Testimonials, 

C. W. DEARBORN, 

Oakland, Cal. 

THE DIN GEE & CONARD CO S 

BEAUTIFUL E VER-HLOOMINU 




Our Great Specialty is growing and distributing 

HOSES. We have Hoses of all sizes and prices. The 
Latest Novelties and Finest Tested Sorts. We deliver 
Strong Pot Plants safely by mail, at all Post OJjices. 



SPLENDID VARIETIES g | 



7 Your Choice, all labeled, for 
lfiforSS; 40 for SIS. Alsootber Varie 
ties, 2, 5< and 1 2 for S 1 .OO. arc, ,■,!,„,, i„ ,ai,,e. 
Our NE\V GUIDE to ROSE CUE- CDCC I 
TURE, 76 pages, elegantly illustrated, lllEX I 
Address THE I) IN (5 EE ife <ONAKI> CO.. 
Rose Growers, West Grove, Chester Co., Pa. 



OLIVE TREES FOR SALE. 

We are offering Olive Trees of the PICHOI.INE 
variety at -*10 per hundred. From to IS inches in 
bight. For further particulars address 

BELL CONSERVATORY CO., 

Sacramento, Cal. 



GrH_.A.Jr»-L!i SDE33i3I> ! 

FINE, FRESH AND CLEAN. 

I have for sale seed of Vitis Californica, procf 
against Phylloxera, which I will send at si per pound for 
5 pounds or more, or S1.50 per pound for less than 5 
pounds. 

Vitis Californica Cuttings, $8 per 1,000. 

tSTFrcight to be paid by purchasers. 



O. Box 8. 



C. MOTTIER, 
Middletown, Lake Co., Cal. 



FOR SALE. 
200,000 GRAPE CUTTINGS 

At $3 00 per M. 
Emperor, Flam Tokay, Muscat, Sultana, and Muscatel. 
OAK SHADE FRUIT COMPANY, 
Davisville, Cal 



RIVERSIDE NURSERY, 

O. O. GOODRICH, P, oprietor, 

Offers this season a Large and Fine Stock of 

FRUIT TREES 

At Reduced Rates. 
Peach Trees of all leading varieties a specialty. Parties 
wishing to purchase will find it to their interest to com- 
municate with inc. »"Price List and Catalogue sent on 
application. 0.0 GOODRICH, Sacramento, Cal. 



JOHN SAUL'S 
Catalogue of New. Rare, and Beau iful 
Plants for 1886, is Now Ready. 

It is full in real.y good and beautiful plants, as we as 
all the novelties of merit. The rich collection of fine 
Foliage, and other Greenhouse and Hothouse Plants,